Client - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Client PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c43d1-OGRmM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Client

Description:

Client s Perception of Change As a Result of a Coaching Relationship Paul E. Dunn, M.S. www.DunnCoaching.com The Business of Personal Development and Achievement – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 6 December 2019
Slides: 51
Provided by: Abb63
Learn more at: http://nlp-cbt.com
Category:
Tags: client | motor | starter

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Client


1
Clients Perception of Change As a Result of a
Coaching Relationship
  • Paul E. Dunn, M.S.
  • www.DunnCoaching.com
  • The Business of Personal Development and
    Achievement

2
Coaching
  • Coaching is a rapidly emerging field.
  • A coach is a professional who specializes in
    helping people to develop and work toward
    meaningful goals. The central function of a
    coaching relationship is to facilitate positive
    change and stimulate personal growth (Hudson,
    1999).

3
Background
  • Since 1985, there have been numerous articles
    published on the subject of coaching, coaching
    models, and the effects that coaching has on
    clients.
  • However, there appears to be a lack of published
    research demonstrating these effects.

4
Outcomes
  • There are a few published outcome studies, most
    were done using mid-level managers as coaches
    (Deeprose, 1995 Maxell 1995 Shula Blanchard,
    1995 Graham, Wedman, and Garvin-Kester 1993).

5
Outcomes
  • Peterson (1996) cited two empirical studies that
    his company did that demonstrated support for
    sustained, long-term changes made by executives
    who received coaching by his firm. However, both
    studies were not published.

6
Outcomes
  • Hall, Otazo, Hollenbeck (1999) described the
    results of a qualitative research study in which
    they interviewed seventy-five executives, who
    were receiving coaching, and demonstrated that
    the executives claimed to have gained new skills
    and knowledge from their coaching experience.

7
Rationale for This Study
  • To date, there are a few published outcome
    studies available, demonstrating the
    effectiveness of the coaching process.
  • With the growing popularity of coaching and the
    numerous models being used today, as well as the
    dearth of empirical data supporting the efficacy
    of coaching, this study was designed to fill the
    gap in our knowledge of the field.

8
Hypothesis
  • Clients who have been coached for at least six
    months will perceive a meaningful change in the
    way that they view their problem solving
    abilities, sense of self-efficacy, and
    satisfaction with life.

9
Study Design
  • This mixed quantitative/qualitative field study
    examined the effectiveness of the coaching
    process at causing clients to perceive a
    meaningful change in the way that they viewed
    their problem solving abilities, sense of
    self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life as a
    result of being coached for at least six months.

10
Methodology Questionnaire Survey Instrument
  • 14-item questionnaire
  • Demographic information
  • Specific coaching experiences
  • Three modified Likert scale surveys were
    developed from
  • Problem solving instrument - Heppner, 1982
  • Self-efficacy survey - Sherer, 1982
  • Satisfaction with life scale - Diener, 1985

11
Problem Solving
  • Twelve survey items were used to investigate
    perceived changes in the subjects ability to
    perform the tasks involved in the problem solving
    process as a result of their coaching experience.
  • Over-all problem solving abilities.
  • Collecting important information.
  • Objectively examining feelings for additional
    insight.
  • Turning vague ideas into specific terms.
  • Generating creative solutions.
  • Uncovering mistakes in a particular strategy.
  • Remaining persistent and focused until goal
    attainment.

12
Self-efficacy
  • Thirteen survey items were used to investigate
    perceived changes in the subjects sense of
    self-efficacy as a result of their coaching
    experience.
  • Level of self-confidence with over-all abilities
    to accomplish tasks.
  • Level of confidence in ones ability to turn
    plans and ideas into reality.
  • Sense of self-reliance.
  • Belief in ones ability to handling unexpected
    problems.
  • Comfort level with self when ones first efforts
    fail.
  • Courage to learn new things that look difficult.
  • Anxiety level when meeting new people.
  • Willingness to pursue others rather than to wait.

13
Satisfaction With Life
  • Five survey items were used to investigate
    perceived changes in the subjects satisfaction
    with life as a result of their coaching
    experience.
  • Overall satisfaction with life.
  • Sense of happiness in general.
  • Whether or not other people in their life had
    reported to them that they seem happier.
  • Sense of whether their life had moved closer to
    their ideal life.
  • Belief as to whether the conditions in their life
    had improved.

14
Survey Directions
15
Inclusion Criteria
  • Subjects needed to be working with a master
    certified coach recognized by the international
    coach federation for at least the last six
    months.
  • At least 18 years of age.

16
Recruitment
  • The international coach federation endorsed this
    research project and helped with the recruitment
    process by sending out an e-mail invitation to
    all master certified coaches.
  • 38 master certified coaches.
  • 247 surveys sent out.
  • 86 surveys returned.
  • 80 surveys included.

17
Demographic and Qualitative Questionnaire Results
18
Demographic Characteristics
19
Education Level
20
Occupation
21
Three Common Reasons for Hiring a Coach.
  • 1. Become more effective at setting and reaching
    career goals.
  • 2. Create and experience a more fulfilling life.
  • 3. Personal growth.

22
1. Become More Effective at Setting and Reaching
Career Goals.
23
2. Create and Experience a More Fulfilling Life.
24
3. Personal Growth.
25
Four Common Experiences Gained From Being Coached
  • 1. An increased ability to handle problems that
    occur both in and out of work.
  • 2. A deeper sense of self-awareness and an
    increased sense of self-efficacy.
  • 3. A positive relationship that encouraged
    personal growth.
  • 4. Greater satisfaction with life.

26
1. An Increased Ability to Handle Problems That
Occur Both in and Out of Work.
27
2. A Deeper Sense of Self-awareness and an
Increased Sense of Self-efficacy.
28
3. A Positive Relationship That Encouraged
Personal Growth.
29
4. Greater Satisfaction With Life.
30
Survey Results
31
Problem Solving Survey
  • Mean 25.5, SD 6.5 (range 12-84)
  • Surveyed sample reported that their problem
    solving abilities improved as a result of their
    coaching experience.

32
Self-efficacy
  • Mean 27.1, SD 8.3 (range 13-91)
  • Surveyed sample reported that their sense of
    self-efficacy increased as a result of their
    coaching experience.

33
Satisfaction With Life
  • Mean 10.4, SD 4.1 (range 5-35)
  • Surveyed sample reported that their satisfaction
    with life increased as a result of their coaching
    experience.

34
Seven Common Beliefs
35
Subgroup Analysis
  • 19 participants (24) were either studying to
    become or have already transitioned to working as
    coaches.
  • A t-test compared the results of the
    non-coach-subjects responses with the
    coach-subjects responses to see if there were
    any differences in the way each group reported
    the effects of being coached.

36
Subgroup Analysis Did Coach-subjects Report a
Different Experience Than Non-coach-subjects?
  • Problem solving ability
  • P(T lt t) two tail 0.34 (non-significant)
  • Self-efficacy
  • P(T lt t) two tail 0.78 (non-significant)
  • Satisfaction with life
  • P(T lt t) two tail 0.66 (non-significant)

37
Discussion
  • Evidence that the hypothesis was true.
  • Open ended responses to question about the
    greatest take away experience from being coached.
  • Mean score of agree on all three factors.

38
Four Main Study Limitations
  • 1. Small population.
  • 2. Possible sampling bias.
  • 3. Lack of a single, consistent, rigidly adhered
    to coaching model.
  • 4. Lack of parametric statistics demonstrating
    statistical significance.

39
Despite Limitations
  • Results can serve three important purposes
  • 1. To assess the likely usefulness of more
    rigorous evaluations of the effects of coaching.
  • 2. To search for more promising variables related
    to the success of a professional coaching
    experience.
  • 3. To prepare both coaching-clients as well as
    coaches for more evaluations in the future.

40
Future Direction of Research
  • Larger field efficacy studies where pre and post
    assessments are measured and compared to
    determine significant changes.
  • Study that distinguished which elements of each
    factor changed the most.

41
Future Direction of Research
  • Studies examining length of time to gain greatest
    return.
  • Compare and contrast training and credentialing
    that coaches undergo and its effects on the
    quality of service offered.

42
Thank You.
  • Any questions?
  • Paul E. Dunn, M.S.
  • www.DunnCoaching.com
  • The Business of Personal Development and
    Achievement

43
Bibliography
  • Allport, F. H. (1937). Teleonomic description in
    the study of personality. Character and
    Personality, 5, 202-204.
  • Beck, A. T. (1973). Cognitive therapy and
    the emotional disorders. New York International
    Universities Press.
  • Bandura, A. (1978). The Self System in
    Reciprocal Determinism. American Psychologist.
    33, 344-357.
  • Bandura, A. (1982). Self-Efficacy Mechanism
    in Human Agency. American Psychologist. 37,
    122-147.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of
    Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ
    Prentice Hall.
  • Bandura, A. Schunk, D. H. (1981).
    Cultivating Competence, Self-Efficacy, and
    Intrinsic Interest Through Proximal
    Self-Motivation. Journal of Personality and
    Social Psychology. 41, 586-598.
  • Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Identity, self-concept,
    and self-esteem The self lost and found. In R.
    Hogan, J. Johnson, S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook
    of personality psychology, (pp. 681-710). San
    Diego, CA Academic.
  • Botwin, M. D., Buss, D. M., Shakelford, T.
    K. (1997). Personality and mate preference Five
    factors in mate selection and marital
    satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 65,
    107-136.
  • Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F. (1981).
    Attention and Self-Regulation A Control Theory
    Approach to Human Behavior New York
    Springer-Verlag.
  • Cantor, N., Sanderson, C. A. (1999). Life task
    participation and well being The importance of
    taking part in daily life. In D. Kahneman, E.
    Diener, N. Schwartz
  • Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human Nature and the
    Social Order. New York Scribners.
  • (Eds.). Well-being The foundation of hedonic
    psychology. New York Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow The
    Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York
    Harper Row.
  • Deeprose, D. (1995). The Team coach. New
    York Amazom.
  • Diedrich, R. C. (1996). An iterative
    approach to executive coaching. Consulting
    Psychology Journal Practice and Research, 48,
    61-66.
  • Diener, E. (2000). The Science of Happiness
    and a Proposal for a National Index. American
    Psychologist, 55, 34-43.
  • Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E.,
    Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being
    three decades of progress. Psychological
    Bullentin, 125, 276-306.

44
Bibliography
  • Douge, B. (1993). Coach effectiveness. Sport
    Science Review, 2(2), 14-29.
  • Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept
    revisited or a theory of a theory. American
    Psychologist, 28, 404-420.
  • Epstein, S. (1980). The self-concept A
    review and the proposal of an integrated theory
    of personality. In Staub (Ed.), Basic Issues and
    Current Research, (pp. 234-256). Englewood
    Cliffs, NJ Princeton-Hall.
  • Emmons, R. A. (1986). Personal strivings
    An approach to personality and subjective
    well-being. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 51, 1058-1068.
  • Evered, R. D., Selman, J. C. (1989). Coaching
    and the art of management. Organizational
    Dynamics, 18, 16-32.
  • Ferguson, C. K. (1986). Ten case studies
    from an OD practitioner's experience coping with
    organizational conflict. Organizational
    Development Journal, 4(4), 20-30.
  • Fink, A. (2002). The Survey Handbook, Vol.
    1. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications.
  • Frankfort-Nachmias, C. Nachmias, D.
    (1996). Research methods in the social sciences
    (5th edition). London, Arnold.
  • Gist, M. E., Mitchell, T. R. (1992).
    Self-efficacy A theoretical analysis of its
    determinants and malleability. Academy of
    Management Review, 17, 183-485.
  • Goldberg, T. E. (1994). Schizophrenia,
    training paradigms, and the Wisconsin Card
    Sorting Test Redux. Schizophrenia Research, 11,
    291-296.
  • Goldstein, K. (1939). The Organism. New
    York American Book.
  • Graham, S., Wedman, J. F., Garvin-Kester,
    B. (1993). Manager coaching skills development
    and application. Performance Improvement
    Quarterly, 6(1), 2-13.

45
Bibliography
  • Gecas, V., (1982). The Self-Concept. Annual
    Reviews Inc. 8 1-33.
  • Hall, C. R., Mack, D. E., Pavio, A.,
    Hausenblas, A. (1998). Imagery Use by Athletes
    Development of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire.
    International Journal of Sports Psychology.
    2973-89.
  • Harvey, J. H. (Ed.). (1986). Self-efficacy
    theory in contemporary psychology Special
    issue. Journal of Social and Clinical
    Psychology, 4(3).
  • Hall, D. T., Otazo, K. L. Hollenbeck, G.
    P. (1999, Winter). Behind closed doors what
    really happens in executive coaching.
    Organizational Dynamics, 39-52.
  • Heckelman, F. P. (1994). Peer coaching in
    clinical teaching formative assessment of a
    case. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 17,
    366-381.
  • Hay/McBer. (1992). Hay/McBer Executive 360.
    Boston Author.
  • Higgins, E.T., Shah, J., Friedman, R.
    (1997). Emotional Responses to Goal Attainment
    Strength of Regulatory Focus as Moderator.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72,
    No.3, 515-525.
  • Howatt, W. A. (2000). Coaching choices
    Using Reality Therapy and Choice Theory.
    International Journal of Reality Therapy, 20(1),
    56-59.
  • Hudson, F. M. (1999). The handbook of
    coaching a comprehensive resource guide for
    managers, executives, consultants, and human
    resource professional. California Jossey-Bass
    Books.
  • James, W. (1892). Psychology The briefer
    course. New York Henry Holt.
  • James, W. (1890). The principles of
    psychology. New York Holt.

46
Bibliography
  • Jung, C. G. (1968). The archetypes and the
    collective unconscious. Collected Works (Vol. 9,
    Part I). Bollingen Series XX. Princeton, NY
    Princeton University Press.
  • Judge, W. Q., Cowell, J. (1997). The
    brave new world of coaching. Business Horizons,
    40, 71-77.
  • Katz, J. H., Miller, F. (1996). Coaching
    leaders through culture change. Consulting
    Psychology Journal Practice and Research, 48,
    104-114.
  • Kelly, P.J. (1985). Coach the coach.
    Training and Development Journal, 39(11), 54-55.
  • Kiel, F., Rimmer, E., Williams, K., Doyle,
    M. (1996). Coaching at the top. Consulting
    Psychology Journal Practice and Research, 48,
    134-144.
  • Kilburg, R. R. (1996a). Toward a conceptual
    understanding and definition of executive
    coaching. Consulting Psychological Journal
    Practice and Research, 48, 134-144.
  • Kilburg, R. R. (1996b). Executive coaching
    (Special issue). Consulting Psychological
    JournalPractice and Research, 48, 59-60.
  • Kihlstrom, J. F. Cantor, N. (1984).
    Mental Representations of the Self. Advances in
    Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 3-47.
  • King, L. A., Broyles, S. J. (1997).
    Wishes, gender, personality, and well-being.
    Journal of Personality, 65, 49-76.
  • Kirsch, I. (1985). Self-Efficacy and
    Expectancy Old Wine With New Lables. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology. 49, 824-840.
  • Lacy, A. C. (1994). Analysis of
    starter/nonstarter motor-skill engagement and
    coaching behaviors in collegiate womens
    volleyball. Journal of Teaching in Physical
    Education, 13(2), 95-107.

47
Bibliography
  • Laske, O. E. (1999). An integrated model of
    developmental coaching. Consulting Psychological
    JournalPractice and Research, 51(3), 139-159.
  • Leondari, A., Syngollitou, E. Kiosseoglou,
    G. (1998). Academic Achievemnt, Motivation and
    Future Selves. Educational Studies, Vol. 24, No.
    2, 153-163.
  • Levinson, H. (1991). Counseling with top
    management. Consulting Psychology Bulletin,
    43(1), 10-15.
  • Levinson, H. (1996). Executive coaching.
    Consulting Psychological Journal Practice and
    Research, 48, 115-123.
  • Lewin, K. (1953). A Dynamic Theory of
    Personality. New York McGraw-Hill.
  • Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M.,
    Lathan, G. P. (1981). Goal Setting and Task
    Performance 1969 1980. Psychological
    Bulletin. Vol. 90, No. 1, 125-152.
  • Lukaszewski, J. E. (1988). Behind the
    throne How to coach and counsel executives.
    Training and Development Journal,, 42(10), 32-35.
  • Maccoby, M. (2000, January - February).
    Narcissistic leaders the incredible pros, the
    inevitable cons. Harvard Business Review, 69-77.
  • Markus, H. Nurius, P. (1986). Possible
    Selves. American Psychologist, 41, No.9,
    954-969.
  • Markus, H. Wurf, E. (1987). The Dynamic
    Self-concept A Social Psychological Perspective.
    Annual Review Psychology, 38, 299-337
  • Markus, H. Ruvolo, A., (1989). Possible
    Selves Personalized Representations of Goals.
    In P. A. Lawrence (Ed.), Goal Concepts in
    Personality and Social Psychology (pp.211-241).
    New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

48
Bibliography
  • Maxwell, J. C. (1995). Developing the leaders
    around you. Nashville Nelson.
  • McCarthy, J. (2000). Executive Coaching A
    Future Specialty of Counseling? The Journal of
    the Pennsylvania Counseling Association, 3, (1),
    5-12.
  • Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, Self and Society
    from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist.
    Chicago University of Chicago Press.
  • Meichenbaum, D. H. (1977).
    Cognitive-behavior modification An integrative
    approach. New York Plenum Press.
  • Merluzzi, T. V. Boltwood, M. D. (1989).
    Cognitive Assessment. In Freeman, A., Simon, K.
    A., Beutler, L. A. (Ed.), Comprehensive
    Handbook of Cognitive Therapy (pp. 249-266). New
    York Plenum Press.
  • Morgan, R. B. (1989). Effects of peer coaching on
    the acquisition of direct instruction skills by
    low-performing pre-service teachers. Journal of
    Special Education, 28(1), 59-76.
  • Mosak, H.H. (Ed.) (1973). Alfred Adler His
    influence on psychology today. Park Ridge, NJ
    Noyes Press.
  • OConnell, J. J. (1990). Process
    consultation in a content field Socrates in
    strategy. Consultation An International
    Journal, 9, 199-208.
  • Pratt, S. R., Eitzen, D. S. (1989).
    Contrasting leadership styles and organizational
    effectiveness The case of athletic teams.
    Social Science Quarterly, 70, 311-322.
  • Peterson, D. B. (1996). Executive coaching
    at work The art of one-on-one change.
    Consulting Psychological Journal Practice and
    Research, 48, 78-68.
  • Popper, M., Lipshitz, R. (1992). Coaching
    on leadership. Leadership and Organization
    Development Journal, 13, (7), 15-18.

49
Bibliography
  • Richard, J. T. (1999). Multi-modal Therapy, A
    Useful Modal for the Executive Coach. Consulting
    Psychological Journal Practice and Research, 51,
    24-30.
  • Rogers. C. (1950). The Significance of the
    Self-Regarding Attitudes and Perceptions. In M.
    L. Reymert (Ed.), Feeling and Emotion The
    Mooseheart Symposium, , (pp. 374-382). New York
    McGraw-Hill.
  • Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy
    Its current practice, implications, and theory.
    Boston Houghton Mifflin.
  • Ruvolo, A. P., Markus, H. R., (1992).
    Possible Selves and Performance The Power of
    Self-Relevent Imagery. Social Cognition, 10,
    95-124.
  • Saporito, T. J. (1996). Business-linked
    executive development Coaching senior
    executives. Consulting Psychological Journal
    Practice and Research, 48, 96-103.
  • Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression
    Management The Self-Concept, Social Identity,
    and Interpersonal Relation. Monterey, CA
    Brooks/Cole.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). The
    effectiveness of psychotherapy The Consumer
    Reports study. American Psychologist, 50,
    965-974.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1996). Science as an
    Ally of Practice. American Psychologist. 51,
    1072-1079.
  • Seligman, M. E. P. (2000). Learned
    Optimism How to Change Your Mind and Your Life.
    New York, NY Pocket Books.
  • Shula, D., Blanchard, K. (1995).
    Everyones a coach. New York Harper Business.
  • Sperry, L. (1993) Working with executives
    Consulting, counseling, and coaching. Individual
    Psychology Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research,
    and Practice, 49, 257-266.

50
Bibliography
  • Suls, J.M. Miller, R.L.K., (Ed.). (1977). Social
    Comparison Processes. Hemisphere, Washington, DC
  • Tobias, L. L. (1996). Coaching executives.
    Consulting Psychological Journal Practice and
    Research, 48, 87-95.
  • Witherspoon, R., White, R.P. (1996).
    Executive Coaching A continuum of roles.
    Consulting Psychological Journal Practice and
    Research, 48, 96-124-133.
  • Wylie, R. C. (1974). The Self-concept,
    vol.1 rev. ed. Lincoln, NB University of
    Nebraska Press.
About PowerShow.com