Politics and Economics of the Gilded Age - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Politics and Economics of the Gilded Age PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6c12a1-MzRjN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Politics and Economics of the Gilded Age

Description:

Title: America s Early 19th Century Society and Culture Author: M-DCPS Last modified by: AAA Created Date: 10/5/2010 2:36:19 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:8
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: MDC65
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Politics and Economics of the Gilded Age


1
Politics and Economics of the Gilded Age
  • Unit VIB
  • AP United States History

2
Third Party System (1860-1896)
  • Antebellum and Post War Issues(1854-1877)
  • Slavery and Emancipation
  • Reconstruction policies
  • Post Reconstruction Issues (1877-1896)
  • Civil Service Reform
  • Tariffs and Protectionism
  • Gold Standard and Silver
  • Populist Party
  • Democrats
  • Platform
  • Pro-slavery
  • States rights laissez-faire
  • Factions
  • Bourbon Democrats
  • Pro-business Democrats
  • Supported civil service reforms
  • Redeemer Democrats
  • Coalition
  • White Southerners, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews,
    Immigrants, working class
  • Solid South
  • Republicans
  • Platform
  • Radical Reconstruction
  • Pro-business tariffs protectionism
  • Factions
  • Stalwarts
  • Preserve spoils system and machine politics
  • Half-Breeds
  • Pursued civil service reform
  • Mugwumps
  • Independents discouraged with corrupt GOP
  • Coalition
  • Business, upper-class, middle-class, Northern
    WASPs, reformers, blacks, scalawags,
    carpetbaggers
  • Northeast and West

3
Election of 1868
  • Ulysses S. Grant (R)
  • Horatio Seymour (D)

4
Ulysses S. Grant (R) (1869-1877)
  • Civil War hero, but no political experience
    linked with moderates and Radicals
  • Grantism
  • Credit Mobilier
  • Union Pacific Railroad creates dummy construction
    company to hire execs at inflated salaries and
    earn high dividends
  • Sold stock to Republican congressmen and bribed
    press to keep quiet
  • Whiskey Ring
  • Republicans embezzled liquor tax revenues using
    bribes and networks
  • Amnesty Act of 1872
  • Panic of 1873

5
Election of 1872
6
Panic of 1873 The Long Depression
  • Causes
  • Expansion of railroads, enterprises in industries
    and mines outpaces market demand
  • Coinage Act of 1873
  • Demonetizes silver contracting the money supply
  • Crime of 73
  • Jay Cooke Company bankrupt
  • Major financing investment firm leads to chain
    reaction of banks
  • Effects
  • Over 100 railroads fail 16,000 businesses fail
  • Unemployment at 14

7
Election of 1876
Samuel Tilden (D)
Rutherford B. Hayes (R)
  • Republicans struggle to nominate boring
    Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Democrats nominate solid and popular Samuel J.
    Tilden
  • Tilden won the popular vote solidly and needed
    only 1 more electoral vote for majority
  • Contested electoral votes in 3 Reconstruction
    states (Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida)
  • Electoral Commission rewarded 3 sets of electoral
    votes to Hayes
  • Split ideologically 8-7 in favor of Republicans

81.8 voter turnout
8
Compromise of 1877
  • Hayes will become president, if
  • Remove federal troops from the South
  • Help develop infrastructure in South, ex.
    Railroads
  • Appoint Southerner to Cabinet
  • Limited enforcement of racial equality
  • Redemption
  • Redeemer Democrats
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Segregation
  • Disenfranchisement
  • Literacy tests
  • Poll taxes
  • Grandfather clauses

9
Rutherford B. Hayes (R) (1877-1881)
  • Compromise of 1877
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  • Civil service reform

10
Election of 1880
  • James A. Garfield (R)
  • Protective tariffs
  • Winfield S. Hancock (D)
  • Lower tariffs

79.4 voter turnout
11
James A. Garfield (R) (1881)
  • Challenged political machines, spoils system, and
    senatorial courtesy
  • Assassination
  • July 2, 1881
  • Charles J. Guiteau
  • a disgruntled office-seeker
  • Death
  • September 19, 1881
  • Chester A. Arthur assumes presidency

12
Civil Service Reform
  • Patronage/Spoils System dominated political
    appointments since Jackson
  • Corruption during Grant administration called for
    reform
  • Stalwarts
  • Supported machine politics and spoils system
  • Roscoe Conkling
  • Half-breeds
  • Pursued civil service reform
  • James G. Blaine
  • Garfields assassination
  • Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (1883)
  • United States Civil Service Commission
  • Federal employees based on expertise, civil
    service exams
  • Prohibited federal employees and campaign
    contributions

13
Chester A. Arthur (R) (1881-1885)
  • Assumed office after Garfields assassination
  • Pendleton Act (1883)
  • Despite being a Stalwart
  • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

14
Election of 1884
  • Grover Cleveland (D)
  • James G. Blaine (R)
  • Campaign
  • Blaine, Blaine, James G. Blaine. Continental
    liar, from the state of Maine
  • Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion
  • Mama, mama! Wheres my pa?
  • On to the White House, HA HA HA

77.5 voter turnout
15
Grover Cleveland (D) (1885-1889)
  • Haymarket Riot (1886)
  • Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
  • Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
  • Opposed Civil War veteran pensions
  • Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) advocacy
  • Pursued tariff reform

16
Election of 1888
  • Benjamin Harrison (R)
  • Protective tariffs
  • Grover Cleveland (D)
  • Lower tariffs
  • Against inflationary currency and war pensions
  • Won the popular vote

79.3 voter turnout
17
Benjamin Harrison (R) (1889-1893)
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
  • Billion Dollar Congress
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
  • Free Silver/Silverites
  • McKinley Tariff (1890)
  • Homestead Strike (1892)

18
The Populist Movement
  • Origin and Evolution of Populist Party
  • Granger Movement -gt
  • Farmers Alliance -gt
  • Populist Movement -gt
  • Peoples Party/Populist Party
  • West and South
  • Omaha Platform (July 4, 1892)
  • Coinage of silver
  • Direct election of Senators
  • Graduated income tax
  • State laws through referendums/initiatives
  • Government regulation/ownership of infrastructure
  • 8-hour workday
  • Abolition of national banks
  • Civil service reform

19
Bimetallism
  • Coinage Act of 1873
  • For Silver and Gold
  • Inflationary effect
  • If a farmer owes 3,000 and can earn 1 for
    every bushel of wheat sold at harvest, he needs
    to sell 3,000 bushels to pay off the debt. If
    inflation could push the price of a bushel of
    wheat up to 3, he needs to sell only 1,000
    bushels.
  • Free Silver/Silverites
  • For Gold Standard
  • Sound money
  • Banks and businesses preferred gold standard
  • Stable economy and prevents inflation
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
  • U.S. Treasury ordered to buy 4.5 million oz of
    silver monthly
  • Treasury notes could be turned in for silver or
    gold
  • Most took gold depleting U.S. gold reserves

20
Election of 1892
  • Grover Cleveland (D)
  • Lower tariffs
  • Gold standard
  • Benjamin Harrison (R)
  • Protective tariffs
  • Bimetallism
  • James B. Weaver (Pop)
  • Coalition of farmers and labor unions

74.7 voter turnout
21
Grover Cleveland (D) (1893-1897)
  • Panic of 1893
  • Bimetallism
  • Pullman Strike (1894)

22
Panic of 1893
  • Causes
  • Overexpansion
  • Railroad speculation
  • Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad bankruptcy
  • Silver Purchase Act repealed
  • Impact
  • Unemployment to 18.4
  • 16,000 businesses and 500 banks bankrupt/failed
  • Pullman Strike (July 1894)
  • Coxeys Army (1894)
  • March on Washington by unemployed workers and
    farmers 500 million for jobs
  • Dispersed by federal troops
  • J.P. Morgan and the Treasury
  • Cleveland and U.S. borrowed 65 million in gold

23
William Jennings Bryan (D)
  • The Great Commoner
  • Appealed to farmers, working class, middle class
  • Cross of Gold Speech
  • If they dare to come out in the open field and
    defend the gold standard as a good thing, we
    shall fight them to the uttermost, having behind
    us the producing masses of the nation and the
    world. Having behind us the commercial interests
    and the laboring interests and all the toiling
    masses, we shall answer their demands for a gold
    standard by saying to them, you shall not press
    down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns.
    You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of
    gold.

24
Election of 1896
  • William McKinley (R)
  • Mark Hanna
  • Outspent Bryan 5 to 1
  • Benefited from recovering economy
  • William Jennings Bryan (D)
  • Populist rhetoric
  • Campaign
  • Bryans stump speeches
  • McKinleys front-porch
  • Realignment election
  • Ends Third Party System
  • Begins Fourth Party System
  • Republican domination
About PowerShow.com