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Chapter 27 Planets of the solar System

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Title: Chapter 27 Planets of the solar System


1
Chapter 27Planets of the solar System
2
The Nebular Hypothesis
  • In 1796 Laplaces hypothesis states that the sun
    and the planets condensed about the same time out
    of a rotating cloud of gas and dust.

3
The Origin of the Solar SystemFour Challenges
  • 1. Patterns of Motion
  • Planets orbit in the same direction...
  • ...in nearly the same plane...
  • ...in nearly circular orbits.
  • Most planets rotate in the same direction.
  • Most moons orbit in the same direction.
  • 2. Categorizing Planets
  • Planets are either rocky or gas-rich.

4
The Origin of the Solar SystemFour Challenges
  • 3. Asteroids and Comets
  • Most asteroids are found between Mars and
    Jupiter.
  • Most comets have highly elliptical orbits.
  • 4. Exceptions to the Rules
  • What about Plutos elliptical orbit and
    composition?
  • What about the odd rotation of Venus and Uranus?

5
Formation of the Solar System
  • The solar system is thought to have formed from a
    cloud of gas and dust in a process know as
    accretion.
  • Our Sun is thought to be a second generation
    star.
  • What does that mean?

6
Formation
  • http//observe.phy.sfasu.edu/courses/ast105/lectur
    es105/chapter06/formation_protoplanet_disk.htm
  • http//observe.phy.sfasu.edu/courses/ast105/lectur
    es105/chapter06/accretion_and_planets.htm

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Interstellar Gas/Dust Cloud
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  • During the first few million years, matter in the
    accretion disk of our protosun coalesced (joined
    into a single mass)
  • ...in the larger objects called planetesimals,
    with diameters of about 100 km.

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  • We see evidence of accretion disk around other
    stars.
  • For example, b Pictoris.

14
  • Collisions of planetesimals dominated the early
    solar system
  • ...and these objects combined to form our
    planets.
  • We see evidence of early collisions in our solar
    system in the form of impact craters on the
    planets and their moons.

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Uh oh
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  • In addition to the 8 major planets, there are at
    least 100 moons in our solar system.
  • While some of these moons are spherical, most
    look roughly like potatoes.
  • There is still minor debris left over from the
    formation of the solar system
  • asteroids and comets.

26
Section 2 Models of the Solar System
27
Early Models of the Solar System
  • 2000 years ago Aristotle suggested an
    Earth-centered or geocentric solar system.
  • Around 130 AD Ptolemy proposed changes to the
    model to account for problems with Aristotles
    model.
  • In 1543 Copernicus proposed a sun-centered or
    heliocentric model.

28
Giants of Science Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler
  • These two scientists showed that the Universe was
    not some ideal perfection as Ptolemy proposed and
    worked towards acceptance of Copernicus
    heliocentric model
  • Tycho Brahe
  • made the most accurate observations of stars and
    planets up to that time.
  • was a flamboyant Danish nobleman who wore a
    silver nose when part of his nose was cut off in
    a duel!

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
29
Tycho Brahe and Uraniborg
  • He lived in a mansion/observatory on an island
    off the coast of Denmark.
  • The mansion had very sophisticated equipment (but
    no telescopes!) to help him and his assistants to
    measure the positions of stars and planets.
  • He named the mansion Uraniborg (Sky Castle).

Some of the equipment used at Uraniborg
30
Tycho Brahes Discoveries
  • As a young man he proved that comets had to be
    farther from Earth than the Moon.
  • He also proved that a star which appeared to
    brighten dramatically over a few weeks was also
    beyond the Moon.
  • Both observations showed that the heavens could
    change like the Earth.
  • He also came up with his own compromise model of
    the Universe.

Brahes compromise All the planets went around
the Sun while the Sun moved around a fixed Earth
31
Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler
  • A few years before he died, Brahe hired Johannes
    Kepler to help in analyzing the data he had
    collected.
  • Brahe started him out on his hardest problem
    determine the orbit of Mars.
  • Mars has the largest observed retrograde motion
    and no circular orbit could be found to match
    Brahes observations.

Brahe and assistants making observations
32
Keplers Models
  • After years of work, the most accurate circle he
    could find for Mars orbit still left an error of
    8 arcminutes (about 1/4 the angular size of the
    full Moon).
  • If I had believed that we could ignore these
    eight minutes of arc, I would have patched up
    my hypothesis accordingly. But since it was not
    permissible to ignore, those eight minutes
    pointed the road to a complete reformation in
    astronomy
  •      - Kepler

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
33
Keplers Breakthrough
  • Keplers key discovery
  • planets do not orbit in circles but rather in
    ellipses.
  • the Sun was not at the center of the ellipse but
    rather at one focus.
  • With this breakthrough he obtained excellent
    agreement between his model and observations.

34
Properties of Ellipses
  • Each point marked by a tack is called a focus.
  • The farther apart one focus is from another the
    more eccentric the ellipse.
  • The line cutting the ellipse in half that passes
    through each focus is called a major axis. Half
    the major axis is called a semimajor axis.
  • The semimiajor axis is the average distance of
    the planet from the Sun

35
Keplers 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
  • These laws describe the observed planetary
    motions but do not describe why these motions
    occur as they do.

36
Keplers First Law of Planetary Motion
  • The orbit of each planet around the Sun is an
    ellipse with the Sun at one focus.
  • There is nothing at the other focus.
  • The average distance of the planet from the Sun
    is the semimajor axis.
  • Throws out Ptolemys perfect circular orbits.

37
Keplers Second Law of Planetary Motion
  • As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out
    equal areas in equal times.
  • A planet travels faster when it is nearer the Sun
    and slower farther away
  • Throws out Ptolemys uniform motion

38
Keplers Third Law of Planetary Motion
  • The amount of time it takes a planet to orbit the
    Sun is related to the size of its orbit by
    P2(years) a3(AU)
  • 1 AU (astronomical unit) is the semimajor axis of
    the Earths orbit. Earths average distance from
    the Sun.
  • It doesnt matter how elliptical the orbit as
    long as the average distance is the same

39
Touring Our Solar System
  • A Trip Through the Solar System

40
The Inner or Terrestrial Planets
  • Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars share certain
    characteristics
  • All are rocky bodies.
  • All have solid surfaces.
  • Except for Mercury all have at least a thin
    atmosphere
  • They are called Terrestrial planets because of
    their resemblance to Earth.

41
The Inner or Terrestrial Planets
42
Mercury - named after the speedy messenger of the
Roman gods
  • Closest planet to the sun
  • Revolution around the sun 88 Earth days
  • Rotation on its axis 59 Earth days
  • Crater-covered surface with steep cliffs
  • Almost no atmosphere
  • Temperature range
  • as high as 427 degrees C
  • as low as -170 degrees C

43
Venus - named after the Roman goddess of beauty
and love
  • Venus is the second planet from the sun and has
    an orbital period of 225 days.
  • Venus rotates very slowly, only once every 243
    days.
  • Venus and Earth are of almost the same size,
    mass, and density, but differ greatly in other
    areas.

44
Venus - named after the Roman goddess of beauty
and love
  • Second planet from the sun
  • About the same size as Earth
  • Thick, cloudy atmosphere
  • sulfuric acid
  • carbon dioxide
  • Highest temperature range of inner planets
  • as high as 480 degrees C

45
Venus - named after the Roman goddess of beauty
and love
  • Surface pressure 91 times more than Earths
  • Surface has
  • deep canyons and tall mountains
  • craters
  • vast plains
  • Revolution around the sun 224 Earth days
  • Rotation on its axis 243 Earth days

46
Venus - named after the Roman goddess of beauty
and love
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Venus atmosphere is 95 CO2.

47
Earth
  • Earth is the third planet from the sun.
  • The orbital period of Earth is 365 1/4 days.
    Earth completes one rotation on its axis every
    day.
  • Earth has one large moon.
  • Geologic records indicate that over the last 250
    million years, Earths surface has undergone many
    changes.

48
Earth
  • Third planet from the sun
  • Revolution around the sun 365 days
  • Rotation on its axis 24 hours
  • Because the axis of the Earth is tilted, this
    creates distinct seasons throughout the year

49
Earth
  • Temperature range depends on the location,
    altitude and season
  • Gravitation pull of the moon creates tide changes
    (rise and fall of the ocean levels)
  • Surface -
  • Mountains
  • Plains
  • Deserts
  • Heavy vegetation

50
Mars - named after the Roman god of war
  • Mars is the fourth planet from the sun.
  • Mars is about 50 farther from the sun than Earth
    is.
  • Its orbital period is 687 days
  • it rotates on its axis every 24 hours and 37
    minutes.
  • Marss seasons are like Earths seasons because
    the same axis.

51
Mars - named after the Roman god of war
  • Fourth planet from the sun
  • Surface
  • rocky
  • large craters
  • soil is similar to Earths soil in many ways
  • Has the largest volcano in the solar system,
    Olympus Mons.

52
Mars - named after the Roman god of war
  • Very thin CO2 atmosphere, polar caps of mostly
    frozen CO2. Since its atmosphere is thin and cold
    there is very little greenhouse effect.
  • High winds often create dust storms
  • Temperate falls well below 0 degrees C all the
    time

53
Mars - named after the Roman god of war
  • About half the size of Earth. No geological
    activity likely now. No magnetic field.
  • Evidence of massive water erosion some time in
    the past. Scientists are searching for liquid
    water now.
  • Two satellites, Phobos and Deimos
  • (possibly captured asteroids)

54
Mars - named after the Roman god of war
55
The Outer or Jovian Planets
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune share certain
    characteristics
  • All are large, gaseous bodies.
  • All have very thick atmospheres, with possibly
    liquid interiors and solid cores
  • All have rings
  • They are called Jovian planets because of their
    resemblance to Jupiter.

56
The Outer or Jovian Planets
57
Jupiter - named after the king of the Roman gods
  • Fifth planet from the sun
  • Made of mainly
  • hydrogen
  • helium
  • Temperature range -
  • very cold at the cloud tops
  • as high as 30,000 degree C at the core

58
Jupiter - named after the king of the Roman gods
  • Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system
    and has a mass more than 300 times that of Earth.
  • The orbital period of Jupiter is almost 12 years.
    Jupiter rotates on its axis faster than any other
    planetonce every 9 h and 50 min.
  • Jupiter has at least 60 moons.
  • It also has several thin rings that are made up
    of millions of particles.

59
Jupiter - named after the king of the Roman gods
  • Atmosphere
  • hydrogen
  • helium
  • ammonia
  • methane
  • Great Red Spot
  • hurricane-like storm
  • (as much as 20,000 years old)

60
Jupiter - named after the king of the Roman gods
  • Very high atmospheric pressure
  • Giant magnetic field
  • created by the liquid metallic layer
  • called magnetosphere

61
Saturn - named after the Roman god
  • Sixth planet from the sun
  • Surrounded by rings
  • made of icy particles
  • has at least seven major rings
  • Made of mainly
  • hydrogen
  • helium

62
Saturn - named after the Roman god
  • The orbital period of Saturn is 29.5 years.
  • Saturn rotates on its axis every 10 h and 30 min.
  • Saturn is very cold and has an average cloud-top
    temperature of 176C.
  • Saturn has at least 60 moons.

63
Saturn - named after the Roman god
  • Violent atmospheric storms
  • Very cold
  • Has a large magnetic field
  • Lowest density of all the planets

64
Uranus - named after the father of Saturn in
Roman mythology
  • Seventh planet from the sun
  • Atmosphere
  • hydrogen
  • helium
  • methane
  • Temperature range
  • as low as -220 degree C at the cloud tops

65
Uranus - named after the father of Saturn in
Roman mythology
  • Extreme atmospheric pressure
  • atmosphere is 11,000 kilometers thick
  • Rotates on its axis at a 90 degree angle
  • appears laying on its side
  • Rings of methane ice surround it

66
Neptune - named after the Roman god of the sea
  • Eighth planet from the sun
  • Atmosphere
  • hydrogen
  • helium
  • methane
  • Temperature
  • as low as -220 degrees C

67
Neptune - named after the Roman god of the sea
  • Surface
  • ocean of water and liquid methane
  • rocky core
  • Five rings surround Neptune
  • made of dust particles formed from meteorites

68
Pluto - named after the Roman god of the
underworld
  • Ninth planet from the sun
  • Smallest planet
  • Least dense planet
  • Seems to be made primarily of methane ice
  • Thin atmosphere (only on the sunny side)
  • methane ice evaporated to form this

69
Pluto - named after the Roman god of the
underworld
  • Pluto may have been a satellite of Neptune that
    was displaced from its original orbit and split
    into two pieces.

Charon
Pluto
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