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Title: 2013 Chinese Dynasties


1
2013 Chinese Dynasties
2
Pronunciations
  • Huang He hwahng he
  • Shang shong
  • Zhou Joe
  • Loess less
  • Henan hey nahn
  • Wei way
  • Qin chin

3
Key Terms.
  • A Dynasty is a line of rulers that come from the
    same family
  • An aristocrat is a noble, or upper class person,
    whose wealth comes from their land

4
Chinas history is usually divided into time
periods based on the rule of different dynasties.
A dynasty is a ruling family that passes the
power to rule down through the generations.
These rulers were thought to be divine, or
actual gods, and thus were obeyed without
question.
5
Four Chinese Dynasties
6
Shang Dynasty
7
The Shang Dynasty
According to ancient Chinese records, the Shang
dynasty formed around 1766 BC, although many
archaeologists believe it actually began somewhat
later than that.
8
Shang Elite
  • Leisure
  • Ruling elite had free time to pursue leisure
    activities, hunting for sport
  • Wealthy enjoyed collecting expensive bronze, jade
    objects
  • Artifacts
  • Much of what is known comes from studying royal
    tombs
  • Contained valuable items made of bronze, jade
  • Afterlife
  • Tombs held remains of sacrificed prisoners of war
  • Believed in afterlife where ruler would need
    riches, servants
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Shang offered gifts to deceased ancestors to keep
    them happy in afterlife
  • Steam from ritual meals nourished ancestors
    spirits

9
Shang Dynasty 1750-1050 BCE
  • Chinese civilization is one of oldest, continuous
    on earth
  • 5,000 years of history

10
  • Archaeologists believe the Huang He valley was
    the center of Chinese civilization.
  • The Shang kings were part of a dynasty that may
    have build the 1st Chinese cities. They ruled
    from about 1750 B.C. to 1122 B.C.
  • The Shang Dynasty built the city of Anyang which
    was Chinas first capital.

Shang Dynasty
11
Shang culture characterized by
  • Centralized government
  • Urban communities
  • Stratified social classes
  • Palatial architecture
  • Distinctive writing system
  • Elaborate religious rituals
  • Sophisticated art forms

12
Shang culture characterized by
  • Bronze metallurgy
  • Horse drawn chariot
  • Ability to mobilize human labor for huge
    projects/corvee labor
  • Relatively accurate calendar
  • Money in form of cowrie shells
  • Pantheon of gods
  • Complex lineage structure

13
The Shang
  • The Shang left written records and extensive
    material remains, especially bronze works.
  • Bronze metallurgy, horses, chariots, and other
    wheeled vehicles came to China with Indo-European
    migrants.
  • The Shang employed artisans to make many weapons
    for the government.
  • They controlled access to copper and tin ores.

14
The Shang
  • The Shang kings had many political allies who
    supported the king in exchange for agricultural
    output and access to metal works.
  • Several large cities were highly fortified with
    thick, tall walls.
  • This indicates a highly centralized political
    power and central rule of the Shang kings.

Shang zun (wine vessel) Made of Bronze
15
The Shang
  • The Shang royal tombs included thousands of
    objects including human material remains.

16
Political and Religious Organization of the Shang
  • Ruled by specific internal clans, each with its
    own king.
  • Kingship and kinship were linked.
  • As head of his biological clan and geographical
    realm, the king
  • Performed rituals and sacrifices
  • Waged war
  • Constructed irrigation and flood control
  • Administered the government.
  • Was thought to be descended from the god of the
    spirits.
  • Had divine rights.

17
Political and Religious Organization of the Shang
  • The ruler directly controlled a growing network
    of towns.
  • He ruled from his capital city.
  • He designated representatives to oversee regional
    cities. Most of these representatives were blood
    relatives.
  • These relatives received title to land, shares in
    the harvests, and rights to build and control the
    regional capital cities.
  • In exchange, they represented and served the king
    and his interests in the provinces.

18
Cities Shang
  • Vast network of walled towns whose local rulers
    recognized authority of the Shang kings
  • Shang rulers moved their capital six times
  • Capital at Yin (near modern Anyang) contained a
    complex of royal palaces and eleven large and
    lavish royal tombs

Royal tomb at Anyang
19
Class Organization under the Shang
  • Inside the walled area lived the royal family,
    the nobility, and their retainers.
  • Outside this palace was a network of residential
    areas.
  • To the north were the dwellings and graves of the
    wealthy and powerful marked by ritual bronze
    vessels and sacrificial victims.
  • To the south were the dwellings of the commoners
    and their burial places in trash pits.
  • Occupations were inherited within specific family
    units.
  • Many zu or lineage groups corresponded to
    occupational groups.

20
  • People of the Shang dynasty were divided into
    groups
  • THE NOBLES The king and his family were the most
    powerful of this group. Warlords and other royal
    officials were also in the class. They were
    aristocrats, nobles whose wealth came from the
    land they owned.
  • THE COMMONERS Traders and artisans were below
    the nobles. The commoners did most of the
    specialized work including farming.
  • THE SLAVES Slaves captured during wars were the
    lowest class of people.

21
Social Classes Under the Shang
  • Royalty/ Imperial Court
  • The king (emperor) and his family were the most
    powerful and wealthy people in Shang times.
  • Nobles
  • Warlords and officials loyal to the king were
    given land and peasants. In return, they fought
    in the kings army and provided the king with
    soldiers supplies.
  • Craftsmen (Artisans)
  • These skilled workers made artifacts for the
    aristocrats.
  • Traders (Merchants)
  • Like the craftsmen, traders were a very small
    class. They bartered or sold goods.
  • Farmers
  • The largest social class, farmers often used
    simple wooden and stone tools.
  • Slaves
  • Captured during wars, slaves were from opposing
    clans and used as human sacrifices or laborers

The king was the ultimate ruler yet, to expand
his power, he set up smaller kingdoms under his
younger brothers and nephews.
22
New Technologies Shang and Military Success
  • Shang ruling elites were able to monopolize
    production of bronze in the Yellow River Valley
    by controlling access to copper and tin ores
  • Allowed Shang forces to defeat Xia forces who
    were equipped with only stone, wood, and bone
    weapons
  • Shang nobles used bronze to make fittings for
    horse-drawn chariots

23
New Technologies Shang and Military Success
  • Shang were also able to exert military might over
    the Xia through bows

Shang pictograph of composite bow
24
Shang Warfare
  • Shang rulers used warfare to control land and
    expand their power.
  • Conflicts between the Shang and neighboring clans
    to the west and south were caused by boundary
    disputes, the desire for valuable resources, and
    the need to capture prisoners for human sacrifice
    or forced labor.

Foot soldier
Axe man
Shang Noble
Yi Captive
25
Shang Armies
  • Many wars involved large armies of more than
    13,000 men.
  • Foot soldiers
  • Archers
  • Calvary on horses elephants
  • Fighters in chariots
  • Soldiers used bronze weapons such as arrowheads,
    spearheads, helmets, and daggers mounted on
    wooden shafts.

26
Shang Dynasty 1600 B.C.-1046 B.C. The most
advanced bronze-working civilization in the
world. 1500-1000 B.C.Greeks destroy Troy (c.
1193 B.C.).
27
Bronze WeaponsCreated by Craftsmen and Used by
Nobles
  • The bronze weapons of the ancient Chinese gave
    Shang warriors an advantage over their enemies,
    who had less technologically advanced weapons.

28
Jade WeaponsPlaced in Emperors Tomb
  • Jade copies of Shang daggers and spears were
    placed in imperial tombs for use in the
    afterlife.

Jade spearhead set in bronze
Ceremonial daggers with turquoise and jade
ornamentation
29
Ceremonial AxesCreated by Craftsmen and Used
for Kings
  • Bronze ceremonial axes, which were found in many
    Shang emperors tombs, were symbols of imperial
    authority.
  • These axes were used to kill the sacrificial
    victims who were buried with the emperor.
  • Early Chinese emperors had complete power to make
    all government decisions.
  • Emperors owned the land, but they gave some of
    it away to their loyal supporters (nobles)

30
Jade CarvingsSymbols of Noble Power
  • When a Shang emperor gave control of a town or
    land to a nobleman, he also gave him symbols of
    his new power.
  • The emperor gave jade carvings of lucky
    creatures, such as dragons and tigers.
  • Jade was a stone reserved for nobility, and the
    Chinese saw the hard stone as a symbol of wisdom
    and charity/kindenss.
  • Power symbols also included chariots, flags, and
    drums.

31
Bronze VesselsCreated by Craftsmen
  • Shang people believed that ancestors brought
    their families good or bad fortune.
  • They used bronze containers, or vessels, to hold
    food items in ceremonies honoring their
    ancestors.
  • They also placed such vessels in the bombs so the
    dead could continue these rituals and have things
    to eat and drink in the after life.
  • Craftspeople designed some vessels to hold wine
    and others to hold meat or grain.

32
Writing Under the Shang
  • Early Chinese writing used pictographs, or
    characters that stand for objects.
  • By the Shang dynasty, people used logographs,
    characters that stand for words.
  • This differs from the American alphabet system
    (phonetic system) where each letter represents a
    sound.
  • In the Chinese language, each marking, or symbol,
    represents a whole word.

33
  • Early Chinese writing used pictographs, or
    characters that stand for objects.
  • Ideographs are two or more pictographs joined to
    represent an idea.
  • The Chinese language differs from the American
    alphabet system because in the American alphabet,
    each letter represents a sound. The letters, or
    sounds, are put together to make words. In the
    Chinese language, each marking, or symbol,
    represents a whole word.

34
  • Development of Writing
  • Writing system uses symbols to represent
    syllables, not ideas
  • People of different languages can use same system
  • Huge number of characters make system difficult
    to learn

35
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36
Shang Focus on the Family
  • Multiple generations of the same family lived in
    the same household, which was a patriarchal
    institution headed by the oldest male.
  • Shang religion held that gods controlled all
    aspects of peoples lives.
  • People believed they could call on the spirits of
    their dead ancestors to act as their advocates
    with the gods. This was called veneration of
    ancestors.
  • This gave the extended family even greater
    significance.

37
  • Religious Beliefs
  • Spirits of dead ancestors can affect family
    fortunes
  • Oracle bones used to consult gods supreme god,
    Shang Di
  • Priests scratch questions on animal bones and
    tortoise shells

38
  • People in the Shang dynasty believed in many
    spirits and gods and honored ancestors with
    offerings.
  • Shang kings believed they received wisdom and
    power from the gods, spirits, and ancestors.

Early Chinese Dynasty Gods The river god, rain
god, earth god. They believed in many gods, but
the most powerful was the sky god, T'ien, the
king of gods. To the peasants, T'ien was more
brilliant and more powerful than any earthbound
king.
39
Religion Under the Shang
  • People believed in many gods and practiced
    ancestor worship.
  • They honored their ancestors with offerings.
  • Shang kings believed they received wisdom and
    power from the gods, spirits, and ancestors.

The Sky God (Tien) The most powerful god was
the sky god, T'ien. He was the king of gods. To
the peasants, T'ien was more brilliant and
powerful than any earthbound king.
40
Ancestor reverence
  • Ultimate source of political power was royal
    ancestors
  • Deceased ministers had some influence
  • Dead went to Heaven
  • Intercede on behalf of descendants
  • So ritual life of Shang court was sequence of
    sacrifices to ancestors

41
Ancestor worship the belief that your dead
relatives control and guide your destiny. Thus
respect and honor for them is necessary.
42
Shamanism Shang Religion was based on ideas of
ancestor worship, as well as a belief in nature
gods, demons and magic.
43
Important ideas from Shang
  • Notion of supreme heavenly powerShangdi (god
    above)
  • Belief in power of spirits of ancestors to affect
    events on earth
  • Importance of rituals venerating ancestors role
    of king in performing rituals

44
Oracle Bones
  • As part of worship, Shang asked ancestors for
    advice
  • Sought advice through use of oracle bones
  • Inscribed bits of animal bone, turtle shell
  • Living person asked question of ancestor
  • Hot piece of metal applied to oracle bone
    resulting in cracks on bones surface
  • Specially trained priests interpreted meaning of
    cracks to learn answer

45
Oracle BonesUsed by Kings and Nobles
  • Shang emperors and priests used oracle bones to
    predict the future.
  • Shang priests etched positive or negative
    statements onto the surface of the shell or bone.
  • Rainfall --Sickness
  • Harvest --Childbirth
  • Sickness --Enemy attacks
  • Then the priest applied a hot poker to a groove
    on the bon so the bone would crack.
  • The cracks were analyzed to reveal the answer of
    the gods or ancestors.

Oracle bones were made from tortoise shells or
the shoulder blades of cattle.
46
Tomb of Fu Hao (Warrior Princess)
  • Museums display recreations of objects found in
    royal burial tombs.
  • Along with bronze vessels, jade ornaments, and
    bronze weapons, royalty were buried with food,
    animals, servants, and slaves to serve them in
    the afterlife. All were marched down a ramp into
    the tomb.

47
Cowrie ShellsUsed by Traders
  • During the Shang dynasty, people usually traded,
    or bartered, for the goods they wanted.
  • However, cowrie shells were also used as currency
    (money) during the Shang period.
  • The ancient Chinese strung 5 to 10 shell together
    and used them as coins are used today.
  • They were valuable because the source of the
    shells was so far away.
  • They closest supply of cowries was on the east
    coast of China below the Chang Jiang, or Yangtze
    River.

48
Farming Tools
  • During the Shang dynasty, the main occupation of
    most people was farming.
  • Peasants used simple wooden plows, stone shovels,
    stone sickles, and stone axes to work the land.

49
Shang economic features
  • Tamed water buffalo
  • Cultivated rice in south
  • Grain grown in north

50
Shang musical instruments
  • Music used as civilizing influence in state
    rituals
  • Drums
  • Bells
  • Chiming stones
  • ocarinas

51
Shang Accomplishments
  • Made bronze by mixing copper and tin
  • United the clans of Inner China
  • Jade jewelry and sculptures
  • Ancestor worship
  • Logographs

52
What was special about the Shang?
  • Shang China had limited contact with the rest of
    the world, though it did trade with Mesopotamia,
    a very long journey.
  • The Shang were so isolated that they believed
    themselves to be at the center of the world.
  • The Shang had an ethnocentric attitude which
    means they considered themselves superior to all
    others.
  • The Shang were accomplished bronze workers, used
    horse-drawn chariots, developed the spoked wheel,
    and became experts in the production of pottery
    and silk.
  • They also devised a decimal system and a highly
    accurate calendar.

53
Shang Achievements and Decline
  • Writing
  • Development of Chinese writing closely tied to
    use of oracle bones
  • Earliest examples of Chinese writing, questions
    written on bones themselves
  • Early Shang texts used picture symbols to
    represent objects, ideas
  • Bronze
  • Shang religion led to great advances in working
    with bronze
  • Highly decorative bronze vessels, objects created
    for religious rituals
  • Also built huge structures like tombs created
    calendar, first money systems
  • End of Dynasty
  • Shang ruled for more than 600 years, until about
    1100 BC
  • Ruling Chinas growing population proved too much
    for Shang
  • Armies from nearby tribe, Zhou, invaded,
    established new ruling dynasty

54
Last Shang King
  • King Di Xin (aka Zhou Wang ??).
  • Added territory to Shang empire.
  • According to Sima Qian, he was given to drinking,
    women, festive orgies, and songs with crude
    lyrics.
  • Ignored affairs of state.
  • Fall of Shang Dynasty, 1046 B.C.E.

55
Zhou Dynasty
56
The Zhou Dynasty
Beginning around 1100 BC, the Zhou rules China
for several centuries. The Zhou dynasty is
divided into two periods. During the Western
Zhou, kings ruled from Xian in a peaceful period.
Later conflict arose, kings moved east to
Luoyang, beginning the Eastern Zhou period.
In that case, they said, it was the will of the
gods that that dynasty be overthrown and a new
one take power.
57
The Zhou Dynasty
  • The Shang dynasty fell to the Zhou Dynasty around
    1122 B.C.E. but it did not disappear.
  • The Zhou survived for more than 600 years, making
    it one of the longest lasting Chinese dynasties.

58
Zhou Dynasty
  • Zhou Dynasty (1045 256 B.C.E.), named after the
    Zhou province, emerged in western Yellow River as
    a principality of the Shang Dynasty.
  • Founded by Ji Chang, son Ji Fa (aka King Wu)
    first Zhou emperor claimed Mandate of Heaven.
  • Battle of Muye (1046 B.C.E.), Zhou army attacks
    Shang capital Di Xin sets his own palace on fire
    and is burned alive.
  • Dynasty divided into Western Zhou and Eastern
    Zhou dynasties.

59
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60
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61
Zhou Dynasty
  • Displaced the Shang Dynasty
  • Chinas longest lasting dynasty
  • Located in NE China
  • Increased the territory of China
  • Flourished until 700s, then began a slow decline

http//www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/images/
maps/china-chou-large.gif
62
  • Wu Wang and his followers rebelled against the
    Shang dynasty and created the Zhou dynasty.
  • The Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other
    dynasty in Chinese history.

Zhou Dynasty
Wu Wang
63
The Zhou Dynasty
  • c. 1050 - 400 BC the leaders of a people who came
    to be known as the Zhou (JOH) ruled over a
    kingdom in China.
  • They joined with other nearby tribes and
    overthrew the Shang dynasty.
  • Longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history

64
Zhou Politics
  • Zhou Dynasty becomes feudal Fengjian system.
  • Decentralized rule, emperor appoints lords and
    vassals as territorial governors.
  • Eventually results in instability.
  • Mandate of Heaven elaborated on.
  • Not only justifies rule, but also overthrow.
  • He who wins is the king he who loses is the
    rebel.
  • Permanent rule of statecraft.

65
Zhou Dynasty Government
  • No strong centralized government
  • Feudal system
  • Govt. dependent upon loyalty from nobles
  • Rulers claimed to have a Mandate of Heaven
  • Ruler chosen by gods to rule
  • Gods can take away the mandate if the ruler is
    unjust or unfit

66
The Zhou Political System
  • The Zhou kings claimed to possess the
  • Mandate of Heaven - heaven gave power to the king
    or leader, and no one ruled without heavens
    permission.
  • If a king was found to be bad, heaven would
    support another leader


67
Tien Ming
The Mandate of Heaven
  1. The leader must lead by ability and virtue.
  2. The dynasty's leadership must be justified by
    succeeding generations.
  3. The mandate could be revoked by negligence and
    abuse the will of the people was important.

68
The Mandate of Heaven
  • The Mandate of Heaven developed during the Zhou
    Dynasty and dominated Chinese thought well into
    the 20th Century.
  • It is based on four principles
  • The right to rule is granted by Heaven.
  • There is only one Heaven therefore, there can be
    only one ruler.
  • The right to rule is based on the virtue of the
    ruler, which serves as a check on the ruler's
    power.
  • The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty,
    which justifies rebellion as long as the
    rebellion is successful.

69
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70
A new dynasty comes to power.
The emperorimproves government.
Start here?
Peoples lives improvedtaxes reduced.
Emperor isdefeated !!
TheDynasticCycle
Problems begin(extensive wars,invasions, etc.)
Rebels findstrong leader and Rebel against
Emperior.
Economic problems, high taxes
Poor loserespect for govt.They rebel.
Govt. corruption.
Droughts,floods,famines occur.
71
The Dynastic Cycle in China
The dynastic cycle refers to the rise and fall of
dynasties.
72
Primary Source Description
  • Heaven, unpitying, has sent down ruin on Yin
    Shang. Yin has lost the Mandate, and we Zhou
    have received it. I dare not say that our
    fortune would continue to prosper, even though I
    believe that heaven favors those who are sincere
    in their intentions. I dare not say, either it
    would end in certain disaster. . . .
  • The Mandate of Heaven is not easy to gain. It
    will be lost when men fail to live up to the
    reverent and illustrious virtues of their
    forefathers.
  • Duke of Shao

73
  • Kings in the Zhou dynasty served at the head of
    the government. In a bureaucracy, officials are
    responsible for different areas of government
    that all serve under the king.
  • The Zhou kingdom was divided into smaller
    territories. Each territory was led by an
    aristocrat.

74
  • Zhou kings were thought to be the link between
    the gods and people. The Mandate of Heaven was a
    heavenly law that gave Zhou kings the power to
    rule. The Mandate of Heaven also gave people
    rights.
  • The Dao was the proper way kings were to rule
    their people.

A mandate is a formal command to rule or do
something important
75
The Zhou Dynasty
  • What was the Mandate of Heaven?
  • It was a divine right given to the king to rule
    as long as he ruled well. If he ruled poorly,
    others had the right to overthrow him!
  • What is feudalism?
  • System of government where the king owns all the
    land. He gives land to loyal supporters in
    exchange they have to provide soldiers to fight
    for the king. Peasants, called serfs, work the
    land for the king.

76
The Zhou
  • The Zhou from an area to the west of the Shang
    kingdom.
  • Early Zhou rulers used the mandate of heaven to
    justify their rebellion against the Shang.
  • Later Zhou rulers expanded their territory to the
    northwest and the east.
  • Zhou soldiers then moved south, eventually
    expanding their rule to the Chang Jiang.

77
Zhou Dynasty
78
Zhou Political Order
  • The Zhou king - highest level. Granted land to
    lords - people of high rank - in return for
    loyalty, military support, and other services.
  • Lords paid taxes and provided soldiers to the
    king as needed.
  • Peasants, or farmers with small farms, at bottom
    of the order.
  • -Each peasant family received a small plot of
    land and had to farm additional land for the
    noble.

79
Zhous Contributions to Chinese Culture
  • The Zhou transformed warfare.
  • They developed the cavalry in which soldiers
    fought with bows and arrows on horseback.
  • They introduced infantry troops of draft foot
    soldiers.
  • The Zhou expanded significantly, creating a much
    larger state than what had been ruled by the
    Shang.
  • The Zhou created a decentralized administration
    that left much power in local hands.

80
Zhous Contributions to Chinese Culture
  • Book of Songs includes a collection of Chinas
    earliest poetry which includes insights into
    family life and gender relations in early China.
  • These poems make clear that men pursue women in
    courtship and not the other way around.
  • Other poems speak of a deep distrust of women in
    politics and argue that men alone should be in
    the public sphere and that women belonged at
    home.

81
Book of Songs
  • Collection of 331 poems from the Zhou era
  • Represent a variety of subjects
  • Political themes
  • Ritualistic hymns
  • Life
  • Love and friendship
  • Family
  • Work and play

82
Book of Songs
  • Everywhere under vast Heaven
  • There is no land that is not the kings
  • Within the borders of those lands
  • There are none who are not the kings servants.
  • from the Zhou Book of Songs


83
New Technologies Zhou and Military Failure
  • Zhou kings were not able to monopolize bronze
    production as the Shang had
  • Moreover, iron technology was spreading rapidly
    throughout China
  • Iron ores were cheaper and more abundant than
    copper and tin so Zhou could not monopolize iron
  • Subordinates were able to outfit their forces
    with iron which enabled them to resist the
    central government
  • When nomads invaded the Zhou capital at Hao in
    771 B.C., the subordinates refused to support the
    king

84
The Zhou system brought order toChina
  • Ruling through lords helped the Zhou control
    distant areas and helped ensure loyalty to the
    king.
  • Over time the political order broke down.
  • Lords passed their power to their sons, who were
    less loyal to the king.
  • Local rulers gained power. They began to reject
    the authority of the Zhou kings.


85
Economic
  • Agriculture
  • Cities are surrounded by agriculture
  • North harvested millet grain
  • Rain was hard to predict
  • South harvested rice
  • Predicted monsoons 
  • Rice patties must be flat and very wet
  • Used channels to create controlled floods 
  • An acre of rice can feed more people then an acre
    of grain
  • Cultivating rice is very labor intensive requires
    many people
  • South eventually became more populated and
    important then the North
  • Trade
  • Jade, ivory and bronze weapons were traded 
  • Silk was the most valuable innovation and was in
    high demand 
  • Traded as far as Mesopotamia

86
  • Improvements in Technology and Trade
  • Zhou Dynasty builds roads, canals to improve
    transportation
  • Uses coins to make trade easier
  • Produces cast iron tools and weapons food
    production increases

87
Economic Exchange
  • Somewhat limited by the mountain ranges and
    deserts that stood between China and India and
    southwest Asia
  • Shipbuilding emerged during Zhou era and
    facilitated trade
  • Evidence of
  • Cowrie shells from Burma and the Maldives
  • Military technology from Mesopotamia
  • Jade from central Asia
  • Tin from Malay

88
Zhou Economy
  • Feudal economy and land divisions well field
    system from Chinese character for well, jing
    (?) slavery decreased.
  • Development of an artisinal and merchant class in
    the walled towns and villages.
  • Improvements in agriculture improved crop
    yields rise in population.
  • Silk trade begins with ancient Mediterranean and
    Middle East cultures.
  • Barter system transitions into money system.

89
New Technologies Silk
  • During the Zhou era, the Chinese discovered how
    to make silk from the cocoons of silkworms.
  • Silk would become Chinas most valuable export,
    eventually linking them with most of the world
    through trade.

90
New Technologies Bookbinding
  • Chinese artisans learned how to bind together
    long, thin strips of wood or bamboo to make books

91
Poem from Late Zhou Dynastynoting use of oracle
bones in deciding the location of a new city
  • The plain of Zhou was very fertile,
  • Its celery and sow thistle sweet as rice cakes.
  • Here we will make a start here take counsel.
  • Here notch our turtle.
  • It says, Stop, it says, Halt.
  • Build houses here.

92
Zhou Dynasty Society and Culture
  • The family was the main social unit within
    Classical China
  • Headed by patriarch
  • Zhou rulers attempted to create a greater sense
    of unity within China
  • Language Promoted Mandarin Chinese
  • Religion outlawed human sacrifice
  • However, feudalism made this unity difficult

93
Cosmological Beliefs
  • Anthropomorphic god Shang Di evolves into Heaven
    (tian, ?).
  • Yang and Yin harmony/balance.
  • The Dao (?, Way) ethical way of living, similar
    to Dharma.
  • Competing schools of philosophy
  • Confucianism more philosophy than religion.
  • Daoism more religion than philosophy.

94
Confucianism
  • How did Confucius (Kung Fuci) explain Dao?
  • First, duty to family and community.
  • Second, human-heartedness compassion or empathy
    for others.
  • Third, deemphasize gods, death, and the afterlife.

95
Daoism
  • Founded by Laozi (4th c. B.C.E.), contemporary of
    Confucius.
  • Similar to Confucianism, except
  • Inaction over action.
  • Let nature take its course.
  • Stress on deities and spirits.

96
Zhou (Chou) Dynasty 1027B.C. - 221 B.C. It
was philosophers of this period who first
proclaimed the principles of the Mandate of
Heaven," the notion that the ruler (the "son of
heaven") governed by divine right but his
dethronement would mean that he had lost his
mandate. Agriculture in Zhou Dynasty was very
intensive and in many cases directed by the
government. All farming lands were owned by
nobles, who then gave their land to their serfs,
similar to European feudalism. Well-Field System
was established. A piece of land was divided
into nine squares in the shape of the character
jing (?), with the grain from the middle square
taken by the government and that of surrounding
squares kept by individual farmers.
97
Zhou Achievements
  • Before Zhou, Chinese metalwork done almost
    exclusively in bronze
  • Zhou learned to use iron, became backbone of
    economy
  • Iron was strong, could be cast more cheaply,
    quickly than bronze
  • Iron weapons strengthened Zhou army, as did new
    weapons like catapult and creation of Chinas
    first cavalry

98
The Decline of Zhou Power
  • As the lords loyalty to the Zhou king lessened,
    refused to
  • fight against invasions.
  • 771 BC invaders reached the capital.
  • According to legend, the king had been lighting
    warning fires to entertain a friend.
  • Each time the fires were lit, the kings armies
    would rush to the capital gates to protect him.
  • When the real attack came, the men thought the
    fires were just another joke, and no one came.
  • The Zhou lost the battle, but the dynasty
    survived.

99
Decline of Zhou
  • After this defeat the lords began to fight each
    other.
  • By 481 BC, China had entered an era called the
    Warring States period, a time of many civil wars.
  • Fighting became brutal and cruel as soldiers
    fought for territory, not honor.

100
Decline of Zhou
  • The decline of the Zhou took place as well as
  • important changes in the Chinese family structure
  • For many centuries the family had been the
    foundation of life in China.
  • Large families of several generations formed
    powerful groups.
  • When these families broke apart, they lost their
    power.
  • Close relatives became rivals.


101
Contributions of the Shang Zhou Dynasties
  • Two of the most important contributions of the
    Shang Dynasty are the use of bronze and a system
    of writing.
  • Warriors were knights in bronze armor who went
    to battle in horse-drawn chariots made of wood
    and bronze. They wore bronze helmets, and carried
    daggers, spears, and axes
  • Chopsticks were invented, which changed the way
    people ate their food.
  • Irrigation and flood-control systems were
    developed during the Zhou dynasty. Farm tools,
    such as the plow, were developed.
  • Silk was an important trade item during the Zhou
    dynasty.

102
Decline of the Zhou Dynasty
  • Regional disunity caused Zhou Dynasty to decline
  • Feudal lords began to assume more power,
    weakening the dynasty
  • Invasion from nomads to north
  • China entered the Warring States Period
  • 480-221 BCE
  • Strongmen competed for power
  • Eventually, one man was able to rise up and begin
    a new dynasty
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