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Motivating or organizing Groups

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Motivating or organizing Groups Dr. J. V. Worstell April 11, 2011 www.deltanetwok.org – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivating or organizing Groups


1
Motivating or organizing Groups
Dr. J. V. Worstell April 11, 2011 www.deltanetwok.
org
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System facilitator What does he or she do?
  • Everything traditional facilitator does and more.
  • Helps new qualities emerge in the group.
  • Helps the group get organized by discovering new
    qualities in itself.

8
Emergent phenomena. What is water? Can you
predict what water is from its components?
Hydrogen oxygen?water Whole is greater than sum
of parts. The magic of self-organizing
groups. Ever been in a group which was
communicating so quickly you have no idea were
the ideas are coming from? How do you do it?
9
The good leader talks little, And when his work
is done, the people say, Amazing, we did it,
all by ourselves.
If any one of you thinks he is wise, he should
become a 'fool' so that he may become wise.
The letter of the law kills, the spirit of the
law gives life.
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learned helplessness, depression
one trial learning, fear, punishment, self-esteem
attribution cognitive dissonance
empowerment learning communities
motivating teams
hierarchy of needs curiosity altruism drives
Group dynamics, team-building
12
Selfish motivation
  • We all enter this world selfish. We cry as loud
    as we can when we are hungry. We demand whatever
    will satisfy our desires. Sometimes, in every
    culture, people never get out of this mode. They
    are called gangsters, oligarchs.
  • Sometimes an entire culture can become entranced
    with the value and glory of the individual. Then,
    everyone wants to be the star. The one who
    conquers all. The individual is glorified.
    Chiefs run the show, slapping down anyone who
    might challenge them.
  • In fact, for most of our species existence, we
    followed these basic survival instincts and our
    lives were short and brutal.
  • Being selfish, our first use of language is to
    get things for ourselves. Language is a tool we
    use for our own natural, selfish ends. So we
    lie. So, just as selfishness is natural, so is
    lying natural to young children.
  • We have to learn to use language to express truth
    and not just to use it to get what we want.
    However, higher motivation is also natural if the
    society permits.

13
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • One of few things US MBA students remember
  • 1.Physiological. Survival needs. Examples Food,
    drink, health.
  • 2.Safety. Physical and emotional security. Such
    as clothing, shelter, protection against attack
    (unemployment benefits, old age pension).
  • 3.Affection needs. Affection and the need to
    belong. Examples Family unit, other small groups
    such as work groups.
  • 4.Esteem needs. For self-respect, for
    accomplishment, for achievement. The achievement
    must be recognised and appreciated by someone
    else.
  • 5.Self-fulfilment needs. To utilise one's
    potential to the maximum working with and for
    one's fellow beings
  • Once primary needs are satisfied they cease to
    act as drives and are replaced by needs of a
    higher order. So that higher order needs are
    predominant when primary needs are satisfied.

14
Curiosity, Altruism and Cooperation alter Maslow
  • Hierarchy mostly true, partially not.
  • Curiosity. If bored enough, youll do anything
    for stimulation. Give up food.
  • Altruism. Youll give up food to save a neighbor
    pain.
  • Cooperation. Children naturally cooperate
    without reward.

15
Altruism is an innate instinct
  • Rhesus monkeys were given a lever which dispensed
    food but at the same time as dispensing food, it
    gave the monkey in the next cage an electrical
    shock.
  • The monkeys with access to the 'shocking' food
    levers would not pull the lever, foregoing food
    for many days, rather than give the monkey next
    door a shock.

16
Helping is innate
  • Experiment 1. Experimenters performed simple
    tasks like dropping a clothes peg out of reach
    while hanging clothes on a line, or mis-stacking
    a pile of books.
  • Nearly all of the group of 24 18-month-olds
    helped by picking up the peg or the book, usually
    in the first 10 seconds of the experiment.
  • They only did this if they believed the
    researcher needed the object to complete the task
    - if it was thrown on the ground deliberately,
    they didn't pick it up.
  • Experiment 2. A box with a flap on it. Children
    shown the flap. When the scientists accidentally
    dropped a spoon inside, and pretended they did
    not know about the flap, the children helped
    retrieve it. They only did this if they believed
    the spoon had not been dropped deliberately.
  • Chimpanzees helped in finding lost object but
    not in the more complex box experiment.

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From ape cooperation to human cooperation
  • Leavens et al. (e.g. Leavens Hopkins 1998)
    documented that for a human, many captive
    chimpanzees point reliably to food they cannot
    reach, so that humans will retrieve it for them,
    even though they never point for conspecifics.
  • Warneken Tomasello (2006) found that young
    chimpanzees help human adults to retrieve out of
    reach objectsbut not as often or in as many
    situations as 1 year old human infants.
  • These findings suggest that when they are
    interacting with especially tolerant and helpful
    partners chimpanzees are able to behave in more
    cooperative ways, but normal human children are
    all cooperative by 1 year old.

19
Object choice task
  • Adult shows child something desireable (food or
    toy) is under a box.
  • Then second situation, adult points to box.
  • Child always picks right box.
  • Chimp only by chance.
  • But if adult starts to grab box, chimp picks it.
  • Chimp doesnt assume cooperation, child does.

20
  • Natural for children to cooperate if domineering
    and aggressive children are removed.

21
Cooperative play
  • Situations were set up in which an adult did
    things like hold out a basket in which the infant
    was asked to place a toy.
  • After the infant complied, in the test for role
    reversal, the adult placed the basket within the
    infants reach and held up the toy herself.
  • All 18 month olds and even some of the
    12-month-olds spontaneously held out the basket
    for the adult while at the same time looking to
    her face, presumably in anticipation of her
    placing the toy inside.
  • Chimps never do this.

22
Motivation from within
  • The team-builder has
  • No rigid programs or structure
  • (to select against the entrepreneur, the
    innovator)
  • Starts with a stance, not a plan
  • Help them create a vision
  • The vision attracts the group
  • The group creates the plan.

23
Developing a motivated team what does the
agent do?
  • First, do nothing
  • except look for commitment to an idea
  • then help build a group around the idea
  • and fan that flame

24
The team-builder is As passive as a loaded
spring no programs
25
Motivating teams
  • Depressed, fearful people seldom accomplish much.
  • Depression learned helplessness. People learn
    they will be punished no matter what they do, so
    they do nothing.
  • Out of the frying pan into the fire.
  • To eliminate this attitude
  • no criticism
  • Do something silly
  • Make the group laugh
  • Make a mistake and dont worry about it
  • Elicit other motivations than fear curiosity,
    altruism, cooperation.

26
Skills of successful facilitators
27
Goal creating lasting (sustainable) rural
development
  • One indicator of success creation of new
    locally-owned enterprises

So, How?
28
learned helplessness, depression
one trial learning, fear, punishment, self-esteem
attribution cognitive dissonance
empowerment learning communities
motivating teams
hierarchy of needs curiosity altruism drives
Group dynamics, team-building
29
  • You are fanning their motivation.
  • Finding the spark is key.
  • You find what they are interested in and
    encourage it.
  • Enthusiasm is infectious.

30
Motivating groups to create new enterprises
  • Must use both selfish and non-selfish drives
  • Selfish get money or wont be successful
    enterprise
  • Non-selfish
  • Curiosity
  • Altruism
  • Cooperation
  • If dont develop these impulses, group never
    becomes solid.

31
Motivating group success labor unions
32
Obamas method for organizing groups Hillary
Clintons Senior Thesis
  • Alinsky's Thirteen Rules for Radicals
  • Very successful with labor organizing, civil
    rights
  • Power is not only what you have but what the
    enemy thinks you have.
  • Never go outside the experience of your people.
    It may result in confusion, fear and retreat.
  • Wherever possible go outside the experience of
    the enemy. Here you want to cause confusion, fear
    and retreat.
  • Make the enemy live up to his/her own book of
    rules.
  • Ridicule is man's most potent weapon.
  • A good tactic is one that your people enjoy.
  • A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag.
  • Keep the pressure on, with different tactics and
    actions and utilize all events of the period for
    your purpose.
  • The threat is usually more terrifying than the
    thing itself.
  • The major premise for tactics is the development
    of operations that will maintain a constant
    pressure upon the opposition.
  • If you push a negative hard and deep enough it
    will break through into its counterside.
  • The price of a successful attack is a
    constructive alternative.
  • Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it and
    polarize it.

33
Make the enemy live up to his/her own book of
rules.
  • All men should have equal rights.
  • Civil Rights movement.
  • Women should not be second class citizens
  • Womens Right to Vote
  • All men should be brothers.
  • Anti-apartheid movement
  • Doesnt work if enemy is flexible and has
    allegiance to natural law deeper than rules.

34
New Generation Rules for Organizing
  • A community of interest (central business
    proposition) can be found that is not based on an
    external enemy, but on an economic opportunity.
  • This community of interest can be so powerful as
    to engender sacrifice, commitment, and loyalty to
    the business cooperative, and help it survive.
  • The only fear needed in organizational efforts
    is the fear of missing the opportunity to invest.
  • The character of leadership counts greatly in
    evaluating potential for successful cooperative
    development and equity commitments. The
    organizing board must consist of individuals who
    are also trusted by colleagues.
  • Competitors are not enemies and need not be
    defeated. Alliances are possible with
    competitors.
  • Customers are natural allies and worthy of
    products that are safe, wholesome, and fairly
    priced.
  • Government is neither an enemy nor a friend, but
    a tool in the conduct of business that is
    necessary to ensure fair play. It is not
    responsible for "saving us.
  • People make investments for more than economic
    reasons-they want to be part of a cause.

35
Having a common enemy can motivate
  • Power is not only what you have but what the
    enemy thinks you have.
  • Wherever possible go outside the experience of
    the enemy. Here you want to cause confusion, fear
    and retreat.
  • Make the enemy live up to his/her own book of
    rules.
  • Ridicule is man's most potent weapon.

Curiosity and altruism are stronger
  • A community of interest (central business
    proposition) can be found that is not based on an
    external enemy, but on an economic opportunity.
  • This community of interest can be so powerful as
    to engender sacrifice, commitment, and loyalty to
    the business cooperative, and help it survive.
  • Competitors are not enemies and need not be
    defeated. Alliances are possible with
    competitors.
  • People make investments for more than economic
    reasons-they want to be part of a cause.

36
Competitors are not always enemies.
  • We often use metaphor of war in business. But
    competitors may be your future partners.
  • Competition can produce a very strong incentive
    for cooperation, as certain players forge
    alliances and symbiotic relationships with each
    other for mutual support. It happens at every
    level of, and in every kind of, complex adaptive
    system, from biology, to economics, to politics.

37
Testing competitive strategies using computer
simulations
  • Testing strategies of cooperation and competition
    against all possible options. Simple Tit for
    Tat strategy won every time.
  • Tit-for-Tat program started out by cooperating
    on the first move, and then simply did exactly
    what the other program had done on the move
    before.
  • The program was nice in the sense that it would
    never defect first. It was tough in the sense
    that it would punish uncooperative behavior by
    competing on the next move.
  • It was forgiving in that it returned to
    cooperation once the other party demonstrated
    cooperation. And it was clear in the sense that
    it was very easy for the opposing programs to
    figure out exactly what it would do next.
  • Not nice guys finish last
  • Instead nice, tough, forgiving and clear guys
    finish first.

38
Chaotic systems
  • Weather
  • All our computers, we cant predict.
  • Managed Chaos
  • Brain waves
  • normal is irregular firing of neurons
  • Epilepsy all fire at once
  • Sleep
  • Brain waves chaotic unless coma
  • Heart beat on cardiogram
  • Healthy irregular, wrinkly appearance not a
    smooth, regular tracing.
  • Heart attack coming consistency and regularity
  • All resilient systems are chaotic.

39
You are a mass of competing impulses
  • One part wants to listen to this lecture
  • Another part wants to go out for a walk with that
    beautiful girl
  • Another is mad at enemy and wants to punch him
  • Another wants to help your friend understand
    English and this lecture

40
Let each motivation be expressed at proper time
  • What won in cooperation/competition simulation?
  • Cooperate if other cooperate, selfish if other
    selfish.
  • But very clear about what doing. And dont hold
    a grudge. If other becomes cooperative, you do
    too.

41
Managed Chaos Complex adaptive system (CAS)
???
42
Managed Chaos Complex adaptive system (CAS)
???
  • Chaos is not absence of energy, its energy
    pushing in lots of different directions.
  • Chaotic system of 15-16 yr old
  • Hormones go wild.
  • Lots of different competing impulses.
  • Lots of potential if can control
  • Key CAS quality
  • Multiple competing impulses
  • Let each out in response to appropriate stimulus.

43
Facilitators ??????????? Coordinate group
impulses
  • In traditional facilitation, might explicitly
    tell group, lets let specific impulses take over
  • In facilitation of enterprise groups have to be
    more subtle.
  • Basic idea
  • Bring right attitude to bear when needed
  • Maintain all possible responses

44
  • GO Green --creativity, alternatives, proposals,
    what is interesting, and changes.
  • GO Black -- is the cold-hearted, logical judge.
    It is a crucial impulse to employ at the right
    time, but often over-used.
  • GO White --Ignore arguments and proposals. Just
    look at the facts, figures and information.
  • GO Red --feelings, hunches, intuition. Put
    forward an intuition without any need to justify
    it
  • GO Yellow --logical optimism. How can we make
    this work?
  • GO Blue --process control. It looks not at the
    subject itself but at the 'thinking' about the
    subject.

45
Chaos is good, if managed
  • Resilient systems are chaotic.
  • Facilitator maintains all motivations for use at
    the proper time.
  • Until, eventually, the group knows to use the
    right motivation themselves.
  • All living systems have this principle carved
    into their being.

46
Skills for facilitators V communication beyond
words
Body language/ Mehrabian kinesics/eye
contact Birdwhistle Proxemics/ personal
space Hall Touch Morris Social
intelligence Gardner Emotional
intelligence Goleman Dominance/power Lorenz Innat
e releasing Wilson mechanisms Tickbergen
47
Weve gone beyond instinctual response to stimuli.
Havent we gotten away from the reaction to
steatopygia (which stimulated our cousin the
Bushmen) and similar innate releasing simuli?
Or have we?
48
Our brain evolved in response to social stimuli.
Competition and cooperation within our tribal
bands, villages is the source of our human
intelligence. One of first of these new brain
areas facial nucleus controls reaction to facial
expression.
49
Genetic control of perception of facial
expressions of emotion
  • Gene which helps produce a neurotransmitter (
    serotonin) transporter and maps to chromosome 17,
    has two alleles (or gene variations) short (S)
    and a long (L) alleles
  • S results in increased amygdala and bodily
    response to facial expressions of
    emotionespecially anger.
  • Dannlowski et al., 2008. Neuropsychopharmacology
  • So a human gene responds specifically to facial
    expressions!
  • Maybe our instincts still control us.
  • Amygdala damage from another mutation results in
    an inability to recognize fear in people's facial
    expressions.
  • However, they are able to recognize fear if
    instructed to concentrate attention on a person's
    eyes.
  • People with normal brains always looked
    immediately at the eye region of a faceeven more
    so when the face was fearful.

50
Single gene for social anxiety
  • People with S variant mentioned before are much
    more responsive to angry faces.
  • Psychologists diagnosis of social anxiety didnt
    predict response to angry faces, S allele did.
  • Dominance hierarchies hard to specify in humans,
    but rhesus monkeys with the short allele spent
    less time gazing at images of the face and eyes
    of other monkeys and less likely to want to view
    a picture of a high-status male.
  • Monkeys were observed while being shown images of
    high status faces or faces of familiar monkeys.
    In addition to spending less time looking at
    faces and eyes, the S/L monkeys also had larger
    pupil diameters when gazing at photos of
    high-status male macaques, indicating higher
    arousal.
  • S monkeys were less willing to take risks after
    they were primed with the faces of high-status
    males. Previous studies have found that inducing
    fear in human with S gene makes them more
    risk-averse. Faces of high-status males cause
    greater fear in the S monkey.
  • The S monkeys actually had to be paid juice to
    view the dominant males, while the L monkeys gave
    up juice for a look at these faces.
  • Platt et al., 2009 J Psychiatry Neurosci

51
Weeds vs Orchids
  • Such an allele would not survive if it only had
    bad effectsbasic natural selection.
  • S allele makes more susceptible to social anxiety
    if have poor maternal attention
  • S allele makes less susceptible to social
    anxiety/depression if have good maternal
    attention as child.
  • Facilitator needs take nurturing role if group
    members shy, anxious.

52
Communication beyond words
The words we use make up as little as 5 of what
we communicate. When you say even the simplest
word or statement, the meaning can be reversed
depending on the tone of voice you use.
I really love you. People trust the nonverbal
over the verbal.
53
How much can we perceive from the nonverbal?
  • Dogs sense fear.
  • Know when someone staring at you.
  • Know when someone coming up behind you.
  • Know when danger is present?
  • Overactive response is possible
  • And see danger everywhere
  • Underactive response and not see danger.

54
  • In America, eye contact signifies trust,
    confidence, and believability. But eye contact
    can also mean a challenge to dominating people.
  • Posture (submissive or dominant), a touch on the
    shoulder, getting up and standing next to a
    speaker, etc, can defuse power and dominance
    activities in groups.
  • Those who seek to dominate groups limit progress
    of the group. The group can only go as far as
    permitted by the dominant person's integrative
    skills.

55
Six basic nonverbal techniques for facilitators
  • 1. Face people squarely. This says, "I'm
    available to you I choose
    to be with you." 2. Adopt an open posture.
    Crossed arms and legs say, "I'm not interested."
    An open posture shows your group that you're open
    to them and what they have to say. 3. Maintain
    good eye contact. Have you ever talked to someone
    whose eyes seemed to be looking at everything in
    the room but you?

56
  • 4. Watch your group. Learn to read their
    nonverbal behavior posture, body movements and
    gestures. Notice frowns, smiles, raised eyebrows
    and twisted lips.
  • 5. Give nonverbal feedback. Nod. Smile. Raise
    your eyebrows. These small signals encourage your
    group to open up even more.
  • 6. The last step in listening is speaking.
    Restate in your own words what your group members
    say. That proves you were listening and gives
    them the opportunity to correct or clarify.

57
  • Cross-cultural non-verbal clashes
  • A pre-meeting discussion between two members of
    an advisory board.
  • They need to unite in order to stop a typical
    bureaucratic blunder an agency is about to
    commit. Each is trying to indicate an interest
    in the issue and be friendly.
  • As they talk, the Latino, following his/her
    cultural rules, moves closer and closer to
    his/her potential ally.
  • The Anglo, following his/her class and cultural
    norms, interprets this as pushiness or even
    aggression and not only backs away from the close
    contact, but also shifts his/her eyes away from
    the Latino's open yet direct eye contact.
  • The retreating movements of the Anglo shout
    loudly in a silent language to the Latino and an
    atmosphere of mistrust evolves.

58
Gemutlich Ishin Deshin wordless, yet deep
understanding between two people. (Japanese)
Mu thinking without words, without categories,
without distinctions. (Japanese)
59
Skills of successful facilitators
60
TQM, creative destruction
Thesis-antithesis --gtsynthesis, complementarity
Futures studies
Creativity cycle, narrative analysis
integration synthesis innovation
Rapid prototyping
Soft sytsems, critical systems
61
Benchmarks of successful group facilitation
Open stance (Conceptual pluralism)
Systems thinking
Synthesize new paths
Common assumptions
Integrators emerge and are valued
Adopt outcome frame instead of problem-directed
62
Some assumptions are easy to change
Others are impossible
Mokita Truth everyone knows, but no one
admits. (Kiriwina, New Guinea)
63
  • The true believer thinks hes got all the answers
  • But hes not even on the right track.
  • He can help in dealing with certain closed
    systems
  • but the open systems characterizing biology and
    social groups?
  • No way. Hes lost and just cant admit it to
    himself.
  • Rural people cant accomplish anything
  • Psychology is just rats running in a maze.
  • Groups are worthless.
  • Camel is horse made by committee
  • What are your assumptions?
  • They show your basic values.

64
Planning Projects
  • People plan and implement projects on the basis
    of their change models - their implicit theories
    about how the world works
  • What about assumptionmore detailed plan is
    better?
  • Sometimes complex plans are unnecessary and just
    get in the way.
  • Especially if you are looking for emergent ideas

65
No complex plans, just few basic rules
  • Birds flying in a flock. Amazing!
  • How is it done?
  • Computer simulation called Boids, The
    simulation consists of a collection of autonomous
    agents the boids in a environment with
    obstacles.
  • In addition to the basic laws of physics, each
    agent follows three simple rules (1) try to
    maintain a minimum distance from all other boids
    and objects (2) try to match speed with
    neighboring boids and, (3) try to move toward
    the center of mass of the boids in your
    neighborhood.
  • When the simulation is run, the boids exhibit the
    very lifelike behavior of flying in flocks around
    the objects on the screen.
  • They fly in a flock just like birds, a complex
    behavior pattern, even though there is no rule
    explicitly telling them to do so.

66
Visa International
  • 1 trillion annual sales volume and roughly
    half-billion clients, but few people could tell
    you where it is headquartered or how it is
    governed.
  • Its founding chief executive officer, Dee Hock
    describes it as a non-stock, for-profit
    membership corporation in which members
    (typically, banks that issue the Visa cards)
    cooperate intensely
  • in a narrow band of activity essential to the
    success of the whole (for example, the graphic
    layout of the card and common clearinghouse
    operations),
  • while competing fiercely and innovatively in all
    else (including going after each others
    customers!).
  • This blend of minimum specifications in the
    essential areas of cooperation, and complete
    freedom for creative energy in all else, has
    allowed Visa to grow 10,000 percent since 1970,
    despite the incredibly complex worldwide system
    of different currencies, customs, legal systems
    and the like.

67
wicked messes
Wickedness occurs when people are totally sure
their values and ideology are right and
unchangeable.
"Messes" arise when dynamic complexity is high.
Messes cannot be solved by solving component
problems in isolation from one another because
there are significant couplings between isolated
problem symptoms. System may even adapt and
change when intervention occurs.
So a wicked mess arises when polarization on
assumptions occurs in extremely dynamic
situations.
What's the way out of any wicked mess? It begins
with identifying and questioning your assumptions.
Of course if you are totally sure that you are
right, then you're stuck in your wicked mess for
awhile.
68
One of the wicked messes facing agriculture is
that farmers see themselves as producers of raw
commodities and raw commodities are rapidly
losing value except as part of vertically
integrated value chains.
Meanwhile, many extension agents see their role
as being experts in production of particular
commodities.
69
When
  • The science is uncertain
  • the truth is unknown
  • polarization is everywhere

Assume
Any solution is blocked by restricting assumptions
Look for
A more basic stabilizing assumption which
permits innovation
Roe, 1994
70
Polarized narratives
Farmers cant afford expensive water quality
renovations
Farms produce most non-point source pollution
Farmers must change their practices
Environmental regulations will increase costs and
sink huge numbers of farms
Farmers must insure they are not polluting
Require three test wells on each farm
Farmers must unite to defeat environmental
regulations.
71
Converging narratives
Family farms and clean water are both valuable
resources
Farms produce most non-point source pollution
Farmers cant afford expensive water quality
renovations
Farmers who willfully pollute, and will not
change, do not deserve the support of other
farmers.
Farmers must change their practices
Farmers can help design more practical ways of
increasing water quality
Environmental regulations will increase costs and
sink huge numbers of farms
Farmers must insure they are not polluting
State authority established where farmers and
environmentalists jointly establish water quality
regs
Require three test wells on each farm
Farmers must unite to defeat environmental
regulations.
72
Limiting assumption Bioethanol is the wave of
the future. Only Goal Develop Bioethanol
business. More basic assumption permitting
innovation. Bioethanol should be alternative for
farmers. Goal Government support for
ethanol. Then develop ethanol business.
Limiting assumption Theres nothing wrong with
GMOs, barriers to GMOs should be broken down More
basic assumption permitting innovation Just
sell em what they want.
73
Diverging narratives
Assumption farmers are producers of raw
commodities
Consultants provide more personal and specialized
production support
Extension assumes it should provide technical
assistance in production
Raw commodities lose value farmers need more
personal attention rely more on consultants
Conflicting responsibilities of Extension limits
level of personal attention
Larger farmers see less value in Extension
assistance
Extension staff in Cant provide needed help
74
The test of a first-rate intelligence is the
ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at
the same time and still retain the ability to
function.
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TQM, creative destruction
Thesis-antithesis --gtsynthesis, complementarity
Futures studies
Creativity cycle, narrative analysis
integration synthesis innovation
Rapid prototyping
Soft sytsems, critical systems
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Genetics of stress tells us maternal
support?relaxed confidence
  • Almost every cell in body has same genes and
    chromosomes.
  • As humans and animals grow some genes are
    activated and others deactivated. So we get
    fingers where fingers should be and eyes where
    eyes should be.
  • If an infant gets the right sort of attention and
    support (being near mother and licking in rats)
    in early life, genes causing anxiety in fearful
    situations are deactivated. Genes which help the
    infant better handle stress are activated.
  • Faced with challenges later in life, those
    receiving normal maternal attention tend to be
    more confident and less fearful.
  • In perilous times, mothers increase the stress
    reactivity of their offspring by licking less.
    Offspring are less confident and more fearful
    later in life.

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Genetics of stress tells us maternal
support?relaxed confidence
  • This relaxed confidence is a quality of good
    facilitator. The opposite is concerned, anxious,
    purposive action.
  • Western culture since Socrates has valued this
    kind of attitude.
  • Often useful, but can be a mistake. It says
    "Youre wasting time playing"
  • One of best ways to defeat creativity.
  • Many quality ideas result from "play" time, since
    a persons mind is free of its natural defenses
    during that time and mental locks are less likely
    to occur.

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Ways to stop creativity
  • 1. Youre wasting time playing.
  • 2. Looking for the one right answer.
  • Why also find lost item in last place you looked?
  • 3. Thats not logical.
  • 4. Be practical.
  • 5. Avoid ambiguity.
  • 6. Thats not my area.
  • 7. Dont be foolish.
  • 8. Follow the rules.
  • 9. Im not creative

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Embrace paradox
  • A paradox makes no sense according to the
    prevailing mental models.
  • Stimulate creativity by asking paradoxical
    questions
  • How can we give direction without giving
    directives?
  • How can we lead by serving?
  • How can we maintain authority without having
    control?
  • How can we set direction when we dont know the
    future?
  • How can we oppose change by accepting it? How can
    we accept change by opposing it?
  • How can we be both a system and many independent
    parts?
  • Can you think of others that are relevant to your
    context?

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Successful groups are purpose-driven at times and
playful and creative at other times
  • Groups need to take six different attitudes
    depending on what the group needs to accomplish.
  • Call these the six hats.
  • Some facilitators say OK, lets put on the green
    hat now, we need to be creative. Or, lets put
    on the black hat now, we need to ruthlessly
    logical.

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GO Green --creativity, alternatives, proposals,
what is interesting, and changes. GO Black -- is
the cold-hearted, logical judge. It is a crucial
impulse to employ at the right time, but often
over-used. GO White --Ignore arguments and
proposals. Just look at the facts, figures and
information. GO Red --feelings, hunches,
intuition. Put forward an intuition without any
need to justify it GO Yellow --logical optimism.
How can we make this work? GO Blue --process
control. It looks not at the subject itself but
at the 'thinking' about the subject.
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Skills of successful facilitators
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Skills for facilitators III learning systems,
systems learning
Learning styles Kolb cognitive
styles Miller Personality, emotion Rogers,
Schachter Attention, perception,
cybernetics Weiner Game theory von
Neumann Learning and organizing Friere,
Horton Soft systems Checkland, Bawden Systems
thinking Rapaport, Senge Self-organizing
systems Prigogine, Jantsch Action
research Zuber-Skerritt, Whyte Holistic
thinking Mu
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Communication beyond words
The words we use make up as little as 5 of what
we communicate. When you say even the simplest
word or statement, the meaning can be reversed
depending on the tone of voice you use.
People trust the nonverbal over the verbal.
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Members of your group will have different
learning and thinking styles
No one style is better than others all are
needed for the group to succeed.
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Learning styles How do members of your team learn
best?
One dimension Reflection------Action
Another dimension Concrete ----------------
Abstract
Groups learn best through Feeling, thinking,
experiencing, creating, acting, designing or
experimenting.
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  • Four stages of learning the concrete experience,
    the reflective observation, the abstract
    conceptualization, and the active
    experimentation.
  • Example concrete experience burn hand on stove
    sometimes not others
  • Reflective obs stove on--burn hand
  • Abstract concept energy running through makes
    hot
  • Active experiment turn on light, see if gets hot
  • Sometimes yes, sometimes no? Back to concrete
    experience

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  • Four stages of learning the concrete experience,
    the reflective observation, the abstract
    conceptualization, and the active
    experimentation.
  • Over time individuals develop preferences for
    specific dimension based on their personal
    experiences, personality differences,
    environmental factors and prior educational
    factors.
  • There are also learning modality preferences such
    as auditory, visual, or tactile/kinesthetic.

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Learning and personality
  • Attention, processing and acting are all
    influenced by our personality, some total of
    experiences and predispositions we were born
    with
  • Knowing your personality to make it work for you.
    Routes to business success, route you take
    depends on your personality
  • Most personality researchers agree personality
    can be described in 4 dimension or 16 types.

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  • ?Introvert-----Extrovert
  • ?Introverts think best by themselves by
    processing ideas in their own minds. They can be
    tired out by too much contact with other people.
    ?Extroverts, on the other hand, are usually
    energized by being with other people and often
    think best if they can discuss their ideas.
  • ?Sensing-----Intuition
  • ?Sensing thinkers take in information
    sequentially through their senses and are most
    interested in the concrete and the here-and-now.
    ?Intuitive thinkers are interested in theories
    and possibilities and often make good guesses
    without going through sequential steps.

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  • Thinking---Feeling
  • ?People with a Thinking preference tend to make
    decisions objectively in a logical and impartial
    way. ?People with a Feeling preference tend to
    make decisions subjectively on the basis of their
    feelings and perceived effects on other people.
  • ?Judging---Perceiving
  • ?People with a Judging preference like things to
    be clear and settled and strive for closure.
    ?People with a Perceiving preference like things
    to be open-ended as long as possible.

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UCLA MBA No 1 best way 4 perspectives on
reality each requires and adopts a different
management style
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Linear cause-effect thinking
Systems thinking
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Managing a machine or managing chaos?
  • Complex adaptive systems. Systems which make
    changes in themselves to adapt to environment.
    All living systems.
  • Most scientific analytic techniques have us break
    a system into smaller bits, study the bits, and,
    when we believe that we understand the bits, put
    them all back together again and draw some
    conclusions about the whole.
  • Most traditional organizational theory leads us
    to view organizations as machine-like with
    replaceable parts, and if each part is doing its
    job, the organization will run smoothly. These
    theories assume that stability is the natural
    state of an organization,
  • If an organization consists of functions and
    roles that are carried out by people who are
    replaceable with little damage to operations and
    in which results are predicable and replicable,
    then we do have a machine.

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Machine or Military metaphor or Complex Adaptive
System
  • The basic problem with machine and military
    metaphors is that they ignore the individuality
    of agents and the effects of interaction among
    agents.
  • Or worse, they simply assume that all this can be
    tightly controlled through better (read more)
    specification.
  • While there are many situations for which the
    machine and military metaphors might be useful
    for example, routine surgical processes there
    are also many situations for which these
    metaphors are grossly inadequate.

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Skills for facilitators IV holistic decision
making
Holistic Resource Management Savory Property
Management Planning Dept of Primary
Industries Futureprofit Queensland Farmmart
Victoria Farming for the Future New South
Wales Farmwie Tasmania Managing
chaos Ditto, Schaffer, Westman Fastthinking,
narrative analysis Roe Agroecosystems
analysis Conway Participatory rural
appraisal Chambers Farming systems
research Simmons Rapid Rural Appraisal Rhoades

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  • Most people don't spend a lot of time thinking
    about how they make decisions
  • they simply make their decisions the way humans
    have since the Stone Age
  • based on expert opinion, past experience,
    research results, peer pressure, intuition,
    common sense, cost-effectiveness, profitability,
    laws and regulations, compromise, sustainability,
    etc.
  • And it is this process that is largely
    responsible for the state of the world in which
    we now live.
  • Some 20-odd past civilizations have failed, and
    the only thing these civilizations had in common
    was the way humans made decisions.

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Disciplinary blinders
  • Disciplines are sets of solutions agreed to by
    people who have similar jobs. They received their
    positions because these solutions worked in some
    arena in the past.
  • These solutions have no necessary link to any
    crucial current problem.
  • Dedication to these solutions means members of
    disciplines redefine any problem so that their
    solutions can solve it.
  • To a boy with a hammer, every problem is a nail
    and he has the solution. For a boy with scissors,
    cutting solves all problems.
  • We have solutions in search of problems.

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  • Disciplinary Tribalism
  • I am an economist, I do economics.
  • I am an agronomist, I do agronomy
  • Much more effective dedication to a region, a
    community.,
  • Master disciplines
  • Become transdisciplinary

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  • Lower left logical decisions
  • Upper left anarchy
  • Middle edge of chaos need to adapt system

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  • Goal get from 4 to 5
  • Recognize new patterns
  • Find non-limiting assumptions/beliefs
  • Discover deeper causes

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Holistic Decision-Making
  • if you were to learn everything there is to know
    about oxygen and hydrogen, you would still have
    no idea of the properties of water
  • Likewise, we rarely think of a person as a mass
    of interconnecting parts (arms, legs, organs,
    etc.) but rather as a whole human being.
  • This same human can exist within another whole a
    family and this whole exists within another
    whole a community and so on.
  • Rarely would we refer to a community as a group
    of "interconnecting parts."

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  • To begin practicing holistic decision-making,
    however, we need to begin thinking holistically
  • recognizing that the world only functions in
    wholes, and that all our decisions impact the
    ecosystem upon which our very existence depends.
  • Since land and/or resources cannot be managed in
    isolation from the humans tied to (and dependent
    on) these resources,
  • in holistic management we only manage in "whole"
    situations (whole farms, whole firms, whole
    communities, etc.)
  • which includes the people, their values and
    desires, the resource base, and the wealth that
    can be generated from this resource base.

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  • In any group we see regularities
  • From these we see a pattern
  • Feedback to the group
  • Group adapts and becomes better.

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  • Zimbabwe farm given to drop-outs
  • My task, make it successful
  • I saw it was managed by people with good
    technical skills but no experience in managing a
    farm. Hired by non-farm people.
  • I recommended change to experienced managers
  • First response very negative since people who I
    told this to had hired these bad ones.
  • Finally they did hire new ones and ?success.

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  • Bureaucrats and entrepreneurs mix like oil and
    water.
  • The entrepreneurial mindset innovative,
    intuitive, quick decisions, accept damage (cant
    make an omelet without breaking eggs)
  • Bureaucratic minset careful, logical, change
    slowly, make sure you protect your position, very
    worried about slight negative perceptions.
  • So negative response for Zimbabwe from
    bureaucrats.

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Entrepreneurs, not government programs, are the
heart of economic development.
  • But government or other bureaucracy often has
    resources or permits you need.
  • So facilitator must see both perspectives and
    help group see perspective of other.

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Final proof path synthesis or integration
Open stance (Conceptual pluralism)
Synthesize new paths
Systems thinking
Common assumptions
Integrators emerge and are valued
Adopt outcome frame instead of problem-directed
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Transformation of Australian Ag Policy
1981 systems agriculture facilitation training
begins at University of Western Sydney-Hawkesbury
Other Australian universities see successful
graduates and create facilitation training
programs and graduates spread through
government, non-profits and industry
1988-1990 commodity supports eliminated. Replacem
ent programs created with group facilitation as
key component
National Landcare
Research and Development Centres
Property Management Planning
Marketing Skills Program (DPIE)
Environment, Extension, Economic Development,
Research
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www.deltanetwork.org
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Marketing as part of Holistic Decision-Making for
new Enterprises
  1. Marketing Feasibility Analysis
  2. Marketing Trends Normal
  3. Marketing Trends Disruptive

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Pauza de pranz
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