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The Protestant Reformation Through Maps


The Protestant Reformation There is an inevitability of change Since the collapse of the Roman Empire, in 476 CE, the single biggest, richest, most powerful ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Protestant Reformation Through Maps

The Protestant Reformation
Causes of the Reformation?
  • Church corruption
  • The Babylonian Captivity(Avignon Papacy)please
    read pages 393-394
  • The Great Schismplease read page 394
  • The Conciliar Movementplease read page 394
  • You will read the pages I have outlined above,
    and you will take notesplease, be prepared to
    discuss what youve learned in our next class

There is an inevitability of change
  • Since the collapse of the Roman Empire, in 476
    CE, the single biggest, richest, most powerful
    institution in Europe is the Catholic church.
  • At its head the Popemore powerful than any
    single king.
  • For a thousand years the church had ruled supreme
    over Europe.
  • During this 1000 years it had built up enormous
  • Its headquarters were in Romethe Vatican

The Vatican
  • The calls for reform were small and from inside
    the church at first.
  • These calls for reform were theologicalearly
    voices were those of Jan Huss and the Hussites.
    And, John Wycliffe and the Lollards.
  • Wycliffe and Huss preached that the church should
    be subordinate to the statekings loved them!
    The popenot so much!
  • They also preached that SALVATION was between the
    individual and Godin other words you didnt need
    the church!
  • Not need the churchdo you think they took that?
  • They caught Huss, declared him a HERETIC and
    burnt him at the stake
  • Anyone else want reforms?

Reforms were just not going to happen
  • At the same time Huss and Wycliffe were calling
    for reforms there were new thoughts and feelings
    in Europelike, NATIONALITY and PATRIOTISM.
  • Thanks to the Black Death and the 100 Years War
    the kings had taken power from the nobles and
    centralized governmentits good to be the king!
  • Orders from the pope, in Rome, were not always in
    the best interests of England or France, and
  • The kings, and the newly emerging middle
    classesmerchants, traders, bankers, etc. wanted
    their money to stay with them and not be sent to
    Romeremember the TITHE?
  • And there were serious questions about how the
    church was spending the moneyand raising it!

So, quick recapwe have rising nation-states
(countries) that are exercising their own rights.
Kings that want the power and money that the
church has. A growing middle class that sees all
the wealth being collected, and squandered, by
the church. Churchmen, inside the church, who are
questioning what the church is doing and how they
are doing it!!! And, even more important the
church is abusing its power!
  • Let us look at the church abuses that everyone
    was so upset about.
  1. The lifestyles of the pope, the cardinals, the
    bishops, and most priests was very different from
    most peoplethe peasants.

They lived in expensively decorated palacesthey
were patrons of the arts and commissioned art
projects, like the Cistine Chapel.
They built on a huge scaleSt. Peters Basilica
in Rome
It doesnt sound like a church organization, does
it? More like the Paris Hilton show!
It is HUGE, really BIGwe are not talking small
  • 2. schhhhh! Because we are in Vista we will now
    have to whisperwe are talking about sex! You may
    leave the room

The church had very strict rules about sex for
the clergy and nunsthere was none, no sex at
allit is called celibacy!
Only, the celibacy rules were being ignored.
Bishops and cardinals and priests were getting
married and having children! They had mistresses,
and partiesand not hidden! It was do as I say,
not as I do
People started to question and they started
And, believe it or not the church needed more
  • 3. So, they started selling church officesdo you
    want to be
  • a bishop? Do you have the money to be
    one? What you
  • cannot readno problemdo you have the
    money? This selling of
  • offices is called SIMONYremember it!

PLURALISMif you had enough money you could buy
several officeswhy? Because, each office got
lots of cashTITHEand you could spend it however
you wanted I know you cant be in two places at
NEPOTISMyou are in a position of poweryoure a
bishop or a cardinal.well, you give an office to
one of you friends, a cousin, a lover, etc No,
they dont have to be able to do itjust collect
the cash
  • The next abuse we need to look at is
    BENEFICESthis is when a family leaves a gift to
    the priest, in a will. Or, you give a gift, or a
    pension to a priesttrouble was the priests were
    taking advantage of people to get the gifts.

Clerical ignorance some could not read Latinso
they would mumble the services
And now the big one
The one that sent Martin Luther over the edge
The selling of Indulgences!!!
It was such a great money spinner
So, whats an indulgence?
  • Let us assume you have sinnedthere is a penalty!
    It was believed that unless you make amends, or
    atonement for the sins you would go to HELL
  • They also believed that before you would get to
    HELL.. You might first go to PURGATORY!
  • Some of the early church fathers wrote about an
    intermediate state after death a way station on
    the path to HEAVEN.
  • Many wrote about the importance of issuing
    prayers for the deadto get loved ones out of
    purgatory on their way to heaven

So, some bright person thought up a great money
making scheme
Why not charge for the prayer to get loved ones
from purgatory, or HELL, into Heaven..brilliant!
  • This idea of selling forgiveness, or put
    another waya get out of hell passwas called
  • Youve sinneddont worryyou pay to have the
    penalty cancelledinstant salvation!
  • A saying at the time was as soon as a coin in
    the coffer rings,
  • a soul from purgatory springs.

And you wanted to do this for your dead
relativeshell was an awful place. The clergy
would make you feel terrible for leaving your
loved ones in such a place for eternity!
Are you ready to explore HELL?????
Be afraid, be very afraid.
Hell according to Dante AlighieriThe Divine
Before you get to hell you must first go through
THE GATES OF Hell Abandon every hope all who
enter here

Charon ferrying the damned across the river
Styxdo you have the fare?
Not a very welcoming placeand you are not even
there yet
Circle one Limbo
Circle two for the lustful
Circle three Gluttony
Circle five for the wrathful
Circle six Heresy
Circle seven suicides and squanderers
Circle eight liars and cheats
Circle eight Thieves
Circle nine Adulterers
We are close to the devil now!
Doomed for eternityDantes unfaithful wife and
best friend
And in case you dont think he was upset about
his wife, Francesca, and his best friend
Paolocheck out this contemporary view
The Divine Comedy written by Dante Alighieri
between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely
considered the central epic poem of Italian
literature, and is seen as one of the greatest
works of world literature ever. A culmination of
the medieval world-view of the afterlife, it
established the Tuscan dialect in which it is
written as the Italian standard.
Enter Martin Lutherno not king!
  • Nice looking dude

He was born into a middle class family. He
received a religious education. As a child he was
beaten and whipped for any offenceno matter how
smalltill he bled! His parents intended him to
be a lawyer Superstitious he believed in witches
and demons While attending the university of
Erfurt he had a run in with a lightning stormhe
promised to become a monk if he survived He did!
You should see his wife
  • Having survived the electrical stormshockinghe
    became an Augustinian friarno he did not work
    for Burger King (GET IT FRIAR?)
  • He became obsessed with the idea that his sins
    were innumerable, so he desperately strove for
    inner peace.
  • So, he went days without food and whipped himself
    till he bled
  • The more he starved, and beat, himself the more
    his depression increasedits okay for you to say
    duh! At this point!
  • He concluded that man cannot understand Gods
    plan for humanity
  • Therefore, SALVATION would come only with faith.
    course completely opposite to the Catholic
    Churchs idea of gaining salvation by doing good
    works, and having the church as Gods agents here
    on earth.
  • In other words we didnt need the church at
    allwe could all gain salvation without the
  • The event that pushed him over the edge was John
    Tetzela monkselling indulgences to raise money
    for the Vatican
  • He lost ithe went a little loopy!
  • He wrote out all his grievances in 95 statements
    and he nailed these 95 theses on the church door
    in Wittenbergon Halloween (October 31), 1517

  • He later had these 95 theses printedthanks to a
    relatively new invention at the time..
  • Yes, the moveable type printing press.

The 95 Theses
The Spread of the Printing Press
  • The church, as you can guess, was not amused!
  • Because of the printing press Luthers ideas were
    going all over the placeand because it was such
    a cheap process the pamphlets were being
    published by the boatload!
  • All over Germany he was hailed as a leaderthe
    German states were led by princes, by kings, by
    countsand they loved these new ideas
  • Why?
  • The pope reactedwell he had to there was no
    more money coming inthe German leaders were
    keeping it all
  • What was a pontiff to do?
  • He issued a BULL condemning Luthers Heresy and
    gave him 60 days to recant or else!
  • Luther burnt the popes proclamationhonest, no
  • Ordered to appear at the Imperial Diet, before
    Charles V, in Wormsno, not a weight watchers
  • The diet was made up of anti-church
    princesnothing was done to Luther, even though
  • Charles V issued the Edict of Worms Luther was
    an outlaw and was excommunicated
  • Till his death in 1546 Luther spent his time
    building an independent German church.

The Spread of Lutheranism
Oh, by the wayin the new church, celibacy was
OUT! Pastors could get married.. and Luther did!
Ladies and Gentlemen I give you the happy couple
Thank goodness love is blind!
Martin Luther
Katherine Von Luther
Luthers dad
Luthers moma real looker!
The Peasant Revolt 1525 proved that Luther was
in fact conservativehe sided with the princes
against the peasants.
He said everyone who can should hunt down the
rebels like mad dogs, to strike, to strangle, to
stabnothing can be more poisonous, harmful, or
devilish than a man in rebellion
Wasnt he the man that led the rebellion against
the Catholic church?
He invited the Jewish people to convert to
Lutheranismwhen they refusedthey were happy
with Judaismhe preached that all Jews were to be
killed and burnt
Propheticwhen you consider the nazis 500 years
The differences within the Christian faiththe
reformation and the Catholic counter-reformation
  • Protestant reformation
  • only faith was necessary for salvation
  • Church services were in the vernacular(not Latin)
  • Papal authority was rejected
  • Clergy may marry
  • Many Christian sects spring up
  • Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists, etc...
  • Agreed the that the bread and wine of
  • The Eucharist were changed in spirit
  • BUT not through the action
  • Of the priest
  • Catholic counter Reformation
  • Creation of the Jesuit order to do missionary
    work among non-Christians and protestants
  • Set up the inquisition to punish heresy
  • Printed the Index of Forbidden Books
  • Both faith and good works are necessary
  • To gain salvation
  • The Bible and church traditions are
  • equally valid
  • TRANSUBSTANTIATIONChrist is present the bread
    and wine are transformed into the body and blood
    of Christ by the priest

This new interpretation of the Christian
doctrine appealed to
  • Monarchies that resented the fact that the church
    was collecting all that money, from their
    citizens, and it was being sent to Rome.
  • Luther appealed to the NATIONALISTIC feelings in
    the German states.
  • Everyone was ticked off at the pope for
    interfering in politics.
  • The upper classes, and nobility, saw an
    opportunity to confiscate church land and
  • Luther had translated the Bible into Germanand
    now ordinary people could read it in the
  • PLEASE NOTE because of the printing press more
    books, on more subjects, at low cost were making
    the literacy rates go highermore people could
  • With more people reading the Bible you had
    individual interpretation of the scriptures

And, of course, you know when it comes to
difference of opinion in religious matters we
  • In Germany, princely supporters of Luther seize
    church land.
  • In Scandinavia

The rulers of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark all
convertedin fact they made it the official state
religion And, of course they confiscated church
properties. In Englandas we shall see later
onHenry VIII a devout Catholic, and supporter of
the pope, was writing a pamphlet condemning
Luther. He told everyonethat would listenthat
England would always remain Catholic! And, then
he met Anne Boleyn!
Meanwhile, in the Holy Roman Empire
Charles Va Hapsburgcame to the throne of the
HRE He was a Catholic, and he wanted to stamp out
Lutheranism He had just inherited from his
parents Spain, parts of Italy and Sardinia, and
of course New Spainwhere? Im lucky if I get a
bday card from mine! As you can see from the map
Charles V was a very powerful kingand allyto
the pope It didnt look good for Luther But,
Luther got some unexpected help from an
unexpected place. The Ottoman Turkish
Empirewhich was Muslimwas advancing into the
heart of Europeand attacking Vienna Yes, thats
where we get wieners from!
You will notice the Ottoman Turkish Empire covers
most of the present day Middle East, North
Africa, and huge amounts of Europe.
Christian Europe was afraid of being
overrun. This, ironically would help Martin Luther
Charles Vhe fought against France, because they
supported Luther. The French supported Luther
because they wanted to get Burgundy away from the
Holy Roman Empire
Just in case you were interested his parents
were Philip of Burgundy and Joanna the mad of
(No Transcript)
  • He spoke French as mother language and Flemish
    from his childhood years, later adding an
    acceptable Spanish which was required by the
    Castilian Cortes (parliament) as a condition for
    becoming king of Castile) and some German.
  • Indeed, he claimed to speak "Spanish to God,
    Italian to women, French to men, and German to my
  • Much of Charles's reign was taken up with wars
    with France, which found itself encircled by
    Charles's empire, and France still wanted parts
    of Italy.
  • Charles fought continually with the Ottoman
  • The expansion of the Ottoman force along the
    Mediterranean coast posed a threat to Habsburg
    lands and Christian monopolies on trade in the
  • In central Europe, the Turkish advance was halted
    at Vienna in 1529if it hadnt been, Europe and
    the New World would have become Muslim? And, we
    would have a very different world today
  • In 1536 Francis I of France allied himself with
    Suleiman against Charles.
  • Charles later signed a humiliating treaty with
    the Ottomans, to gain him some respite from the
    huge expenses of their war, although it wasn't
  • However, the Protestant princes in the Holy Roman
    Empire Diet often voted against giving money for
    his Turkish wars, as many Protestants saw the
    Muslim advance as a counterweight to the Catholic

With the expense of all these wars and the need
to maintain his empire, Charles V signed the
Peace of Augsburg in 1555
This allowed the German rulers to choose for
themselves their religion, Catholic or
Lutheran. And that meant the people living in
that country would also become the same religion
as their ruler
Just to refresh your memory
By the late 1600s this is the religious makeup
of Europe.
Let us now take a quick look at Calvin I think
you will be surprised at what a fun- loving guy
he was!
  • John Calvin was a French Protestant theologian.
  • He developed the system called Calvinism.
  • In Geneva, he rejected papal authority,
    established a new scheme of civic and
    ecclesiastical governance, and created a central
    hub for reformers.
  • He taught the doctrine of PREDESTINATION that
    is only those elected by God would achieve
    salvation before birthactually in the womb!
  • You could recognize those predestined by the
    moral lives they ledthey were hardworking and
  • We are not talking party animals okayin fact
    dancing and music came from the devil, so dont
    do itit was banned, outlawed, punishable by
  • Calvinism spread throughout Switzerland, Holland
    (Netherlands), Scotland, a small group in France
    the Huguenots, and a small group in England
    the Puritans.

Success on earth determined place in heaven hard
work and no leisure time were signs of
success Sorry, no time for myspace!
  • Calvinism is basically pessimistic about man
    optimistic about God
  • Literal interpretation of the Bibleit happened
    exactly as it was written
  • Scorned pleasures as the idle activities of the
    devil no gambling, blaspheming, dancing, music

Going down
No drinking
No dancing
no smoking
No parties
No music
Now show me what you know.
  • Questions
  • What brought about the "Avignon Papacy?"
  • Identify some of the sources of church corruption
    in the 14c.
  • What led to the Great Schism?  Why did it prove
    so difficult to resolve?
  • Why did the Conciliar Movement develop in the
    early 15c?
  • What issues did the Councils of Pisa, Constance,
    and Basel address?
  • In what ways did the laity of the late Middle
    Ages express their desire for a more spiritual
    rather than ritualistic religious experience? 
    Give specific examples.
  • Identify the major doctrinal reforms proposed by
    John Wycliffe and the Lollards and by Jan Hus and
    the Hussites.
  • Why was the Catholic Church loosing its hold over
    peoples' loyalty and respect by the end of the
  • Comment on the following statement  The church
    as an institution was threatened from both those
    who believed too much and from those who believed
    too little.