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Prologue: The Story of Psychology

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Title: Prologue: The Story of Psychology


1
Prologue The Story of Psychology
2
Prologue The Story of Psychology
  • Psychologys Roots
  • Prescientific Psychology
  • Psychological Science is Born
  • Psychological Science Develops

3
Prologue The Story of Psychology
  • Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychologys Big Debate
  • Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
  • Psychologys Subfields

4
Prescientific Psychology
  • Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and Plato (428-348 B.C.)

http//www.law.umkc.edu
http//www.law.umkc.edu
Socrates
Plato
Socrates and his student Plato believed the mind
was separate from the body, the mind continued to
exist after death, and ideas were innate.
5
Prescientific Psychology
  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

http//faculty.washington.edu
Aristotle suggested that the soul is not
separable from the body and that knowledge
(ideas) grow from experience.
6
Prescientific Psychology
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

http//www.spacerad.com
http//ocw.mit.edu
Descartes, like Plato, believed in soul
(mind)-body separation, but wondered how the
immaterial mind and physical body communicated.
Believed in animal spirits and nerves
communicating in the body.
7
Prescientific Psychology
  • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

http//www.iep.utm.edu
Bacon is one of the founders of modern science,
particularly the experimental method. (empiricism)
8
Prescientific Psychology
  • John Locke (1632-1704)

biografieonline.it/img/bio/John_Locke.jpg
Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa, or
blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on
it.
9
Prescientific Psychology
  • What is the relation of mind to the body?

Mind and body are connected Mind and body are distinct
Socrates
Aristotle Plato
Descartes
10
Prescientific Psychology
  • How are ideas formed?

Some ideas are inborn The mind is a blank slate
Socrates Aristotle
Plato Locke
11
Psychological Science is Born
  • Structuralism

Titchner (1867-1927)
Wundt (1832-1920)
Wundt and Titchener studied the elements (atoms)
of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig,
Germany, in 1879. Wundt established first psych
laboratory
12
Structuralism
  • Define makeup of conscious experience, breaking
    it down into objective sensations (light and
    taste) and subjective feelings (emotional
    responses, will, mental images)
  • Believe that mind functions by creatively
    combining the elements of experience
  • Introspection (self-reflection)

13
Psychological Science is Born
  • Functionalism

James (1842-1910)
Mary Calkins
Influenced by Darwin, William James established
the school of functionalism, which opposed
structuralism. Functions of our thoughts and
feelings.
14
Functionalism
  • Emphasizes the uses or functions of the MIND
    rather than the elements of experience
  • Deals with overt behavior as well as
    consciousness
  • Activity Gum Chewing

15
Functionalism
  • William James (1842-1910) Wrote first modern
    psychology textbook, The Principles of
    Psychology

16
Psychological Science is Born
  • The Unconscious Mind

Freud (1856-1939)
Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the
importance of the unconscious mind and its
effects on human behavior. (SEX UNCONSCIOUS)
17
Psychological Science Develops
  • Behaviorism

Skinner (1904-1990)
Watson (1878-1958)
Watson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the
study of overt behavior as the subject matter of
scientific psychology.
18
Behaviorism
  • John Watson (1878-1958) Founder of behaviorism
  • Psychology must limit itself to observable,
    measurable events-to behavior

19
Behaviorism
  • Examples
  • Pressing a lever, turning left or right, eating
    and mating, heart rate, dilation of the pupils

20
Psychological Science Develops
  • Humanistic Psychology

Maslow (1908-1970)
http//facultyweb.cortland.edu
Rogers (1902-1987)
http//www.carlrogers.dk
Maslow and Rogers emphasized current
environmental influences on our growth potential
and our need for love and acceptance.
21
Psychology Today
  • We define psychology today as the scientific
    study of behavior (what we do) and mental
    processes (inner thoughts and feelings).

22
Psychological Associations Societies
  • The American Psychological Association(APA) is
    the largest organization of psychology with
    160,000 members world-wide, followed by the
    British Psychological Society with 34,000 members.

23
Psychologys Big Debate
  • Nature versus Nurture

Darwin (1809-1882)
Darwin stated that nature selects those that best
enable the organism to survive and reproduce in a
particular environment.
24
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
25
Andrea Yates Video
26
Andrea Yates
  • Low self-esteem (psychological)
  • Mood disorder-depressed (biological-brain
    chemistry)
  • Husband didnt help with kids (socio-cultural)
  • Equals-Biopsychosocial Approach

27
Psychologys Perspectives
The Big Seven
28
Neuroscience Perspective (Pinky finger)
  • Focus on how the physical body and brain creates
    our emotions, memories and sensory experiences.

Study hormones, genes, and activity of the
central nervous system, especially the brain
29
Evolutionary Perspective (Extra finger)
  • Focuses on Darwinism.
  • We behave the way we do because we inherited
    those behaviors.
  • Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our
    ancestors survival.

How could this behavior ensured Homers ancestors
survival?
30
Approaches cont.
  • Evolutionary/Sociobiological
  • Focus is on how certain behaviors may have helped
    our ancestors survive. (mother nature practicing
    selective breeding)

31
Psychodynamic Perspective (thumb)
  • Fathered by Sigmund Freud.
  • Our behavior comes from unconscious drives.
  • Usually stemming from our childhood.

What might a psychoanalyst say is the reason
someone always needs to be chewing gum?
32
Psychoanalysis
  • Emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives
    and conflicts as determinants of human behavior

33
Psychoanalysis
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • Believed that unconscious thought , especially
    sexual and aggressive impulses, were more
    influential than conscious thought in determining
    human behavior.

34
Psychoanalysis
  • Thought mind was unconscious, consisting of
    conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.
  • People motivated to gratify these impulses and
    urges

35
Psychoanalysis
  • Freud gained his understanding of people
    through clinical interviews with patients
  • Gain insight into deep-seated conflicts and find
    socially acceptable ways of expressing wishes and
    gratifying needs

36
Behavioral Perspective (Middle finger)
  • Focuses on our OBSERVABLE behaviors.
  • Only cares about the behaviors that impair our
    living, and attempts to change them.

If you bit your fingernails when you were
nervous, a behaviorist would not focus on calming
you down, but rather focus on how to stop you
from biting your nails.
37
BEHAVIORISTS
  • How people learn
  • Rewards and punishment

John B. Watson
38
Cognitive Perspective (pointer finger)
  • Focuses on how we think (or encode information)
  • How do we see the world?
  • How did we learn to act to sad or happy events?
  • Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you
    think.

Meet girl
Get Rejected by girl
Did you learn to be depressed
Or get back on the horse
39
Approaches cont.
  • GESTALT
  • consider behavior in context rather than in
    isolation (age, race, gender, money, time,
    family, etc.)
  • Perceptions more than the sum of its parts
  • Wholes that give meaning to parts
  • COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
  • not just rewards and punishment
  • How people perceive, store and interpret
    information
  • How thought processes develop over time (10 years
    old compared to today)

40
Social-Cultural Perspective (palm)
  • Focus on how your culture effects your behavior.
  • Even in the same high school, behaviors can
    change in accordance to the various subcultures.
  • How thinking and behavior change depending on the
    setting or situation

41
Humanistic Perspective (ring finger)
  • Focuses on positive growth
  • Attempt to seek self-actualization
  • Therapists use active listening and unconditional
    positive regard.

Mr. Rogers would have made a great Humanistic
Therapist!!!
42
Approaches cont.
  • HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY
  • people try to achieve their maximum potential
    (self actualization)
  • Promote health and self-growth
  • ECLECTIC
  • Combination of approaches

43
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of ones genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?
Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
44
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someones personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?
Behavioral How we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
45
Psychologys Current Perspectives
Perspective Focus Sample Questions
Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving?
Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
46
Andrea Yates (outrageous celebrity)
  • Low self-esteem (cognitive)
  • Mood disorder-depressed (biological-brain
    chemistry)
  • Husband didnt help with kids (socio-cultural)
  • Didnt have unconditional positive regard
    (Humanistic)
  • Saw someone do it on tv (Behavioral)
  • Abused as a child (psychodynamic)

47
Dennis Rodman
  • Biological-high level of estrogen that makes him
    feel like he needs to wear womens clothing
  • Evolutionary-his height and athleticism will be
    passed on to his ancestors
  • Psychodynamic-traumatized as a child when he
    wasnt permitted to wear a Halloween costume
    which he has repressed but now overcompensates
    for his loss as a child.

48
  • Behavioral-both his father and grandfather were
    cross-dressers so he observed and modeled their
    behavior
  • Cognitive-he seeks out attention and believes
    that if he does outrageous things people will
    love and accept him
  • Social-cultural-the media and NBA culture allows
    and widely accepts outrageous behavior
  • Humanistic-He has fully embraced his feminine
    side so he wears his clothes freely because he
    knows he has reached his full potential

49
Psychologys Subfields Research
Psychologist What she does
Biological Explore the links between brain and mind.
Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb.
Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
Personality Investigate our persistent traits.
Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
50
Psychologys Subfields Research
Data APA 1997
51
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Psychologist What she does
Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.
Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings
Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
52
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Data APA 1997
53
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
  • A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies,
    assesses, and treats troubled people with
    psychotherapy.
  • Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical
    professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like
    drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically
    diseased patients.

54
Emerging Fields
  • Forensic expertise within the criminal-justice
    system
  • Serve as expert witnesses, testify about
    competence of defendants to stand trial or
    describe mental disorders and how affect criminal
    behavior
  • Counsel officers help with stress, hostage
    situations, suicide threats

55
Emerging Fields
  • Healthexamine the ways in which behavior and
    mental processes such as attitudes are related to
    physical health
  • Headaches, cardiovascular disease, cancer
  • Patient compliance with medical advice
  • Guide clients to take undertake more healthy
    behaviors such as exercising, quitting smoking,
    healthy diet

56
Close-up
Your Study of Psychology Survey, Question, Read,
Review and Reflect (SQ3R)
  • Survey What you are about to read, including
    chapter outlines and section heads.
  • Question Ask questions. Make notes.
  • Read Make sure you read outlines, sections and
    chapters in entirety.
  • Review Margin definitions. Study learning
    outcomes.
  • Reflect On what you learn. Test yourself with
    quizzes.

57
Close-up
Additional Study Hints
  • Distribute your time.
  • Listen actively in class.
  • Overlearn.
  • Be a smart test-taker.
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