Gilded Age Industrialism and Culture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Gilded Age Industrialism and Culture PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c2087-ZTk4M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Gilded Age Industrialism and Culture

Description:

Title: America s Early 19th Century Society and Culture Author: M-DCPS Last modified by: AAA Created Date: 10/5/2010 2:36:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:28
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: MDC93
Learn more at: http://jbapamh.wikispaces.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Gilded Age Industrialism and Culture


1
Gilded Age Industrialism and Culture
  • Unit VIA
  • AP United States History

2
(No Transcript)
3
Captains of Industry OR Robber Barons?
  • Using four business entrepreneurs as case studies
    for American innovation, industrial growth, and
    expansion of capitalism.
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • J.P. Morgan

4
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsCornelius
Vanderbilt and Railroads
  • Transportation
  • Railroads
  • Granger Movement

5
(No Transcript)
6
The Business of Railroads
  • Rate Wars
  • Pools
  • Competing lines fixed prices and divided business
    for max profits
  • Grange Lines
  • Midwest farmers dependent on rail lines for
    shipping
  • High freight rates impoverished farmers

7
Farmers vs Railroads
  • Granger Movement
  • Granger laws
  • Cooperatives
  • Munn v. Illinois (1877)
  • States could regulate private companies if they
    served the public interest, I.e. grain elevators,
    railroads
  • Wabash, St. Louis Pacific Railway Co. v.
    Illinois (1886)
  • States could not regulate interstate commerce
  • Interstate Commerce Act (1886)
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
  • Farmers Alliance
  • Ocala Platform (1890)
  • Free silver
  • Low interest loan systems
  • Decreased tariffs
  • Government regulation of communication and
    transportation
  • Graduated income tax
  • Favored direct election of Senators

8
Gilded Age Press and Literature
  • Newspapers and Magazines
  • Sensationalism and scandals
  • Joseph Pulitzers New York World
  • William Randolph Hearsts The New York Journal
  • Editorials and investigative journalism
  • Fiction and Realism
  • Mark Twain
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Gilded Age A Tale of Today
  • Jack London
  • The Call of the Wild

9
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsAndrew
Carnegie and Steel
  • Steel
  • Vertical Integration
  • Urbanization and Cities
  • Gospel of Wealth
  • Labor Unions and Strikes

10
Vertical Integration
  • Carnegie acquired all aspects of steel production
  • Limited competition, maximized profits, lowered
    prices

11
Bessemer Process
  • Oxidation of iron ore to remove impurities
  • Steel is lighter, stronger, rust-resistant
  • Carnegie and Steel
  • Adopted and adapted Bessemer Process to steel
    plants
  • Increased supply of quality steel dropped steel
    prices
  • Abundance of steel significantly impacted
    American industrial growth and expansion

12
Steel Production
13
Steel and Urbanization
  • Skyscrapers
  • Infrastructure
  • Grand Central Station
  • Brooklyn Bridge
  • Urban Innovation
  • Mass Transit
  • Elevated rails
  • Cable cars
  • Subways
  • Elevators
  • Central steam-heating systems

NYC 1850
NYC c. 1900
14
Gilded Age Architecture
Carson Mansion (1886) Victorian
Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894) Louis
Sullivan form follows function
Fireproof house Frank Lloyd Wright
15
Gilded Age Art
Cross Streets of New York (1899) Everett
Shin Ashcan School
Breezing Up (A Fair Wind) (1876) Winslow Homer
New York (1911) George Bellows
16
Gilded Age Urbanization
  • 20 of Americans lived in cities by 1860
  • 40 of Americans lived in cities by 1900

17
Urban Problems
  • Overcrowding
  • Tenement Living
  • Pollution
  • Crime
  • Sanitation/Water Treatment
  • Disease

18
Urban and Social Reform
  • Social Gospel
  • Post-millenialism
  • Based on Matthew 610 Thy kingdom come, Thy will
    be done on earth as it is in heaven
  • What would Jesus do? (1896)
  • Josiah Strong
  • Our Country Its Possible Future and Present
    Crisis (1885)
  • "The Anglo-Saxon is the representative of two
    great ideas, which are closely related. One of
    them is that of civil liberty. Nearly all of the
    civil liberty of the world is enjoyed by
    Anglo-Saxons the English, the British colonists,
    and the people of the United States....The other
    great idea of which the Anglo-Saxon is the
    exponent is that of a pure spiritual
    Christianity.The Anglo-Saxon is the
    representative of two great ideas, which are
    closely related. One of them is that of civil
    liberty. Nearly all of the civil liberty of the
    world is enjoyed by Anglo-Saxons the English,
    the British colonists, and the people of the
    United States....The other great idea of which
    the Anglo-Saxon is the exponent is that of a pure
    spiritual Christianity."
  • New Denominations
  • Christian Science
  • Pentecostals
  • Jehovahs Witness
  • Salvation Army

19
Urban and Social Reform
  • Settlement House
  • Established in poor urban neighborhoods
  • Provided education, daycare, and health services
  • Middle class volunteers
  • Jane Addams and Hull House
  • Based in Chicago

20
Urban and Social Reform
  • Jacob Riis
  • How the Other Half Lives (1889)
  • Henry George
  • Progress and Poverty An Inquiry into the Cause
    of Industrial Depressions and of Increase of Want
    with Increase of Wealth The Remedy (1879)
  • "Take now... some hard-headed business man, who
    has no theories, but knows how to make money. Say
    to him "Here is a little village in ten years
    it will be a great cityóin ten years the railroad
    will have taken the place of the stage coach, the
    electric light of the candle it will abound with
    all the machinery and improvements that so
    enormously multiply the effective power of labor.
    Will in ten years, interest be any higher?" He
    will tell you, "No!" "Will the wages of the
    common labor be any higher...?" He will tell you,
    "No the wages of common labor will not be any
    higher..." "What, then, will be higher?" "Rent,
    the value of land. Go, get yourself a piece of
    ground, and hold possession." And if, under such
    circumstances, you take his advice, you need do
    nothing more. You may sit down and smoke your
    pipe you may lie around like the lazzaroni of
    Naples or the leperos of Mexico you may go up in
    a balloon or down a hole in the ground and
    without doing one stroke of work, without adding
    one iota of wealth to the community, in ten years
    you will be rich! In the new city you may have a
    luxurious mansion, but among its public buildings
    will be an almshouse."

21
Gospel of Wealth
  • Based on an article written by Andrew Carnegie
  • Guardians of the nations wealth
  • All revenue generated beyond your own needs
    should be used for the good of the community.
  • In bestowing charity, the main consideration
    should be to help those who will help themselves
    to provide part of the means by which those who
    desire to improve may do so to give those who
    desire to use the aids by which they may rise to
    assist, but rarely or never to do all. Neither
    the individual nor the race is improved by
    alms-giving.

22
Labor Wages and Conditions
  • Time and Pay
  • Average work week for industrial worker 60 hours
  • Average hourly rate for unskilled industrial
    worker 0.10
  • Iron law of wages
  • Conditions
  • Poor ventilation and heavy equipment
  • In 1882, average of 675 workers killed each week
  • No benefits
  • No vacation days, sick leave, health insurance,
    workers compensation, pensions
  • Child Labor
  • As young as 5 years old
  • 12-14 hours for .27 (6.65)

23
Hours and Wages of Industrial Workers (1875-1891)
Year Average Daily Hours Index of Average Daily Wages (Jan 1860 100)
1875 9.9 169.2
1876 9.9 158.6
1877 9.9 146.3
1878 9.9 140.7
1879 9.9 137.9
1880 9.9 142.7
1881 9.9 160.1
1882 9.9 165.1
1883 9.9 166.0
1884 9.9 168.5
1885 9.9 169.9
1886 9.8 170.3
1887 9.7 170.1
1888 9.7 170.9
1889 9.6 170.1
1890 9.6 172.7
1891 9.4 172.5
24
Unions vs. Management
  • Industrialization, mass production, use of
    semiskilled workers devalued labor
  • Poor and dangerous working conditions,
    immigrants, and meager salaries upset workforce
  • Collective bargaining to appeal for better
    conditions, higher salaries, benefits
  • Union Methods
  • political action and efficacy, strikes,
    picketing, boycotts, slowdowns
  • Industrialization, mass production, use of
    semiskilled workers increased profits
  • Poor and dangerous working conditions,
    immigrants, and meager salaries increasing
    profits and satisfied management
  • Developed image of unions and organized labor as
    un-American, socialist, anarchist
  • Management Methods
  • lockouts, scabs, blacklists, yellow-dog
    contracts, government/private force, court
    injunctions

25
Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL) (1886)
  • Organization of national craft unions of skilled
    workers
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Bread and Butter
  • Higher wages
  • Shorter working hours
  • Better working conditions
  • Tactics
  • Arbitration and strikes
  • Political lobbying with Democratic Party
  • Knights of Labor (1869)
  • Terence V. Powderley
  • Platform
  • Open to blacks, women, most immigrants,
    Catholics, unskilled and semi-skilled workers
  • Cooperatives and anti-trusts
  • 8-hour workday, child labor laws
  • Tactics
  • Arbitration and strikes

26
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  • July 14-September 4, 1877
  • Causes
  • Panic of 1873
  • Class conflict with wage cuts and unemployment
  • Events
  • Strikers forced rail stoppages
  • Federal troops engaged strikers
  • Riots and massacres
  • Impact
  • Would lead to better organization of workers and
    labor unions
  • Legislation to limit unions and preparations for
    potential conflicts

27
Haymarket Riot of 1886
  • May Day (May 1st)
  • Strike begins of harvesting workers
  • May 3rd
  • Police sent to protect strikers
  • Fight broke out and one person killed and several
    injured
  • May 4th Protest
  • Anarchists planned demonstration against police
    brutality
  • Police dispersed crowd of 2,000
  • Bombing
  • A pipe bomb exploded and killed 7 police officers
  • Police fired into crowd killing 4
  • Trial
  • 8 innocent anarchists convicted of murder in a
    show trial
  • 4 hanged, 1 committed suicide, 3 pardoned by
    governor

28
Homestead Strike
  • June 30-July 6, 1892
  • Henry Frick
  • Manager of Carnegie Steel
  • Pursued wage cuts due to lower steel prices
  • Attempted to weaken steel workers union
  • Events
  • Frick orders a lockout and hires scabs
  • Use of Pinkertons to disperse strikers
  • President Harrison ordered federal troops to
    break the strike
  • Impact
  • Weakened steel workers union
  • Tarnished Carnegies reputation

29
Pullman Strike (1894)
  • Pullman Palace Car Company
  • Established model town for workers
  • In response to Panic of 1893, wages cut but not
    rents and town costs
  • Strike
  • Eugene V. Debs
  • Workers blocked transport of Pullman cars
  • Pullman Co. linked them to mail cars
  • President Grover Cleveland deployed federal
    troops and court injunctions to enforce postal
    service
  • Opinion
  • Most Americans opposed the strike
  • Including AFL and Samuel Gompers
  • In Re Debs (1895)
  • Supreme Court ruled federal court injunctions to
    enforce interstate commerce constitutional

30
(No Transcript)
31
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsJohn D.
Rockefeller and Oil
  • Horizontal Integration
  • Standard Oil
  • Trusts and monopolies
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890)
  • Gilded Age Society
  • Social Darwinism

32
Horizontal Integration
33
(No Transcript)
34
Standard Oil Trust
  • Tactics
  • Lowered prices to drive out competitors (rate
    wars)
  • Threatened companies to sell to Standard Oil
    (buyouts)
  • Bribed railroads to buy Standard Oil fuel
    (rebates, kickbacks)
  • Bribed Congress members
  • Trusts and Monopolies
  • Controls prices
  • Limits competition

35
Antitrust Movement
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
  • Prohibits any contract, combination, in the form
    of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint
    of trade or commerce
  • United States v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895)
  • Sugar refining monopoly tested Sherman Antitrust
    Act
  • Regulation applied to commerce and not
    manufacturing

36
Bosses of the Senate
37
What a funny little government
38
Scientific ManagementTaylorism
  • Frederick W. Taylor
  • Designed hierarchies and subdivisions of labor
  • Managers plan, schedule, train, and supervise
  • Workers perform assigned tasks best suited to
    skills
  • Time management
  • Effects
  • Managerial class
  • Efficiency
  • Labor resentment

39
Henry Ford and Model T
  • Assembly Line
  • Mass production of products through sequential
    assembly
  • Worker Treatment
  • Paid decent wages
  • Provided benefits
  • Model T (1908)
  • Low-cost product for affordable price

40
Gilded Age Socioeconomics
  • Socioeconomic gap extensively widened
  • By 1890s, 10 of Americans controlled 90 of the
    nations wealth
  • Statistics
  • Total national wealth in 1860 16 billion
  • Total national wealth in 1900 88 billion
  • National wealth per capita in 1860 500
  • National wealth per capita in 1900 1100
  • Expansion of middle class/white-collar workers
  • 2/3 of population were wage earners

41
(No Transcript)
42
Gilded Age Women
  • Upper-class and middle-class women
  • College educated
  • Increased independence
  • Involved in social reforms
  • Gibson Girl and New Woman
  • 20 of American women worked as wage earners
  • Most single women 5 married
  • Low-income families required women in workplace
  • Female-based Jobs
  • Typical home-associated industries
  • textiles, foods, domestic servants
  • New types of jobs
  • secretaries, bookkeepers, typists, communication
    operators

43
Temperance and Reform
  • Temperance Organizations
  • National Prohibition Party (1869)
  • Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) (1874)
  • Antisaloon League (1893)
  • Carrie Nation
  • Hatchetations
  • Reform Groups
  • Planned parenthood
  • Humane societies
  • Anti-prostitution

44
Immigration
  • Massive Influx
  • 16.2 million immigrants (1850-1900)
  • 8.8 million (1901-1910)
  • Old Immigrants
  • Northern and Western Europe
  • New Immigrants
  • Southern and Eastern Europe Asia
  • Catholics, Jews

45
(No Transcript)
46
Immigrant Issues
  • Sociopolitical Enemies
  • Nativists
  • Josiah Strong - Our Country
  • Legislation
  • Immigration Acts of 1882, 1891
  • Forbid convicts, lunatics, idiots, diseased,
    disabled
  • Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
  • Chinese immigration ban for 10 years
  • Chinese prevented from becoming citizens
  • Political Machines
  • Employment, housing, social services for votes
  • Ethnic Neighborhoods
  • Little Italy
  • Chinatown

47
Ellis Island
Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled
masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched
refuse of your teeming shore Emma Lazarus -
The New Colossus, 1883
48
Social Darwinism
  • Herbert Spencer
  • Survival of the fittest
  • Wealth a result of hard work and brilliance
  • Poor and unfortunate were lazy
  • Fueled and Influenced
  • Laissez-faire economics
  • Racism
  • Nativism
  • Imperialism
  • Eugenics
  • Horatio Alger Myth

49
Captains of Industry OR Robber BaronsJ.P.
Morgan and Electricity
  • Banking and Financing
  • Corporations
  • Science and Innovation
  • Consumerism

50
Corporations
  • American Telephone and Telegraph Co. (1885)
  • J.P. Morgan Co. financed merger of Bell and
    communication companies
  • General Electric (1892)
  • J.P. Morgan merged Edison General Electric and
    Thomas-Houston Electric Company
  • U.S. Steel (1901)
  • J.P. Morgan bought Carnegie Steel and merged with
    other steel companies
  • Becomes first billion dollar company in world

51
Corporate Mergers - 1895-1910
52
Electricity
  • Thomas Edison
  • The Wizard of Menlo Park
  • Incandescent light bulb
  • Safer than kerosene lamps
  • New York City
  • Direct current (DC)
  • Edison developed system of power stations
  • Nicola Tesla
  • Alternate current (AC)
  • Transfer of electricity faster and farther

53
Gilded Age Innovation
  • Sewing Machine (1855)
  • Isaac Singer
  • Transatlantic cable (1866)
  • Cyrus Field
  • Dynamite (1866)
  • Alfred Nobel
  • Typewriter (1867)
  • Christopher Scholes
  • Air brakes (1868)
  • George Westinghouse
  • Mail-order catalog (1872)
  • A.M. Ward
  • Blue jeans (1873)
  • Levi Strauss
  • Barbed wire (1873)
  • Joseph Glidden
  • Telephone (1876)
  • Alexander Graham Bell
  • Phonograph (1877)
  • Universal stock ticker (1885)
  • Thomas Edison
  • Transformer (1885)
  • Nikola Tesla
  • Gasoline automobile (1885)
  • Karl F. Benz
  • Skyscraper (1885)
  • William Le Baron Jenney
  • Film roll and Kodak camera (1889)
  • George Eastman
  • Motion picture camera (1891)
  • Thomas Edison
  • Radio (1895)
  • Guglielmo Marconi
  • Subway (U.S.) (1895)
  • X-ray (1895)
  • Wilhelm C. Rontgen
  • Powered flight (1903)
  • George and Wilbur Wright

54
Monumental Innovation
  • Charles Alderton
  • Experimented with various syrups and flavorings
  • Robert Lazenby
  • Developed Dr. Pepper by 1885
  • Patented and incorporated by 1891
  • St. Louis Worlds Fair and Exposition (1904)
  • Introduces Dr. Pepper to the world
  • Along with hot dogs, hamburgers, and ice cream
    cones

55
Number of Patents Issued
56
Gilded Age Academics
  • Educational Reforms
  • Public Education
  • Comprehensive education
  • Compulsory Education
  • Most states required 8-14 year olds to attend
    schools
  • Kindergartens
  • Led to 90 literacy rate
  • Colleges and Universities
  • Increased through federal legislation and
    philanthropy
  • Womens colleges and universities
  • By 1910 40 of college students were women
  • Black colleges and universities
  • Science
  • Charles Darwin and Evolution
  • Technological Innovation
  • Social Sciences
  • Scientific method applied to behavioral sciences
  • Development of psychology, sociology, political
    science

57
Consumerism
  • Wide variety of mass produced goods led to new
    marketing and sales
  • Brand names and logos
  • Department stores
  • R.H. Macys
  • Chain stores
  • Woolworths
  • Grocery stores
  • Mail order catalogs
  • Montgomery Ward
  • Sears, Roebuck, Co.

58
(No Transcript)
59
Gilded Age Music
  • Mainstream Music
  • John Philip Sousa The March King
  • The Washington Post
  • Stars and Stripes Forever
  • Semper Fidelis
  • Screamers Circus Marches
  • Entry of the Gladiators
  • Popular Music
  • Ragtime
  • Originated from black communities combining
    African syncopation and classical music
  • Scott Joplin
  • The Entertainer
  • The Blues
  • Originated c. 1890 from Deep South based on
    ballads among slaves
  • Lyrics mostly soulful and melancholy
About PowerShow.com