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Client s Perception of Change As a Result of a Coaching Relationship Paul E. Dunn, M.S. The Business of Personal Development and Achievement – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Client

Clients Perception of Change As a Result of a
Coaching Relationship
  • Paul E. Dunn, M.S.
  • The Business of Personal Development and

  • Coaching is a rapidly emerging field.
  • A coach is a professional who specializes in
    helping people to develop and work toward
    meaningful goals. The central function of a
    coaching relationship is to facilitate positive
    change and stimulate personal growth (Hudson,

  • Since 1985, there have been numerous articles
    published on the subject of coaching, coaching
    models, and the effects that coaching has on
  • However, there appears to be a lack of published
    research demonstrating these effects.

  • There are a few published outcome studies, most
    were done using mid-level managers as coaches
    (Deeprose, 1995 Maxell 1995 Shula Blanchard,
    1995 Graham, Wedman, and Garvin-Kester 1993).

  • Peterson (1996) cited two empirical studies that
    his company did that demonstrated support for
    sustained, long-term changes made by executives
    who received coaching by his firm. However, both
    studies were not published.

  • Hall, Otazo, Hollenbeck (1999) described the
    results of a qualitative research study in which
    they interviewed seventy-five executives, who
    were receiving coaching, and demonstrated that
    the executives claimed to have gained new skills
    and knowledge from their coaching experience.

Rationale for This Study
  • To date, there are a few published outcome
    studies available, demonstrating the
    effectiveness of the coaching process.
  • With the growing popularity of coaching and the
    numerous models being used today, as well as the
    dearth of empirical data supporting the efficacy
    of coaching, this study was designed to fill the
    gap in our knowledge of the field.

  • Clients who have been coached for at least six
    months will perceive a meaningful change in the
    way that they view their problem solving
    abilities, sense of self-efficacy, and
    satisfaction with life.

Study Design
  • This mixed quantitative/qualitative field study
    examined the effectiveness of the coaching
    process at causing clients to perceive a
    meaningful change in the way that they viewed
    their problem solving abilities, sense of
    self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life as a
    result of being coached for at least six months.

Methodology Questionnaire Survey Instrument
  • 14-item questionnaire
  • Demographic information
  • Specific coaching experiences
  • Three modified Likert scale surveys were
    developed from
  • Problem solving instrument - Heppner, 1982
  • Self-efficacy survey - Sherer, 1982
  • Satisfaction with life scale - Diener, 1985

Problem Solving
  • Twelve survey items were used to investigate
    perceived changes in the subjects ability to
    perform the tasks involved in the problem solving
    process as a result of their coaching experience.
  • Over-all problem solving abilities.
  • Collecting important information.
  • Objectively examining feelings for additional
  • Turning vague ideas into specific terms.
  • Generating creative solutions.
  • Uncovering mistakes in a particular strategy.
  • Remaining persistent and focused until goal

  • Thirteen survey items were used to investigate
    perceived changes in the subjects sense of
    self-efficacy as a result of their coaching
  • Level of self-confidence with over-all abilities
    to accomplish tasks.
  • Level of confidence in ones ability to turn
    plans and ideas into reality.
  • Sense of self-reliance.
  • Belief in ones ability to handling unexpected
  • Comfort level with self when ones first efforts
  • Courage to learn new things that look difficult.
  • Anxiety level when meeting new people.
  • Willingness to pursue others rather than to wait.

Satisfaction With Life
  • Five survey items were used to investigate
    perceived changes in the subjects satisfaction
    with life as a result of their coaching
  • Overall satisfaction with life.
  • Sense of happiness in general.
  • Whether or not other people in their life had
    reported to them that they seem happier.
  • Sense of whether their life had moved closer to
    their ideal life.
  • Belief as to whether the conditions in their life
    had improved.

Survey Directions
Inclusion Criteria
  • Subjects needed to be working with a master
    certified coach recognized by the international
    coach federation for at least the last six
  • At least 18 years of age.

  • The international coach federation endorsed this
    research project and helped with the recruitment
    process by sending out an e-mail invitation to
    all master certified coaches.
  • 38 master certified coaches.
  • 247 surveys sent out.
  • 86 surveys returned.
  • 80 surveys included.

Demographic and Qualitative Questionnaire Results
Demographic Characteristics
Education Level
Three Common Reasons for Hiring a Coach.
  • 1. Become more effective at setting and reaching
    career goals.
  • 2. Create and experience a more fulfilling life.
  • 3. Personal growth.

1. Become More Effective at Setting and Reaching
Career Goals.
2. Create and Experience a More Fulfilling Life.
3. Personal Growth.
Four Common Experiences Gained From Being Coached
  • 1. An increased ability to handle problems that
    occur both in and out of work.
  • 2. A deeper sense of self-awareness and an
    increased sense of self-efficacy.
  • 3. A positive relationship that encouraged
    personal growth.
  • 4. Greater satisfaction with life.

1. An Increased Ability to Handle Problems That
Occur Both in and Out of Work.
2. A Deeper Sense of Self-awareness and an
Increased Sense of Self-efficacy.
3. A Positive Relationship That Encouraged
Personal Growth.
4. Greater Satisfaction With Life.
Survey Results
Problem Solving Survey
  • Mean 25.5, SD 6.5 (range 12-84)
  • Surveyed sample reported that their problem
    solving abilities improved as a result of their
    coaching experience.

  • Mean 27.1, SD 8.3 (range 13-91)
  • Surveyed sample reported that their sense of
    self-efficacy increased as a result of their
    coaching experience.

Satisfaction With Life
  • Mean 10.4, SD 4.1 (range 5-35)
  • Surveyed sample reported that their satisfaction
    with life increased as a result of their coaching

Seven Common Beliefs
Subgroup Analysis
  • 19 participants (24) were either studying to
    become or have already transitioned to working as
  • A t-test compared the results of the
    non-coach-subjects responses with the
    coach-subjects responses to see if there were
    any differences in the way each group reported
    the effects of being coached.

Subgroup Analysis Did Coach-subjects Report a
Different Experience Than Non-coach-subjects?
  • Problem solving ability
  • P(T lt t) two tail 0.34 (non-significant)
  • Self-efficacy
  • P(T lt t) two tail 0.78 (non-significant)
  • Satisfaction with life
  • P(T lt t) two tail 0.66 (non-significant)

  • Evidence that the hypothesis was true.
  • Open ended responses to question about the
    greatest take away experience from being coached.
  • Mean score of agree on all three factors.

Four Main Study Limitations
  • 1. Small population.
  • 2. Possible sampling bias.
  • 3. Lack of a single, consistent, rigidly adhered
    to coaching model.
  • 4. Lack of parametric statistics demonstrating
    statistical significance.

Despite Limitations
  • Results can serve three important purposes
  • 1. To assess the likely usefulness of more
    rigorous evaluations of the effects of coaching.
  • 2. To search for more promising variables related
    to the success of a professional coaching
  • 3. To prepare both coaching-clients as well as
    coaches for more evaluations in the future.

Future Direction of Research
  • Larger field efficacy studies where pre and post
    assessments are measured and compared to
    determine significant changes.
  • Study that distinguished which elements of each
    factor changed the most.

Future Direction of Research
  • Studies examining length of time to gain greatest
  • Compare and contrast training and credentialing
    that coaches undergo and its effects on the
    quality of service offered.

Thank You.
  • Any questions?
  • Paul E. Dunn, M.S.
  • The Business of Personal Development and

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