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Soils

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Title: Soils


1
Soils
  • Anthony P. Tuggle
  • Extension Agent
  • Rutherford County

2
SOIL . . . WHAT IS IT?
3
Introduction
  • What is Soil?
  • the basic material of the gardeners art
  • not dirt (dirt is soil out of place)

4
The Formation of Soil
  • Soil is formed over many years by the physical or
    chemical weathering of rock.
  • Parent material refers to those rocks or deposits
    from which a soil develops.

5
Soil Profile
  • Most soils are arranged in 3 distinct layers or
    horizons.
  • The principle horizons are collectively called
    the soil profile.

A Topsoil
B Subsoil
C Parent Matter
6
The Formation of Soil
  • The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
    lists 8 Major Land Resource Areas in Tennessee
  • Southern Mississippi Valley Alluvium (MS River
    Bottoms)
  • S. MS Valley Silty Uplands(The Deep Loess Region)
  • Southern Coastal Plains
  • The Highland Rim and Pennyroyal
  • The Nashville Basin (Central Basin)
  • The Cumberland Plateau and Mountains
  • The Southern Appalachian Ridges and Valleys
  • Blue Ridge (The West Slope of the Appalachian
    Mountains)

7
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8
Soil Composition (Of a Good Soil)
  • Water Air - 50
  • Soil Mineral Matter - 48.5
  • Living Organisms - .5
  • Organic Matter - 1

9
Water Air
Saturation
Field Capacity
Permanent Wilting Point
10
Living Organisms
.5
11
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12
Organic Matter
1
Eat More Chicken
Enhances development of structure.
Stabilizes soil structure.
Source of nutrients (nitrogen, sulfur)
Large nutrient and water holding capacity
13
Soil Physical Properties
  • Soil Texture
  • Soil Structure
  • Landscape Position
  • Slope
  • Rooting Depth
  • Color
  • Drainage
  • Presence of Rock Fragments

14
Soil Color
  • Organic Matter
  • Age
  • Drainage

15
Soil Texture
  • The Size of Soil Particles

Medium Silt
Coarse Clay
Fine Sand
16
100
Percent Clay
90
10
Percent Silt
20
80
70
30
Soil Textural Triangle
40
60
50
50
60
40
30
70
80
20
90
10
100
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Percent Sand
17
Prismatic
Granular
Blocky
Columnar
Platy
Types of Soil Structure
18
Soil Chemical Properties
19
Cation Exchange
Example Rainfall results in constant
introduction of H ions, forcing calcium and other
bases into the soil solution where they are
leached away.
20
Reversing Cation Exchange
  • Limestone is added
  • Calcium ions replace H and other cations
  • Result clay becomes higher in exchangable
    Calcium and lower in H and Al

21
Soil Management
  • To identify your soil type
  • Take handful of soil from your garden and rub a
    little between your finger and thumb.
  • Clay feels sticky and will roll into a ball that
    simply changes shape when pressed.
  • Sand is coarse and gritty.
  • Silt feels silky.
  • Limestone has a dry crumbly feel and a
    grayish-white color.
  • Peat is black and moist.

22
Soil Types
  • Five main soil types
  • Clay
  • Sand
  • Silt
  • Limestone
  • Peat

23
Soil Types Clay
  • Clay soils are typically heavy, cold soils which
    feel sticky when moist and are hard and compacted
    when dry.

24
Soil Types Sand
  • Sandy soils are dry and light.
  • Will feel gritty between the fingers

25
Soil Types Limestone
  • Calcareous soils are pale hungry-looking soils
    that often contain a high proportion of stones
    and flints

26
Soil Types Silt
  • Silty-type soil is neither gritty or sticky. The
    soil particles are small, making it feel smooth
    and silky to the touch.

27
Soil Types Peat
  • Peat is a distinctive dark brown or gray color
    and has a spongy texture.
  • It is rich in decomposed matter.

28
Essential Plant Nutrients
  • Three elements
  • Carbon C
  • Hydrogen (H), and
  • Oxygen (O)
  • are supplied by air (in the form of carbon
    dioxide) and water.

29
Essential Plant Nutrients
Non-Mineral Carbon - C Hydrogen - H Oxygen - O
Primary or Macronutrients Nitrogen -
N Phosphorus - P Potassium - K
Micronutrients Zinc - Zn Chlorine - Cl Boron -
B Molybdenum - Mo Copper - Cu Iron - Fe Manganese
- Mn
Secondary Calcium - Ca Magnesium - Mg Sulfur - S
30
Function of Essential Elements
  • NITROGEN - Vegetative growth
  • PHOSPHORUS - New root growth, blooms seeds
  • POTASSIUM - Vigor disease resistance, stalk
    strength, seed quality
  • CALCIUM - Root formation, straw stiffness
  • MAGNESIUM - Helps uptake of other elements
  • SULFUR - Amino acids, vitamins, dark green color

31
Soil Mineral Matter
48.5
32
Four Phases of Soil Management
  • Analyzing Your Soil
  • Using Soil Conditioners
  • Adding General Fertilizer
  • Using Specific Fertilizers

33
Analyzing Your Soil
  • Dont Guess, Soil Test!
  • A basic soil test can be conducted through your
    county Extension office.
  • Charge 6/sample (for basic soil test)
  • Takes about 2 weeks to receive the results.
  • A basic soil test will indicate the pH value,
    Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) content.

34
Analyzing Your Soil The Soil Test
  • Tools Needed
  • A soil probe, shovel or spade
  • Bucket
  • Soil test form
  • Soil sample box

35
Analyzing Your Soil The Soil Test
  • When to sample
  • Soils can be analyzed at any time of the year,
    however fall is the most desirable time.
  • Fields are drier and more accessible and the lab
    is not as busy. Soil samples must be dry when
    submitted to the lab.
  • Testing in fall allows recommended rates of lime,
    phosphate and potash to be applied well in
    advance of spring planting.

36
Analyzing Your Soil The Soil Test
  • How Often
  • Before planting a new garden or landscape area
    then
  • Lawns/Gardens/Ornamental bedsevery 3 5 years
    or if you suspect a problem.
  • High value cropstest annually
  • Continuous row crops/double cropping
    systemsevery 2-3 years.

37
Analyzing Your Soil The Soil Test
  • Soil test results can be no better than the
    sample collected.
  • For large areas, soil portions should be taken
    from an area not to exceed 10 acres.
  • For lawns and gardens, soil portions should be
    collected at random from 8-10 locations.
  • Areas of contrasting soils, problem spots or
    portions of the field where crop response is
    significantly different should be sampled
    separately.

38
Analyzing Your Soil The Soil Test
  • Small portions of soil should be gathered from
    several locations.
  • Dig at least 6 deep.
  • Place soil in bucket, then go on to the next area
    and do the same thing again.
  • Mix portions together in the bucket, remove all
    grass, rocks and other debris. Then keep
    approximately one cup of soil to be submitted to
    the soil lab for analysis.

39
How To Take a Good Soil Sample?
  • Properly Select the Sampling Area.
  • The area should not exceed 10 acres.
  • Areas of contrasting soils, problem spots, etc.
    should be sampled separately if possible.

X
40
Collect Adequate Sub-samples
41
Collect Good Sub-samples
Uniform cores are important!
42
Soil pH and Its Effects of Nutrient Availability
  • Soil pH refers to the amount of hydrogen (H) ions
    or acidity found in soils.
  • As acid levels (H ion concentration) increase,
    the pH of the soil decreases.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 14 with most soils in
    Tennessee ranging in value from 4.5 to 7.5.

43
Soil pH and Its Effects of Nutrient Availability
  • Soils with pH values greater than 7.0 are
    alkaline or sweet.
  • Soils with pH values less than 7.0 are acid or
    sour.
  • Nutrient availability is directly affected by pH.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
________________________________________ ACID/SOUR
ALKALINE/SWEET
44
Soil pH and Its Effects on Nutrient Availability
45
Soil pH and Its Effects of Nutrient Availability
  • What does lime do?
  • Lime reduces the amounts of soluble aluminum and
    manganese to nontoxic levels.
  • As pH increases, the availability of manganese
    and aluminum decreases. This prevents plants
    from being exposed to toxic amounts of these
    elements.
  • Manganese and aluminum toxicities become major
    problems in many plants when the soil pH drops
    near 5.).

46
Soil pH and Its Effects of Nutrient Availability
  • Adjusting the Soil pH
  • Various lime sources are used to adjust soil pH
    upwards (to more alkaline/sweet range) when it
    falls below the recommended ranges.
  • Sources such as elemental sulfur, iron sulfate,
    and aluminum sulfate are used to adjust soil pH
    downwards (to more acid/sour range) when it is
    above the recommended ranges.

47
ADJUSTING THE SOIL PH LEVEL
  • Apply lime to reduce soil acidity.
    Use no more than 50 lbs. per 1,000 sq. ft.
    Expect long adjustment period.
  • Apply sulfur to increase soil acidity.
    Use 2 lbs. per 1,000 sq. ft. for each .1 unit
    change in the pH level.
    Expect extremely short adjustment
    period.

48
Soil pH and Its Effects of Nutrient Availability
  • While the water pH indicates the need for lime,
    the buffer pH determines how much lime to apply.
  • Buffer pH is a measure of the amount of acid held
    by the soil particles and accounts for the total
    acid that must be neutralized when lime is added.

49
Analyzing Your Soil The Soil Test
  • Filling out the information sheet
  • For each sample listed in the left column, you
    may request up to 3 recommendations.
  • Use the table on the back of the information
    sheet to determine the appropriate crop codes to
    use.
  • Soil sample boxes should be marked clearly with
    the sample numbers corresponding to those shown
    on the information sheet.

50
Fertilizer Analysis
  • A fertilizer bag should list
  • Percentages of
  • N
  • P2O5
  • K2O
  • Sources of Nutrients
  • Urea or Ammonium Nitrate
  • Triple Super Phosphate
  • Muriate of Potash
  • Amount (wt.) of Fertilizer

51
Application Methods
  • Broadcasting
  • Banding
  • Fertilization of Planted Area only
  • Side dressings
  • Foliar Feeding

52
HOW SHOULD FERTILIZER BE SPREAD ?
  • Gravity Flow
  • Centrifugal
  • Hand

53
HOW SHOULD FERTILIZER BE SPREAD ?
  • Spread the material as uniformly as possible.
  • Calibrate your equip-ment to apply the
    recommended amount.

54
Adding General Fertilizers
  • Supplies of manure and compost are not always
    available and the application of organic matter
    adds more to the soil structure rather than
    supplying sufficient amounts of nutrients. So,
    supplements may be needed.
  • Pay attention to the type of crop you are growing
    as well as the soil test results.

55
Adding General Fertilizers
  • Organic vs. Inorganic
  • Organic fertilizers the nutrients contained in
    the product are derived solely from the remains
    of a once-living organism.
  • Examples cotton-seed meal, blood meal, bone meal
  • Inorganic or synthetic fertilizers nutrients
    contained in the product are derived from
    inorganic materials.
  • Examples urea, osmocote etc.

56
Adding General Fertilizers
  • Fertilizer Materials
  • The fertilizer analysis on the bag refers to how
    much of an element there is in a material, based
    on the in weight.
  • All fertilizers are labeled with 3 numbers that
    give the by weight of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus
    (expressed as P2O5) and Potassium (K20).
  • Simply put, the numbers represent N, P, K

57
Adding General Fertilizers
  • Special Purpose Fertilizers
  • Some fertilizers are packaged for certain uses
    such as tomato food or azalea food
  • They may be formulated to release a higher amount
    of nutrient needed by a specific plant.
  • They may be formulated to empty your pocket book!
  • Slow Release Fertilizers
  • Contain one or more essential nutrients which are
    released over a an extended time.
  • Advantages include fewer applications, low burn
    potential and slow release rates.

58
Fertilizer Materials
  • Complete Versus Incomplete Fertilizer
  • Special Purpose Fertilizers
  • Slow Release Fertilizers
  • Organic Fertilizer

59
Adding General Fertilizers
  • Complete Fertilizers
  • A fertilizer which contains N, P K (the primary
    nutrients)
  • Common examples are 6-12-12, 10-10-10,
    12-12-12, 15-15-15 etc.
  • Incomplete Fertilizers
  • Will be missing one or more of the primary
    nutrients.
  • Examples 34-0-0 (Ammonium Nitrate), 46-0-0
    (Urea), 18-46-0 (diammonium phosphate), 0-0-60
    (muriate of potash) etc.

60
Using Specific Fertilizers
  • Some crops will always need special treatment
    even when the manure and fertilizer levels are
    sufficient to start with.
  • Green-house tomatoes will benefit from extra
    feeding and a potash fertilizer to encourage
    fruit and flower formation.
  • Leafy plants that remain in the ground for a long
    time such as cabbage may benefit from extra
    Nitrogen toward the end of the growing season.
  • Raspberries, blueberries and other acid loving
    plants are prone to iron deficiencies when grown
    in alkaline soil requiring fertilizer treatment.

61
Release Times for N Sources
  • Begin
  • Type Release Residual
  • Ammonium sulfate minutes 7 days
  • Urea minutes 20 days
  • SCU (sulfur coated urea) 1 day years
  • PCU and PCSCU 2 days 2 months
  • Andersons (Scotts) Poly-S
  • Pursell Poly-On
  • Lesco Poly Plus
  • MU (Methylene Urea) 4 days 4 months
  • Contec, Nutralene
  • UF (Ureaformaldahyde) 7 days 12 months
  • Nitroform, Bluechip
  • IBDU 3 days 4 months

62
Using Soil Conditioners
  • The best materials to add to your soil are
    compost and manure.
  • The addition of this organic matter will
  • Improve overall soil texture/structure
  • Improve drainage
  • Improve water holding capacity
  • Provide some nutrients (actually makes nutrients
    more readily available to plants)

63
Using Soil Conditioners
  • Well-rotted animal manure is the very best
    material to use, but it can be difficult to
    obtain.
  • Compost is the ideal way to return as much
    organic matter as possible back to the soil,
    following natures example.
  • All amendments should be well-rotted and dug into
    the top layer of soil. If the organic matter is
    hot (like fresh mulch, sawdust, or fresh
    manure) this material will burn your plants.

64
Using Soil Conditioners
  • Horse Manure
  • Pig Manure
  • Sheep Manure
  • Chicken Manure
  • Alternatives include
  • Spent mushroom compost, seaweed, spent hops, wool
    shoddy, composted pine bark, cotton-seed hull,
    peat

65
Using Soil Conditioners
  • Green Manure Crops
  • Are grown specifically to add organic matter to
    beds that are empty for a period of time.
  • It is sown with the intention of digging it into
    the soil to provide organic matter and plant
    food.
  • Turn the crops under about 6 weeks before
    planting to allow the organic material to
    break-down.

66
Using Soil Conditioners
  • Green Manure Crops that act as Nitrogen fixers
  • Alfalfa, broad or fava bean, red clover, lupin,
    winter vetch
  • Green Manure Crops that do not fix Nitrogen
  • Buckwheat, rye, mustard, Italian ryegrass

67
Typical Composition of Organic Fertilizing
Materials The nitrogen in organic fertilizing
materials becomes slowly available to plants.
There is considerable variation between samples.
The guarantee on the bag should be read
carefully. This data is taken from official
reports of state control departments.

Percentage on a Dry-Weight Basis Organic
Materials Total Available
Phosphoric Water-Soluble
Nitrogen, N Acid,
P2O5 Potash, K2O Bat
guano 10.0 4.0 2.0 Blood
13.0 2.0 1.0 Blood and
bone 6.5 7.0 . . . Bone black 1.3
15.0 . . . Bone meal, raw 3.0
15.0 . . . Steamed 2.0
15.0 . . . Castor bean meal
5.5 2.0 1.0 Cotton seed meal 6.0 3.0 1.0 Fish
meal 10.0 4.0 . . . Fish
solution 10.0 3.0 1.0
5.0 2.0 2.0 Garbage tankage 1.5 2.0 0.7 Horn and
hoof meal 12.0 2.0 . . . Sewerage sludge
1.5 1.3 0.4 Activated 6.0 3.0 0.1 Tankage
9.0 6.0 . . .
68
Typical Composition of Manures Manures vary
greatly in their content of fertilizing
nutrients. The kind of feed used, the percentage
and type of litter or bedding, the moisture
content, and the age and degree of rotting or
drying can all modify the composition. In the
case of the commercially dried pulverized
manures, some nitrogen is lost in the process.
The following data is representative of typical
analyses from widely scattered reports.

Approximate Composition,

Per Cent Pounds
per Ton
Moisture Nitrogen
Phosphoric Acid Potash Fresh Manure
with Normal Quality of Bedding or
Litter Cow 86 11 3 10 Duck 61 22 29 10 Goose 67
22 11 10 Hen 73 22 18 10 Hog 87 11 6
9 Horse 80 13 5 10 Sheep 68 20 15 8 Steer or
feed yard 75 12 7 11 Turkey 74 26 14 10 Dried
Commercial Products Cow, East 10 42 63 61
West 16 18 15 31 Hen, East (with
litter) 16 56 57 30 West (droppings)
8 83 63 31 (with litter) 13 41 37 23
Hog, West 10 45 42 20 Rabbit, West
6 45 27 16 Sheep, East 10 38 30 40 West
9 27 19 41 Stockyard, East 8 41 32 36
West 15 41 11 38
69
Commonly Available Fertilizer Materials
70
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71
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72
SummaryWhat have we learned?
  • To produce healthy crops, we must feed the soil
    and continually improve its texture by the
    addition of organic matter.
  • To manage your soil successfully, learn the soil
    type and its characteristics.
  • Know the essential plant nutrients
  • PRIMARY (N, P, K)
  • SECONDARY (CA, MG, S)

73
SummaryWhat have we learned?
  • Soil Management Phases
  • Soil test
  • Addition of soil conditioners
  • General fertilizer use
  • Specialized fertilizer use

74
Plant-Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms
  • Chlorosis
  • Necrosis
  • Rosetting
  • Pigment accumulation
  • Stunting

75
Visual Diagnosis of Plant Nutrient Deficiencies
Iron
Posassium
Zinc
Boron
76
The End
  • Questions???????????????????????
  • Special Thanks to
  • Dewayne Trail-Rutherford County Director
  • Dewayne Perry Williamson County Director
  • Karla Kean Clarksville City Forester
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