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Title:

Just-in-Time/Lean Production

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Title: Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management Author: Kenneth A. Shaw Last modified by: Ralph Janaro Created Date: 3/29/2005 3:35:37 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Just-in-Time/Lean Production


1
Just-in-Time/Lean Production
  • A repetitive production system
  • in which the processing and movement of materials
    and goods occur
  • just as they are needed!

2
Pre-JIT Traditional Mass Production
3
Post-JIT Lean Production
Tighter coordination along the supply chain Goods
are pulled along only make and ship what is
needed
4
JIT Goals(throughout the supply chain)
  • Eliminate disruptions
  • Make the system flexible
  • Reduce setup times and lead times
  • Minimize inventory
  • Eliminate waste

5
Waste
  • Definition
  • Waste is anything other than the minimum amount
    of equipment, materials, parts, space, and
    workers time, which are absolutely essential to
    add value to the product.
  • Shoichiro Toyoda President, Toyota

6
Forms of Waste
  • Overproduction
  • Waiting time
  • Transportation
  • Processing
  • Inventory
  • Motion
  • Product Defects

7
Inventory as a Waste
  • Requires more storage space
  • Requires tracking and counting
  • Increases movement activity
  • Hides yield, scrap, and rework problems
  • Increases risk of loss from theft, damage,
    obsolescence

8
Building Blocks of JIT
  • Product design
  • Standard parts
  • Modular design
  • Quality
  • Process design
  • Personnel and organizational elements
  • Manufacturing planning and control

9
Process Design
  • Focused Factories
  • Group Technology
  • Simplified layouts with little storage space
  • Jidoka and Poka-Yoke
  • Minimum setups

10
Personnel and Organizational Elements
  • Workers as assets
  • Cross-trained workers
  • Greater responsibility at lower levels
  • Leaders as facilitators, not order givers

11
Classic Organizational View
12
JIT Organization View
13
Planning and Control Systems
  • Small JIT
  • Stable and level schedules
  • Mixed Model Scheduling
  • Push versus Pull
  • Kanban Systems

14
Kanban
  • Uses simple visual signals to control production
  • Examples
  • empty slot in hamburger chute
  • empty space on floor
  • kanban card

15
Kanban Example
Workcenter B uses parts produced by Workcenter
A How can we control the flow of materials so
that B always has parts and A doesnt overproduce?
16
Kanban card Signal to produce
When a container is opened by Workcenter B, its
kanban card is removed and sent back to
Workcenter A. This is a signal to Workcenter A to
produce another box of parts.
17
Empty Box Signal to pull
Empty box sent back. Signal to pull another full
box into Workcenter B. Question How many kanban
cards here? Why?
18
How Many Kanbans?
y number of kanban cards D demand per
unit of time T lead time C container
capacity X fudge factor
19
Example
  • Hourly demand 300 units
  • Lead time 3 hours
  • Each container holds 300 units
  • Assuming no variation in lead-time or demand (x
    0) y (300 ? 3) / 300 3
    kanban cards

20
Extending the pull system
21
Note
  • For a kanban system to work, we NEED CONSISTENT
    demand across the work centers
  • How do we ensure this?

22
Mixed Model Sequencing
Product Monthly Demand Daily Requirement
A 800 40
B 800 40
C 200 10
Largest integer that divides evenly into daily
requirement is 10 A 40 / 10 4 B
40 / 10 4 C 10 / 10 1 Mixed model
sequence A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-C
23
Implementing JIT
What about automation?
24
Putting the Squeeze on Resources
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