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Why Study Geography?

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... Paris, France is 48o51' North latitude and 2.20' East longitude Relative locations are described by landmarks, ... Paris is located along the Seine River. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Why Study Geography?


1
Why Study Geography?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vdDk06h7Abbwfeature
    fvw

2
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
Question What are the two main branches of
geography?
3
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
Human Geography
Physical Geography
Both
Studies distribution and characteristics of the
worlds people (where people live and what they
do) Examines how people make and trade things
that they need to survive
Focuses on Earths natural environments,
including landforms, water features, plants,
animals, and other physical features Studies
the processes that shape physical environments
Studies how people interact with their
environments
4
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
  • We Use Geography
  • In GovernmentFor mapmaking and planning
  • In BusinessFor marketing and development
  • In SchoolsFor education
  • Every DayTo find our way in town or on trips,
    when we watch the news and weather, when we read
    about other countries, when we make decisions
    about locations for events or businesses

5
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
Organizing the Study of Geography
Organizing the Study of Geography
  • By Five Themes
  • LocationExact or relative spot of something on
    Earth
  • PlacePhysical and human features of a location
  • Human-Environment InteractionWays people and
    environments interrelate with and affect each
    other
  • MovementHow people and things change locations
    and the effects of these changes
  • RegionGeographic areas with one or more shared
    characteristics

6
Location
  • "Where are we?"   is the question that the theme
    Location answers. Location may be absolute or it
    may be relative.  These locations, whether
    relative or absolute, may be of people or places.
  • An absolute location is a latitude and longitude
    (a global location) or a street address (local
    location). Ex Paris, France is 48o51' North
    latitude and 2.20' East longitude

7
  • Relative locations are described by landmarks,
    time, direction or distance from one place to
    another and may associate a particular place with
    another. Ex Paris is located along the Seine
    River.

8
Place
  • What kind of place is it?  What do you think of
    when you imagine China?  Japan?  Russia?  Saudi
    Arabia?
  • Places have both human and physical
    characteristics, as well as images.
  • Physical characteristics include mountains,
    rivers, soil, beaches, wildlife, soil. 

9
  • Places have human characteristics also.  These
    characteristics are derived from the ideas and
    actions of people that result in changes to the
    environment, such as buildings, roads, clothing,
    and food habits.
  • The image people have of a place is based on
    their experiences, both intellectual and
    emotional.  People's descriptions of a place
    reveal their values, attitudes, and perceptions.

10
Human/Environmental Interaction
  • There are three key concepts to
    human/environmental interaction
  •  Humans adapt on the environment.  Humans modify
    the environment.  Humans depend on the
    environment.
  • All places on Earth have advantages and
    disadvantages for human settlement.  One person's
    advantage may be another person's disadvantage.

11
  • Some like the excitement of large cities whereas
    others prefer remoteness.   Environment is not
    just trees, spotted owls, and rain forests. 
    Environment is a feeling.  What is the
    environment of a big city?  New York?  Los
    Angeles?  Las Vegas? Dallas?
  • Given the choice, where would you live?  Why? 
    What is the environment?

12
Movement
  • The movement of people, the import and export of
    goods, and mass communication have all played
    major roles in shaping our world. 
  • People everywhere interact.  They travel from
    place to place and they communicate.  We live in
    a global village and global economy.

13
  • People interact with each other through
    movement.  Humans occupy places unevenly on Earth
    because of the environment but also because we
    are social beings.  We interact with each other
    through travel, trade, information flows (E-Mail)
    and political events.
  • Not only do humans move but also ideas move
    fashions move fads move.  What is an example of
    an idea that moves?  Fashion?  Fad?  How do we
    depend on people in other places?

14
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
Organizing the World by Regions
  • FormalHas one or more common features that make
    it different from surrounding areas
  • FunctionalDifferent places that are linked
    together and function as a unit
  • PerceptualReflects human feelings and attitudes

15
Region
  • A region is the basic unit of study in
    geography.  A region is an area that displays a
    coherent unity in terms of the government,
    language, or possibly the landform or situation. 
    Regions are human constructs that can be mapped
    and analyzed.
  • There are three basic types of regions.

16
  • Formal regions are those defined by governmental
    or administrative boundaries (i. e., United
    States, Birmingham, Brazil).  These regional
    boundaries are not open to dispute, therefore
    physical regions fall under this category (i. e.,
    The Rockies, the Great Lakes States).

17
  • Functional regions are those defined by a
    function (i. e., TVA, United Airlines Service
    area or a newspaper service area).  If the
    function ceases to exists, the region no longer
    exists.
  • Vernacular regions are those loosely defined by
    people's perception (i. e., The South, The Middle
    East).  

18
  • http//www.popvssoda.com/

19
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
  • By Six Essential Elements
  • The World in Spatial Terms
  • How to use maps and other tools
  • How to use mental maps to organize information
  • How to analyze the spatial organization of
    people, places, and environments
  • Places and Regions
  • The physical and human characteristics of places
  • How people create regions to interpret Earth
  • How culture and experience influence peoples
    perceptions of places and regions

20
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
  • By Six Essential Elements
  • Physical Systems
  • Human Systems
  • Environment and Society
  • The physical processes that shape Earths surface
  • The distribution of ecosystems on Earth
  • The characteristics, distribution, and migration
    of human populations
  • The complexity of Earths cultural mosaics
  • The patterns and networks of economic
    interdependence on Earth
  • The patterns of human settlement

21
Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
  • By Six Essential Elements
  • Physical Systems
  • Human Systems
  • Environment and Society
  • The forces of cooperation and conflict
  • How human actions modify the physical environment
  • How physical systems affect human systems
  • The distribution and meaning of resources
  • The Uses of Geography
  • Apply geography to interpret the past
  • Apply geography to interpret the present and plan
    for the future

22
Section 2 Skill Building Using the
Geographers Tools
Map Projection
Disadvantages
Advantages
Used by navigators because it shows true
direction and shape
Exaggerates landmasses at high latitudes
Cylindrical
Not as accurate for areas that extend mostly
north to south
Conic
Accurate for areas with long east-west dimensions
Used by pilots and navigators because it shows
true direction and area sizes
Flat-Plane
Distorts shapes
23
Section 2 Skill Building Using the
Geographers Tools
Special-Purpose Maps
  • Climate and Precipitation MapsShow weather
    patterns and atmospheric conditions
  • Population and Economic MapsShow the
    distribution of people, natural resources, and
    land usage patterns
  • Elevation Profiles and Topographic MapsShow
    physical features of the land

24
Section 2 Skill Building Using the
Geographers Tools
Important Geographic Characteristics
  • Climate graphs show average temperatures and
    precipitation in a place.
  • Population pyramids show percentages of males and
    females by age group in a countrys population.
    They help us understand population trends.
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