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Systems Analysis

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Budhi Buscas Edward Savage Bradley Stockton Ridwan Syafei Systems Analysis and Design * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Systems Analysis


1
Systems Analysis Design Methods
  • Budhi Buscas
  • Edward Savage
  • Bradley Stockton Ridwan Syafei

2
The computer is a moron. Peter Ferdinand
Drucker (November 19, 1909November 11, 2005)
see an example here
People think computers will keep them from
making mistakes. They're wrong. With computers
you make mistakes faster. Adam Osborne (March
6, 1939 March 18, 2003)
3
Introduction
  • Overview
  • Present a hypothetical project
  • Review applicable principles of IT Project
    management from class discussions
  • Discuss general principles of systems analysis
    and design
  • Review waterfall and iterative approaches to
    project development
  • Apply these approaches to the hypothetical project

4
Hypothetical IT Project
  • Online Advisory Module
  • Create an online, personalized advising system
  • System Functions
  • Track progress and classes
  • Create hypothetical personalized schedules based
    on historical semester offerings
  • Analyze student progress to anticipate future
    class needs based on majors
  • Provide customized information on alternative
    pathways
  • Track feedback on quality of instruction and
    content.
  • Goals
  • Improve student graduation rate
  • Optimize class size
  • Minimize schedule conflicts
  • Reduce size of advisory staff
  • Reduce cost

5
Hypothetical IT Project
  • As a manager
  • How should you proceed and what are the factors
    that impact on the development of this project?

6
Introduction
  • Prior Discussion in Class
  • Determinants of Success/Failure of IT Projects
  • Cost of IT Projects
  • Principles of Outsourcing for IT Projects

7
Introduction
Lecture, Lacity, MC Management of
IT-Enabled Business Projects, presented 2/28/07
Determinants of Success/Failure of IT Projects
8
Introduction
Keil, M., and Montealegre, R., "Cutting Your
Losses Extricating Your Organization When A Big
Project Goes Awry," Sloan Management Review, Vol.
41, 3, 2000, pp. 55-68.
  • Cost of IT Projects
  • Denver Airport -- Baggage Handling System
  • Expectations
  • 175.6 million contract with BAE Automated
    Systems to develop the system
  • 18 month schedule to complete, April 22 1992 to
    Oct 1993
  • Outcome
  • Cancelled after horrible test in April 1994,
    after spending over 2 billion
  • As a manager approaching development projects -
    Where did this fail?
  • Planning phase?
  • Design phase?
  • Implementation phase?
  • What development methodology was used?

9
Introduction
Lecture, Lacity, MC Management of
IT-Enabled Business Projects, presented 2/28/07
Determinants of Success/Failure of IS Projects
As a manager, what development methodology should
you choose?
10
Introduction

Lecture, Lacity, MC Nature of Information
Technology Within Organizations, presented 1/31/07
Management Principles for IS Projects
Governance and Decision Domains
11
Introduction
  • How are Information Systems developed
  • General Principles
  • Development techniques
  • Advantages and disadvantages for different
    methodologies.

12
Introduction
Dennis A, Wixom BH, Roth RM. Systems Analysis
and Design 3rd ed. Wiley, 2005, pp 12-13.
  • General
  • Methodology on Information systems development.
  • Waterfall Techniques -- Each step of the
    process must be completed in sequence
  • Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methods
    (SSADM)
  • Iterative or incremental develop systems in
    smaller steps with repeated iterations utilizing
    the information and knowledge gained from the
    first iteration
  • Rapid Application Development Methods (RAD)
  • Example Hypothetical development project

13
Information Systems Development
Lyytinen, K, Robey, D, Learning failure in
information systems development, Information
Systems Journal, Vol. 9. 2, 1999, p85-101.
Information Systems Development
(ISD) Definition Creating value-adding
processes that serve the needs of an
organization. Not just computers and computer
code (Brad Stockton personal communication)
14
Information Systems Development
http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings
/chapter4.html
  • Issues in early system development
  • Unstructured Methodologies
  • limited user involvement
  • inadequate description of requirements
  • unstructured analysis and design
  • absence of easy to use tools
  • inflexible storage and data management
  • Systems did not satisfy business requirements
  • lack of ownership
  • requirements may have changed or been
    misunderstood
  • inadequate analysis and design prior to delivery

15
Representative System Development Methodologies
Information Systems Development
http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings
/chapter4.html
  • This lead to the development of Structured
    methodologies for system development
  • Clarify and reduce misunderstanding of business
    requirements by formalizing the descriptive
    process
  • Standardize best practice techniques for the
    analysis and design process
  • Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method
    (SSADM)
  • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
  • Architected Rapid Application Development
    (Architected RAD)
  • Dynamic Systems Development Methodology (DSDM)
  • Joint Application Development (JAD)
  • Information Engineering (IE)
  • Rational Unified Process (RUP)
  • Structured Analysis and Design
  • eXtreme Programming (XP)

16
Information Systems Development
Whitten, Jeffrey L. , Bentley, Lonnie D, and
Dittman, Kevin , Systems Analysis and Design
Methods, 7/e, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007
  • Stages
  • Development
  • Operation and maintenance

17
Information Systems Development
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf. Wikipedia Methodology (Software
engineering) http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methodol
ogy (software_engineering). Imperial College
London The Free On-Line Dictionary
of Computing http//foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/.
  • Methodology
  • A codified set of recommended practices,
    sometimes accompanied by training materials,
    formal educational programs, worksheets and
    diagramming tools.
  • Thick methodology
  • A methodology that includes a large amount of
    formal process paperwork and documentation
  • Thin methodology
  • A methodology that eschews formal process
    paperwork and documentation.

18
Information Systems Development
Whitten, Jeffrey L. , Bentley, Lonnie D, and
Dittman, Kevin , Systems Analysis and Design
Methods, 7/e, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007
Information Systems Development methodology A
standardized sequence of Information Systems
development processes which solve problems, give
benefits, and competitive advantages to an
organization.
19
Information Systems Development
Sircar S, Nerur SP, Mahapatra R. Revolution or
Evolution? A Comparison of Object-Oriented and
Structured Systems Development Methods MIS
Quarterly, 25, 4, 2001, pp. 457-471.
Systems Analysis and Design Analysis Collect,
compile and document the IS requirements, create
models of the system. Design Create
specifications, design, implement and test
20
Information Systems Development
Dennis, Alan, Wixom, Barbara, Roth, Roberta.
Systems Analysis and Design 3rd ed., Wiley,
Hoboken, 2005.
Four Phases of Development
21
Information Systems Development
Dennis, Alan, Wixom, Barbara, Roth, Roberta.
Systems Analysis and Design 3rd ed., Wiley,
Hoboken, 2005.
22
Principles
Information Systems Development
Whitten, Jeffrey L. , Bentley, Lonnie D, and
Dittman, Kevin , Systems Analysis and Design
Methods, 7/e, Mc Graw-Hill, 2007
  • Justify systems as capital investments.
  • Get the system users involved.
  • Dont be afraid to cancel or revise scope.
  • Use a problem-solving approach.
  • Establish phases and activities.
  • Document throughout development.
  • Establish standards.
  • Manage the process and projects.
  • Divide and conquer.
  • Design systems for growth and change.

23
Hypothetical IT Project
  • Online Advisory Module
  • Create an online, personalized advising system
  • System Functions
  • Track progress and classes
  • Create hypothetical personalized schedules based
    on historical semester offerings
  • Analyze student progress to anticipate future
    class needs based on majors
  • Provide customized information on alternative
    pathways
  • Track feedback on quality of instruction and
    content.
  • Goals
  • Improve student graduation rate
  • Optimize class size
  • Minimize conflict
  • Reduce size of advisory staff
  • Reduce cost

24
Structured System Analysis and Design
Dennis, Alan, Wixom, Barbara, Roth, Roberta.
Systems Analysis and Design 3rd ed., Wiley,
Hoboken, 2005.
  • Overview
  • Waterfall Techniques -- Each step of the
    process must be completed in sequence
  • The next phase cannot begin before the previous
    phase is completed.
  • Structured System Analysis and Design Methods
    (SSADM)

25
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Office_of_Govern
ment_Commerce, viewed 3/10/2007.
  • History
  • Developed by the Central Computer and
    Telecommunications Agency (UK)
  • Office of Government Commerce (OGC)
  • support the procurement and acquisition process
    of public sector organizations in the UK through
    policy and process guidance and the negotiation
    of overarching service and provision frameworks
  • Made mandatory for new system development in 1983

26
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Syste
ms_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007
  • Define the system
  • Set the scope
  • Develop project plan

Strategic Planning
Feasibility Study
SSADM
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Logical System Specification
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Production
27
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
  • Planning
  • Goal Reduce costs and improve student graduation
    rates by developing an online academic advisor
    application for MyGateway
  • 250k/year cost savings from reduced staff of
    Academic Advisors
  • 800k increased revenue from student retention
    due to increased visibility and management of
    personal academic requirements
  • Scope Student activities related to managing
    their academic progress
  • Budget
  • 800k/year 1 for development (10 FTEs for 6
    months)
  • 160k/year for maintenance (2 FTEs for 2 months)

28
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
  • Tasks
  • Gather specific business requirements
  • Create system design
  • Build system
  • Write test conditions
  • Execute test
  • Implement system
  • Train students
  • Maintain system

29
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Syste
ms_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007
Strategic Planning
  • Analyze business and user requirements

Feasibility Study
SSADM
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Logical System Specification
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Production
30
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
  • Business Requirements
  • Single access point to manage individual degree
    program
  • Personal degree requirements
  • Progress towards earning degree
  • Remaining requirements
  • Class suggestions based on individual needs and
    class availability
  • Class add/drop functionality
  • Comprehensive grade report and analysis
  • Prospective schedule planning
  • Class assignment
  • Warning prompts
  • Out of scope
  • Student tuition/fee information
  • Tuition assistance functionality
  • Email functionality
  • Help center functionality

31
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
  • Cost / Service Tradeoff?
  • Tuition fee/tuition functionality - 30k/year
  • Tuition assistance functionality - 1000k/year
  • Email functionality - 15k/year
  • Help Center functionality - 200/year

32
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007.
http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchin
gs/chapter4/sld008.htm, viewed 3/29/2007.
  • Data Flow Modeling (DFM)
  • Identify, model and document data flow in the
    business information system
  • Data transformation processes
  • Data storage
  • External entities (things which send data into a
    system or receive data)
  • Data flow paths

Students
Faculty
Database
Administration
33
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf. http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/st
aff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html, viewed
3/29/2007. http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff
/tdhutchings/chapter4/sld007.htm, viewed
3/29/2007
  • Logical Data Modeling (LDM)
  • Identify, model and document data requirements
  • Entity (Required business information)
  • Relationships between entities.

Course Descriptions
Course Schedules
Courses Taken
Grades
Database
Academic Plan
34
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007. http//www.comp.g
lam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4/sld007.
htm, viewed 3/29/2007.
  • Entity/Event Modeling (EM)
  • Identify, model and document the sequence of
    business events
  • Entity Life History (ELH)

Student Course Requirements and Desired Electives
Prerequisites
Database
Courses taken
Course Schedules
Student Academic Plan
35
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Syste
ms_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007
Models Data Flow Logical Data Entity/Event
Strategic Planning
Feasibility Study
SSADM
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Logical System Specification
Functions
Requirements Specification
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Data Formats
Production
Inputs
Outputs
36
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Syste
ms_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007
Strategic Planning
Inputs Class Prerequisites Graduation
Requirements Past and Projected Schedules
Feasibility Study
SSADM
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Functions Create logical class sequences
Analysis of student progress
Logical System Specification
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Data Formats
Outputs Suggested pathways Warnings about
unstable paths Schedule plans
Production
37
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Syste
ms_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed 3/11/2007
Strategic Planning
Functions
Feasibility Study
Requirements Specification
SSADM
Data Formats
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Logical System Specification
Inputs
Outputs
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Logical System Specification
Production
Detailed Narratives
Technical Specifications
38
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structured_Syste
ms_Analysis_and_Design_Method, viewed
3/11/2007 http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwar_de
sign viewed 4/1/2007.
Strategic Planning
a process of problem-solving and planning for a
software solution
Feasibility Study
SSADM
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Logical System Specification
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Production
39
Added functionality
My Academic Advisor
40
My Gateway
User clicks Advisor Link
User clicks Degree Requirements
Personal Academic Advisor Page
Degree Req Page
Degree Progress Page
User clicks Degree Progress
User clicks Add/Drop
User clicks Degree Requirements
Add/Drop Page
Course Suggestion Page
User clicks GPA Analysis
GPA Analysis Page
41
User clicks Course Suggestion Page
Course Suggestion Page
User clicks on specific course
Description Add button
Degree Progress Page
User clicks Degree Progress
User clicks Add/Drop
User clicks Advisor Link
Add/Drop Page
Academic Advisor Page
User clicks GPA Analysis
GPA Analysis Page
42
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Goodland M, Riha K SSADM an Introduction.
http//www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/steve/1/, viewed
3/10/2007.
Strategic Planning
Feasibility Study
SSADM
Requirements Analysis
Full Study
Requirements Specification
Logical System Specification
Physical Design
Development
Construct and Test
Production
43
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
  • Software testing is the process used to help
    identify the correctness, completeness, security,
    and quality of the developed computer software.
  • Test Levels
  • Unit Testing programmers test individual
    modules
  • Integration Testing tests interfaces and
    interaction between modules
  • Functional Testing tests the product
  • System Testing tests integrated system
  • Acceptance Testing can be conducted by the
    client

44
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
  • Acceptance Testing Allows the end-user to
    decide whether to accept the product.
  • Examples
  • Does the website provide a single point of
    access for students to manage their degree
    program?
  • Does the website accurately include information
    from other UMSL applications (ie GPA, course
    availability, etc)
  • Does the website provide accurate course
    suggestions based on the individual degree
    requirements and progress?

45
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Release the distribution of the
software product Can be done in phases Alpha
stage when new features are being added Beta
system is actively being debugged Stable
important bugs have been removed
46
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf, , viewed 3/29/2007.
  • Advantages
  • Open Standard
  • Many companies offer CASE (Computer Aided
    Software Engineering) tools, training and support
  • Use for
  • Any size project
  • Develop new projects
  • Maintain existing projects

47
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007.
  • Advantages
  • Sequential approach dividing the project into
    modules, stages, steps, and tasks, allows
    straight forward project management
  • Can use experienced and inexperienced development
    staff that is tolerant of staff turnover
  • Facilitate communication between participants
  • Enhance initial understanding of design
    requirements and minimizing drift from these
    requirements

48
Structured System Analysis Design Methods
(SSADM)
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf , viewed 3/29/2007. Middleton, P.
Barriers to the efficient and effective use of
information technology, The International
Journal of Public Sector Management. Vol.13, 1,
2000, pp. 85-100. Middleton, P. Software
Quality by Administration, Software Quality
Journal, Vol. 7, 261-275, 1998.
  • Disadvantages
  • Assumes the requirements established at the
    beginning of the project will not change
  • Sequential approach can be very time consuming
    and inefficient creating delay.
  • There may be a longer development time and
    reduced flexibility is more likely to create
    failed successes -- Successful project that
    fails to meet its goals.
  • The assumption of a stable and coherent
    strategic context within which an SSADM project
    would take place was shown to be invalid in
    practice.
  • good quality, firm, detailed requirements are
    very hard to obtain.

49
Rapid Application Development (RAD) Methods
  • Overview
  • Iterative or incremental develop systems
    in smaller steps with repeated iterations
    utilizing the information and knowledge gained
    from the first iteration
  • Rapid Application Development Methods (RAD)

50
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Compton TR, Minimizing waste with RAD, Strategic
Finance Vol., 83, 12, 2002 pg. 50-3.
  • What is RAD?
  • A systems development philosophy that can be
    effective in controlling waste and inefficiencies
    that are so common with system development
    projects.
  • iterative development, construction of
    prototypes, and the use of Computer-aided
    Software Engineering (CASE) Tools.
  • The Goal
  • High quality systems
  • Rapid Development
  • Reduced cost

51
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf. http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/st
aff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html, viewed 3/29/2007.
  • Developed in the 1980s to address some of the
    shortcomings of SSADM and other structured
    methodologies
  • Very high level of user involvement fosters
    commitment and ownership
  • Rapid response to changing requirements
  • Multi-disciplinary approach combining users,
    analysts and technical specialists.
  • Incremental development of large projects
  • a software product is designed and built in a
    succession of incremental iterations.
  • Modularity allows application to many types of
    software projects

52
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Compton TR, Minimizing waste with RAD, Strategic
Finance Vol., 83, 12, 2002 pg. 50-3.
  • RAD
  • Define user requirements
  • Iterations
  • Build a system prototype
  • Develop and test
  • Deploy

53
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Knöll, Heinz-Dieter, Kuhl Roland, Kuhl Lukas, and
Moreton Robert, Optimising Business Performance
with Standard Software Systems How to Reorganise
Workflows by Chance of Implementing New
ERP-Systems, Springer, Wiesbaden,
2001. Software Project Management Methodologies
Techniques SE Project 2003/2004 group E 17th
September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SEP-ess
ay-final.pdf, viewed 3/29/2007. http//en.wikiped
ia.org/wiki/Time_boxing viewed 4/7/2007.
Components
  • Prioritization
  • Assign priority to quality criteria and functions
  • Time-Boxing
  • splitting the project up in a number of separate
    time periods - each with a separate deadline and
    budget
  • Efficiency
  • Testing with each iteration
  • Problems corrected earlier
  • Avoid waiting for the completion of one phase
    before beginning another
  • Integration and implementation part of
    development process
  • Handles requirement creep more effectively
  • Many standard packages available
  • Rational Unified Process (IBM)

54
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Beynon-Davies P, Carne C, Mackay H, Tudhope D.,
Rapid application development (RAD) an
empirical review, European Journal of Information
Systems, Vol. 8, 3, 1999 pp. 211-222.
Components
  • Joint application development (JAD)
  • Small group of users and designers with decision
    making authority skilled in design and business
  • Clean rooms
  • JAD remote from the business and free from
    interruption
  • Incremental prototyping
  • Developers create working model to show users.
  • Developers and users agree on changes and
    enhancements
  • Repeated until the user is satisfied
  • Highly interactive, low complexity projects

55
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Beynon-Davies P, Carne C, Mackay H, Tudhope D.,
Rapid application development (RAD) an
empirical review, European Journal of Information
Systems, Vol. 8, 3, 1999 pp. 211-222.
  • Types
  • Intensive
  • Developers and users enter a clean room for a
    specified time box to deliver a product.
  • Weeks
  • Phased
  • Delivery of incremental prototypes with
    successive refinements (iterations)
  • Months

56
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
  • Difference from SSADM?
  • Sequential development (Iterations)
  • Prioritization
  • User Involvement
  • Addresses changes throughout project
  • Iteration 1
  • Individual degree requirements
  • Individual degree progress
  • GPA analysis
  • Course suggestions
  • Add/Drop functionality
  • Iteration 2
  • Improve iteration 1 functions
  • Track progress and classes
  • Create hypothetical personalized schedules based
    on historical semester offerings
  • Analyze student progress to anticipate future
    class needs based on majors
  • Iteration 3
  • Improve iteration 2 functions
  • Provide customized information on alternative
    pathways
  • Track feedback on quality of instruction and
    content.

57
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
Hentzen, Whil, and Nowak, Patty. The Software
Developers Guide 3rd ed., Hentzenwerke,
Whitefish Bay, 2002.
Advantages
  • Rapid Development Greater efficiency
  • Sense of customer ownership
  • Better meets user expectations
  • Knowledgeable user
  • Understands and participates in development
    process
  • Effective communication
  • Flexibility for changing requirements
  • Earlier review and testing of the product
  • Earlier error detection
  • Reduced cost?

58
Rapid Application Development (RAD) methods
  • Kendall, Kenneth E. and Kendall, Julie E, Systems
    Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
    River, 2002.
  • Software Project Management
  • Methodologies Techniques
  • SE Project 2003/2004 group E
  • 17th September 2004 http//paul.luon.net/essays/SE
    P-essay-final.pdf, viewed 3/28/2007.
  • http//www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings
    /chapter4.html, viewed 3/28/2007.
  • Robinson R., Put the rapid into RAD Datamation,
    42, 4, 1996, pg. 80.

Disadvantages
  • May try and hurry the project too much
  • Haste makes waste.
  • Requires the availability of experienced users
  • Potentially steep learning curve for programmers
    inexperienced with RAD tools
  • e.g. RUP
  • Commercial product, no open or free standard
  • Complex methodology, not appropriate for small
    projects
  • Participants have to learn to work with it
  • Need to make a significant investment of time,
    money, and training
  • Loosely documented
  • Only useful for interactive projects
  • with a defined user group requiring specific user
    interface functionality
  • not computationally complex with requirements
    which are fairly simple (less detailed) and
    specific.

59
Summary
  • Successful Systems Analysis and Design
  • Managerial involvement
  • User involvement
  • Developer involvement
  • Standardized, robust methodology
  • Timely development
  • Mechanisms to adapt to changing requirements

60
Summary
  • Successful Systems Analysis and Design
  • Outlined two distinct approaches
  • Waterfall -- SSADM
  • Iterative -- RAD
  • In reality, many approaches have been developed
    which merge advantages of each approach

61
Summary
  • Successful Systems Analysis and Design
  • Waterfall Methods -- SSADM
  • Complex Projects
  • Broad Application
  • Relatively stable requirements
  • Relatively non-interactive
  • Iterative RAD
  • Smaller projects
  • Focused application
  • Dynamic requirements
  • Highly interactive
  • Customer ownership

62
Summary
Middleton, P. Barriers to the efficient and
effective use of information technology, The
International Journal of Public Sector
Management. Vol.13, 1, 2000, pp. 85-100.
  • Successful Systems Analysis and Design
  • Whatever approach is chosen
  • people rather than methodology are the key
    factor in raising productivity.
  • User communication the emphasis needs to be
    shifted from diagramming techniques and CASE
    tools to the sociology of projectsmuch larger
    and cheaper gains could be made from tackling the
    "soft" organizational rather than the "hard"
    technical issues within IS development.

63
QUESTIONS
64
Bibliography
  • Peer reviewed and scholarly journals
  • Harris AL, Lang M, Oates B, Siau K. Systems
    Analysis Design An Essential Part of IS
    Education Journal of Information Systems
    Education, Vol. 17, 3, 2006 pp. 241-9.
  • Cullen S, Seddon P, Willcocks L. Managing
    Outsourcing The Lifecycle Imperative MIS
    Quarterly Executive, Vol. 4, 1, 2005 pp 229-246.
  • Keil, M, and Montealegre, R. "Cutting Your
    Losses Extricating Your Organization When A Big
    Project Goes Awry," Sloan Management Review, Vol.
    41, 3, 2000, pp. 55-68.
  • Feeny D, Willcocks, L, Core IS Capabilities for
    exploiting Information Technology, Sloan
    Management Review, Vol. 39, 3, 1998, pp. 9-21.
  • Sircar S, Nerur SP, Mahapatra R. Revolution or
    Evolution? A Comparison of Object-Oriented and
    Structured Systems Development Methods MIS
    Quarterly Executive, Vol. 25, 4, 2001, pp.
    457-471.
  • Beynon-Davies P, Carne C, Mackay H, Tudhope D.,
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    empirical review, European Journal of Information
    Systems, Vol. 8, 3, 1999 pp. 211-222.
  • Compton TR, Minimizing waste with RAD,
    Strategic Finance Vol., 83, 12, 2002 pg. 50-3.
  • Lyytinen, K, Robey, D, Learning failure in
    information systems development, Information
    Systems Journal, Vol. 9. 2, 1999, p85-101.
  • Middleton, P. Barriers to the efficient and
    effective use of information technology, The
    International Journal of Public Sector
    Management. Vol.13, 1, 2000, pp. 85-100.
  • Middleton, P. Software Quality by
    Administration, Software Quality Journal, Vol.
    7, 261-275, 1998.

65
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