Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c3ba0-NDBhZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste

Description:

... and mining Composition of Municipal Solid Waste Disposal of Solid Waste Three methods Sanitary ... large amounts of ash Site selection often ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:133
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 12 September 2019
Slides: 34
Provided by: Rev98
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste


1
Chapter 24 Solid and Hazardous Waste
2
Overview of Chapter 24
  • Solid Waste
  • Types of Solid Waste
  • Waste Prevention
  • Reducing the Amount of Waste
  • Reusing Products
  • Recycling Materials
  • Hazardous Waste
  • Types of Hazardous Waste
  • Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Environmental Justice

3
Solid Waste
  • US generates more solid waste per capita than any
    other country
  • 2.1kg per person per day
  • Types of Solid Waste
  • Municipal solid waste
  • Solid material discarded by homes, office
    buildings, retail stores, schools, hospitals,
    prisons, etc
  • Relatively small portion of solid waste produced
  • Non-municipal solid waste
  • Solid waste generated by industry, agriculture,
    and mining

4
Composition of Municipal Solid Waste
5
Disposal of Solid Waste
  • Three methods
  • Sanitary Landfills
  • Incineration
  • Recycling

6
Sanitary Landfill
  • Compacting and burying waste under a shallow
    layer of soil
  • Most common method of disposal

7
Sanitary Landfill
  • Problems
  • Methane gas production by microorganisms
  • Contamination of surface water ground water by
    leachate
  • Not a long-term remedy
  • Few new facilities being opened
  • Closing a full landfill is very expensive

8
(No Transcript)
9
Sanitary Landfill
  • Special Problem of Plastic
  • Much of plastic is from packaging
  • Chemically stable and do not readily break down
    and decompose
  • Special Problem of Tires
  • Cannot be melted and reused for tires
  • Made from materials that cannot be recycled
  • Can be incinerated or shredded

10
Incineration
  • Volume of solid waste reduced by 90
  • Produces heat that can make steam to generate
    electricity
  • Produce less carbon emissions than fossil fuel
    power plants (right)

11
Incineration
  • Types of Incinerators
  • Mass burn (below)
  • Modular
  • Refuse-derived

12
(No Transcript)
13
Incinerator
  • Problems Associated with Incineration
  • Yields air pollution
  • Produce large amounts of ash
  • Site selection often controversial

14
Composting
  • Includes
  • Food scraps
  • Sewage sludge
  • Agricultural manure
  • Yard waste
  • Reduces yard waste in landfills
  • Can be sold or distributed to community

15
Waste Prevention
  • Three Goals
  • (1) Reduce the amount of waste
  • (2) Reuse products
  • (3) Recycle materials

16
Reducing Waste
  • Purchase products with less packaging

17
Reducing Waste
  • Source reduction
  • Products are designed and manufactured in ways
    that decrease the volume of solid waste in the
    waste stream
  • Pollution Prevention Act (1990)
  • Dematerialization
  • Progressive decrease in the size and weight of a
    product as a result of technological improvements

18
Reusing Products
  • Refilling glass beverage bottles
  • Heavier glass that costs more
  • Japan recycles almost all bottles
  • Reused 20 times

19
Recycling Materials
  • Every ton of recycled paper saves
  • 17 trees
  • 7000 gallons of water
  • 4100 kwatt-hrs of energy
  • 3 cubic yards of landfill space
  • Recycle
  • Glass bottles, newspapers, steel cans, plastic
    bottles, cardboard, office paper

20
Recycling
  • Recycling Paper
  • US recycles 50
  • Many developed countries are higher
  • Recycling Glass
  • US recycles 25
  • Costs less than new glass
  • Can be used to make glassphalt (right)

21
Recycling
  • Recycling Aluminum
  • Making new can from recycled one costs far less
    than making a brand new one

22
Recycling
  • Recycling Metals other than Aluminum
  • Lead, gold, iron, steel, silver and zinc
  • Metallic composition is often unknown
  • Makes recycling difficult
  • Recycling Plastic
  • Less than 20 is recycled
  • Less expensive to make from raw materials

23
Recycling
  • Recycling Tires
  • Few products are made from old tires
  • Playground equipment
  • Trashcans
  • Garden hose
  • Carpet
  • Roofing materials
  • 36 of tires are currently recycled to make other
    products

24
Integrated Waste Management
25
Hazardous Waste
  • Any discarded chemical that threatens human
    health or the environment
  • Reactive, corrosive, explosive or toxic chemicals
  • Types of Hazardous Waste
  • Dioxins
  • PCBs
  • Radioactive waste

26
Case-In-Point Hanford Nuclear Reservation
27
Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Chemical accidents
  • National Response Center notified
  • Typically involves oil, gasoline or other
    petroleum spill
  • Current Management Policies
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976,
    1984)
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation, and Liability Act (1980)

28
Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Cleaning up existing hazardous waste superfund
    program
  • 400,000 waste sites
  • Leaking chemical storage tanks and drums (right)
  • Pesticides dumps
  • Piles of mining wastes
  • Must be cleaned up

29
Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Superfund National Priorities List
  • 2006 1558 sites on the list
  • States with the greatest number of sites
  • New Jersey (115)
  • California (93)
  • Pennsylvania (93)
  • New York (86)
  • Michigan (65)

30
Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Biological Treatment of Hazardous Chemicals
  • Bioremediation
  • Phytoremediation
  • Management the Waste we are Producing Now
  • (1) source reduction
  • (2) conversion to less hazardous materials
  • (3) long-term storage

31
Management of Hazardous Waste
  • Hazardous Waste Landfill

32
Environmental Justice
  • Environmental Justice and Ethical Issues
  • Right of every citizen, regardless of age, race,
    gender, social class, to adequate protection from
    environmental hazards
  • Fundamental human right
  • Grassroots campaign
  • Mandating environmental Justice- Federal Level

33
Environmental Justice
  • International Waste Management
  • Developed countries sometimes send their waste to
    developing countries
  • Less expensive than following laws within the
    country
  • Controversial aspect of waste management
  • Basel Convention (1989)
  • Restricts international transport of hazardous
    waste
About PowerShow.com