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Agenda Article Reviews Court Cases from EEOC Chapter 2: Recruiting and Selecting the Best Employees Next Week – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Agenda

  • Article Reviews
  • Court Cases from EEOC
  • Chapter 2 Recruiting and Selecting the Best
  • Next Week

Recruiting and Selecting the Best Employees
  • Hospitality Human Resources Management and

OH 2-2
Chapter Learning Objectives
  • Describe the four tasks in the position analysis
  • Explain the uses of job descriptions and how they
    should be developed.
  • Explain how the Americans with Disabilities Act
    (ADA) affects the information in a job
  • Recognize differences between exempt and
    nonexempt positions under the Fair Labor
    Standards Act.
  • Recognize the need to update job descriptions.

Chapter Learning Objectives continued
  • Identify information needed to forecast staffing
  • Identify common sources of potential employees.
  • Review basic employee recruitment procedures.
  • List and explain the tools that can help screen
    job applicants to determine which should receive
    job offers.
  • Review details about job offers made to
    candidates who meet job requirements.
  • Describe how to evaluate recruiting efforts.

Job Descriptions in the Employment Cycle
Position Analysis
  • Four Basic Steps in the position analysis
  • Develop a task list
  • Decide how to break down each task into small
  • Determine performance standards
  • Develop a job description that includes the jobs
    most important tasks.

Position Analysis Describing Job Tasks
  • Recruiting and selecting the best qualified
    candidate begins long before the position is
  • Determining the tasks that must be performed, how
    and by what position is the first step.

Position Analysis Describing Job Tasks continued
  • Employees can help with job analysis tasks.

Position Analysis Describing Job Tasks continued
  • Dont forget about the environmental conditions
  • Chapter 2 resources\Cook -Physical Job
  • Beyond your work environment, check industry
  • The Occupational Information Network offers a
    website with job titles and tasks and the
    knowledge, skills and abilities needed for
    various jobs.
  • http//

Position Analysis Task Breakdown
  • A task breakdown is the second part of a position
    analysis. It tells exactly how each task in the
    task list should be done.
  • An example can be found on page 33 of the text
  • MCC Instructions and Form Owner
  • Why is this level of detail required?
  • Who uses this information?

Position Analysis Performance Standards
  • Developing performance standards is the third
    part of the position analysis.
  • Specify the required quality and quantity outputs
    that define the correct way to perform a task.
  • Should be challenging but attainable
  • Must be measurable.

Job Description vs. Performance Standard
  • Example of duty as a job description and as a
    performance standard

Duty as a job description Duty as a performance standard
Greet drive-through customers Greet drive-through customers using the standard greeting within fifteen seconds of their arrival at the drive-through board.
Position Analysis Job Description
  • The fourth step is developing a job description
  • A job description indicates the tasks a person
    must be able to perform along with other
    important information.
  • Tells job applicants what they would be doing if
    they worked the position.

Functions of Job Descriptions
  • For recruiting and screening
  • For hiring and orientation
  • For employee development and training
  • For performance programs and evaluations
  • For salary administration

Functions of Job Descriptions continued
  • Safety and security
  • Union relations
  • Legal proceedings

Classes and Grades
A couple of examples Chapter 2
resources\Department Positions Pay
Scales.xls Chapter 2 resources\Sodexo Salary
Levels of Authority
Top Management
Middle Management
Supervisory Management
Organizational Charts
  • Outline hierarchy of the organization
  • Flow of authority communication
  • Unbroken line between all levels of the
  • Relationships between positions
  • Each position should have only one supervisor
  • Impact interaction of positions across the

Organization (cont)
  • Similar activities should be grouped together to
    structure departments or functional areas within
    an organization
  • Organizational charts/business structure, must
    change continually to reflect the constant change
    in business

Sample Organizational Chart
Susies Bakery
Nebraska Health System Organizational Chart
  • Food and Nutrition Org Chart.pdf

Culinary, Hospitality and Horticulture Org.
  • Culinary Arts Org Chart.pdf
  • http//

Developing Job Descriptions
  • Job descriptions should be free of discriminatory
  • Information should be specific enough to indicate
    job tasks.
  • Job descriptions should not be so detailed that
    the job is defined in rigid terms.

Components of Job Description (page 36-37in the
  • Job identification information (title)
  • Position supervisor
  • Job summary
  • Job responsibilities
  • Job specifications/competencies
  • Job Setting
  • Publication

Job Specifications
  • Detail the qualifications a person should have to
    do the job
  • Examples
  • Education
  • Experience
  • Emotional and physical skills

Good Job Descriptions
  • Do not include information about policies and
    operating procedures.
  • Provide only that information needed to clearly
    define the job.
  • Chapter 2 resources\BMC Cook 1.DOC
  • Chapter 2 resources\Secretary Job Description
  • Chapter 2 resources\Job Description Template.doc

How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
  1. Information about specific tasks of a position is
    found in a _______.
  2. Personal qualities required for success in a
    position are identified in a _______.
  3. Job descriptions are only useful during the
    hiring process. (True/False)
  4. Before a job description is developed, a _______
    must be conducted.

Job Descriptions Recognize ADA Concerns
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    prohibits discrimination against people with
    disabilities in employment.
  • Job descriptions must identify essential
    functions (key duties) employees in a position
    must be able to do.

Job Descriptions Recognize ADA Concerns
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    requires an employer with 15 or more employees to
    provide reasonable accommodation for individuals
    with disabilities, unless it would cause undue
    hardship. A reasonable accommodation is any
    change in the work environment or in the way a
    job is performed that enables a person with a
    disability to enjoy equal employment
  • http//

More About Job Descriptions and ADA
  • Employers do not need to accommodate a person if
    doing so will impose an undue hardship on the
  • Clear job descriptions should address issues
    about whether persons can be accommodated for a

Exempt and Nonexempt Positions
  • Minimum wage and overtime pay is not required for
    exempt (salaried) positions.
  • Minimum wage and overtime pay is required for
    nonexempt (hourly) positions.

Traits of Exempt Positions
Traits of Nonexempt Positions
Job Descriptions Change Over Time
  • Responsibilities may change as operations or
    employees grow or change.
  • Job descriptions may change because of
  • Equipment, menu items, and operating procedures
    may affect job responsibilities.
  • Union contracts may change.

How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
  1. A change in a job that enables a person with a
    disability to perform the job is called a
  2. The employer (does/does not) need to accommodate
    an employee if doing so would cause an undue
  3. Persons in _______ positions do not need to be
    paid overtime.
  4. Job descriptions (do/do not) evolve over time.

Next Step in the HR Process
  • Recruiting

Employment Cycle
The Recruiting Process
  • Determining what vacancies exist based on
    staffing levels
  • Establishing necessary skills and backgrounds for
    new staff
  • Clarifying what prospective employees will
  • Identifying sources of potential employees
  • Communicating information about vacancies

Employment Cycle
Information Needed to Forecast Staffing Needs
  • Levels of service/ concept
  • Last years sales and staffing patterns
  • History of turnover
  • Current and seasonal staffing schedules
  • Staffing patterns, guidelines, and formulas for
    similar establishments
  • Local labor market realities

Source of Labor Data
  • http//

What Do We Need? What Can We Offer?
  • Use current and accurate job descriptions to
    identify required duties/responsibilities in
    needed positions.
  • Wages and benefits must be competitive.
  • Noneconomic factors are also important.
  • Chapter 3 resources\Benefits-ataglance_Frontline_2

Personnel Requisition
  • Used to identify to the organization that you
    need to hire and can also initiate recruitment
  • http//
  • Chapter 3 resources\Request_for_Position_Posting_B

Sources of Potential Employees
  • Internal sources
  • Existing employees
  • Persons whom existing employees know
  • External sources
  • Persons not currently associated with the

Recruiting from Internal Sources
  • Currently-employed staff members can identify
    potential applicants if they are aware of
  • Chapter 3 resources\

Promotion from Within
  • Promoting current employees into open positions
  • Advantages include
  • Rewards employees for good performance.
  • Motivates others to improve their performance.
  • Encourages all staff to consider long-term

Here is the first half of the chapter support
materials. Will send second half under separate
Next Week
  • Read Chapters 3, and be prepared to discuss
  • Article Review on topic from Chapter 2- typed
  • Follow format in syllabus
  • Your opinion agree or disagree,
    Reflection/Application to real world
  • Project - typed
  • Job description Develop a job description for a
    chosen position within your business. It should
    include components listed on pages 36 - 38 of the
    text example job description on page 37.
  • Organizational Chart Reporting Relationships
    Prepare an Organizational Chart for your business
    including the position chosen for the job

Lets find help for a Job Description
  1. Examples on http//
  2. Example on
  3. Info on

Lets find help for an Organizational Chart
  • Power Point
  • Word
  • Insert
  • Smart Art

Agenda Week 3
  • Article Reviews
  • External Recruiting
  • Screening
  • Orienting (?)
  • Next Week Homework

External Sources of Potential Employees
  • The range and number of sources depends on the
    operations location.
  • Recruiting tactics must target the best possible
    applicants regardless of race, gender, national
    origin, age, religion, or other nonessential

External Recruiting Methods
  • Networking
  • Sponsoring school, community, and professional
  • Marketing to professional and community

Advertising in Traditional Media
  • Traditional media include radio, television,
    newspapers, magazines, and other publications.
  • Print and broadcast advertisements can be
  • Other possible disadvantages
  • Need to include all information in a short ad
  • Assuring that the ad is printed or read accurately

Advertising Through Other Media
  • Signs and postings in and around the operation
  • Announcements on public bulletin boards
  • Information on Web sites

Three Additional External Recruitment Methods
  • Recruiting competitors employees
  • Participating in career development events
  • Holding open houses and hosting tours

How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
  1. Ideally, _______ is an important first step in
    the recruiting process.
  2. What you can offer perspective employees
    extends beyond just wages and benefits.
  3. When employees refer other people to position
    vacancies, this is an example of _______
  4. Advertising through untraditional media is
    (more/less) expensive than advertising through
    traditional media.

Building and Maintaining Relationships with
External Sources
  • Relationships with schools
  • Relationships with government agencies
  • Relationships with organizations

Communicating Job Openings
  • Orally
  • Employee meetings, Advertisements on radio or
  • Advantage very personal, tone you intend is
  • Disadvantage not everyone has the opportunity to
    get the information at the same time, sometimes
    difficult to capture everything about the
  • Written
  • Postings internally or externally, Advertisements
    in print
  • Advantage can make sure you capture everything
  • Disadvantage tone not always achieved, sometimes
    difficult or expensive to capture everything
    about the position

Job Advertisements
  • It is difficult but important to provide all
    necessary information in a short help wanted ad.

Elements of Job Postings/Advertisements
  • Job or position title
  • Desired qualifications or skills
  • Company name
  • Benefits

Elements of Job Postings/Advertisements continued
  • Work location
  • Ways to respond
  • Equal employment opportunity (EEO) statement

Avoiding Discriminatory Language
  • Avoid gender-specific titles and other language.
  • Avoid references to groups of people that imply
    traits not relating to bona fide occupational
    qualifications or essential functions.
  • Focus on the skills, knowledge, and abilities
    needed for the job.

Identifying and Eliminating Discriminatory
  • Discriminary Language.pdf
  • Review each of these ads and identify if ok or
    if needs revision
  • Discuss revision

Recruiting Reflects Character of the Operation
  • Match the tone and style of information provided
    to the tone and style of the organization.
  • A consistent image involves using the logo,
    colors, and other indicators that people
    associate with your operation.

  • Now you know that a lot of planning, creativity,
    and effort are needed to find the very best
    people for each position.

Evaluating Recruiting Methods
  • Evaluation identifies those recruiting activities
    that are most useful for specific vacancies.
  • Cost-benefit evaluation compares total direct and
    indirect recruiting costs against the number of
    applicants produced.

How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
  1. The most productive external sources of potential
    employees are _______ organizations.
  2. A job opening can be communicated _______ or in
  3. Equal Employment Opportunity statements are not
    needed because EEO requirements are mandated by
    law. (True/False)
  4. Advertising for a server is better than
    advertising for a waiter. (True/False)

Key Term Review
  • Blind adsadvertisements that omit a companys
    name and other identifying information
  • Cost-benefit relationshipcomparison of the total
    direct and indirect recruiting costs against the
    number (and sometimes quality) of applicants
  • Employee referral programsmethod of internal
    recruiting in which existing staff members are
    provided a bonus or reward for referring
    candidates who are employed by the business
  • External sourcespotential employees who are
    recruited from outside of the organization
  • Forecastprediction based upon historical
    information and estimates of future operating
  • Internal sourcesgroups of potential employees
    who come from within the operation

Key Term Review continued
  • Intranetinternal computer network
  • Job postingsnotices about job vacancies
  • Longevitylength of employment within the
  • Networkingpractice of building and maintaining
    on-going communication with individuals whom you
    can help and who can help you
  • New hirespeople newly employed by the operation
  • Open housedesignated time for people to visit
    the operation, meet the staff, take a tour,
    experience the food and atmosphere, and mix with
    others who also visit the open house
  • Perquisites (perks)incidental benefits to a job,
    such as meals, formal training, flexible
    scheduling, and advancement opportunities

Key Term Review continued
  • Promoting from withinpractice of promoting
    current employees into open positions
  • Recruitingseries of activities designed to
    encourage the largest number of qualified persons
    to apply for a job at the organization
  • Return on investment (ROI)calculations that
    measure the profits of a program or event against
    the costs of implementing it
  • Screeningprocess of reviewing the skills,
    experience, attitudes, and backgrounds of people
    who have applied to work at the restaurant or
    foodservice operation
  • Sourcesplaces, organizations, and individuals
    that managers can draw on to find new employees

Screening Potential Employees
OH 4-72
The Screening Process
  • The screening process is part of the employment

Activities Involved in Screening Process
  • Review application form and other materials.
  • Conduct preliminary interviews.
  • Assess qualifications through testing.
  • Conduct second interviews.
  • Investigate applicants backgrounds.

Job Application as Screening Tool
  • The job application form is a critical screening

Additional Screening Tools
  • Cover letter and resume
  • Proof of eligibility to work
  • Screening interview
  • Chapter 4 resouces\Frontline_PRE_Screening.doc

Additional Screening Tools continued
  • Testing
  • Every applicant, culturally neutral, only test
    applicable skills, administer fairly and
    consistently, evaluate against standards
  • Work assessments or simulations
  • Job interviews
  • Reference and background checks
  • Medical tests and records

Avoiding Illegal Discrimination in Screening
  • Every applicant should be given fair
    consideration. All federal, state, and local
    regulations for screening and hiring practices
    must be followed.
  • The best approachassure screening focuses only
    on essential job skills and the persons ability
    to perform them.

Reasons to Review Application Documents
  • To become familiar with the applicants
    professional background
  • To identify the experience and knowledge the
    individual can contribute to the operation
  • To determine whether special training or literacy
    education might be needed
  • U\Supervision\Chapter 4 resouces\Application

Topics for Interview Questions
  • Interview questions must focus on bona fide
    occupational qualifications that directly relate
    to the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed
    for the job.

Applicant Test Guidelines
  • Give to every applicant for the position.
  • Use a culturally neutral test.
  • Test for bona fide occupational qualifications
  • Administer the test fairly and consistently.
  • Evaluate results against clear factors.

OH 4-12
How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
  1. If screening interviews are used, it is not
    necessary to conduct more formal job interviews.
  2. In todays fast-paced business world, job
    applications are the only screening device that
    is really necessary. (True/False)
  3. What type of screening is typically done last?
  4. It (is/is not) appropriate to ask a job applicant
    about marital status.

Planning for Job Interviews
  • Know what you want to learn from the interview.
  • Consider location, time, opening points, notes to
    be taken, and preferred interview format.
  • Always use a standard list of questions.
  • Chapter 4 resouces\Frontline Behavioral Interview
  • Chapter 4 resouces\Food Production Interview

Information Gathering/Skill Interviews
  • Focus on an applicants
  • Background
  • Work experience
  • Previous employers
  • Job challenges
  • Question examples
  • What are your greatest strengths?
  • What are you looking for in this job?

Stress Interviews
  • Designed to put applicants in a difficult and
    stressful situation to see how they handle stress
    in job challenges
  • Example
  • Provide a stressful on-the-job situation, and ask
    the applicant what he/she would do.

Character or Personality Interviews
  • Used when a person has basic job qualifications,
    and the interviewer wants to discover whether the
    person will work well in the operation
  • Used to assess an applicants aptitudes and
    attitudes (what he/she will do or is likely to do)

Group and Successive Interviews
  • Group interviews
  • Multiple people from the operation interview one
    applicant in a group setting.
  • Successive interviewing
  • Separate interviews are conducted with the
    applicant by several persons.

What else are you looking for???????
  • Nonverbal Communication
  • Plays a very large part of applicant evaluation

Job Preview
  • Information and activities that can help
    applicants to obtain a realistic expectation
    about the position and operation
  • Information may include sample menus, review of
    the restaurants Web site, and answers to the
    applicants questions.
  • A tour of the operation is also beneficial.

Determining Final Candidates
  • The best candidates should be determined based
    on assessment of the applications and interviews.
  • What makes the candidate stand out?
  • Once the decision has been made it should be
    communicated and approved with appropriate levels
    of the organization before moving onto the final

Final Background Checks
  • Purposes
  • To verify applicant information
  • To learn more about the applicants character
  • To uncover any information that was withheld

Types of Background Checks
Conducting Reference Checks
  • Application forms may request reference names and
    contact information.
  • If references are not provided, this may impact
    the managers employment decision.

Contacting References
  • Contact reference by letter, email, or phone.
  • Ask a standard list of questions.
  • Consider what is not said as well as what is
  • Chapter 4 resouces\telephone_reference_form.docx

Making a Job Offer
  • A formal invitation to become an employee on a
    certain date to perform specified duties for
    specific compensation

Job Offer Information
  • Position information
  • Compensation information
  • Benefit information
  • Logistical information

Job Offer Information continued
  • Employment contingencies
  • Union information
  • At will statement
  • Sample Job Offer Letter.pdf
  • Two copies of the final letter should be sent to
    the new employee, and he/she should sign one copy
    and return it for the managers files.

  • Break into groups of 3
  • As a group, do the Activity Making a Job Offer
  • Making a Job Offer.pdf
  • Take 10 minutes
  • Share with the group

Notify Unsuccessful Job Candidates Chapter 5

How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
  1. What type of interview asks questions that focus
    directly on the applicants background and work
  2. What type of interview is typically done for
    management positions?
  3. A tour of the operation (can/cannot) provide
    useful information for the applicant.
  4. (Personal/Professional) references are typically

A Little Interviewing Humor
Key Term Review
  • Group interviewstrategy in which multiple people
    from the operation interview one applicant
  • Interview schedulestandard list of questions to
    be asked of every applicant during an interview
  • Job interviewinterviews conducted by the
    potential supervisor and/or other employees
    intended to gather information about an
    individual and to give him/her a realistic idea
    about the job
  • Preinterviewsame as screening interview the
    purpose is to determine whether the applicant
    meets basic requirements and warrants further
  • Realistic job previewinformation and activities
    that allow the job applicant to have a realistic
    expectation about the position and for the

Key Term Review continued
  • Screeningprocedures used to allow the manager to
    determine whether an applicant is a good fit for
    a vacancy
  • Screening interviewsame as preinterview
  • Sous chefperson in charge of a kitchen or shift
    who works for the executive chef
  • Successive interviewingtype of interview
    primarily conducted for management positions that
    involve a series (succession) of persons who talk
    with job applicants

Due Next Week
  • Article Review on Recruitment or Screening topic
  • Project work
  • Recruitment Ad- include all elements listed on
    pages 45 -46 in text. (plus one paragraph summary
    on how and where ad will be placed and
  • Interviewing Questions (10 open-ended)