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The Age of Religious Wars

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Title: The Age of Religious Wars


1
The Age of Religious Wars
  • Dogma to Politics(?)

2
  • Huguenots term applied to Protestants in 16th
    century France
  • Calvinist in nature
  • French monarchy suppressed Huguenots initially to
    placate Charles V who had captured Francis I at
    the Battle of Pavia 1525.

3
  • Initial French persecution of Huguenots drove
    Calvin and his supporters to Geneva
  • EDICT OF FONTAINEBLEAU 1540 French
    Protestants subjected to Inquisition
  • Anti-Huguenot measures increased under Henry II
    and the EDICT OF CHATEAUBRIAND 1551

4
  • 1559 Henry II of France died after a jousting
    accident.
  • The succession of his young son Francis II threw
    the balance of power in Europe off as external
    and internal rivals jockeyed for power.
  • Henry IIs wife CATHERINE DE MEDICIS was the
    de facto ruler while her sons kept ruling and
    dying.

5
Internal Opposition in France to the Valois Regime
  • BOURBONS French noble family from the south and
    west Louis, Prince of Conde
  • MONTMORENCY-CHATILLONS noble family centered in
    the middle of France Admiral Gaspard de Coligny
  • GUISE strongest noble family powerful in the
    eastern part of France ultra-Catholic. Marie
    de Guise was married to James V of Scotland and
    the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots wife of
    Francis II of France

6
Guise control of Francis II
  • Francis, Duke of Guise powerful general
  • Charles and Louis de Guise important French
    cardinals
  • The Guise faction represented militant and
    reactionary Catholic views in how to control the
    Protestants.

7
  • The Bourbon and Montmorency-Chatillon families
    became increasingly associated with the Huguenot
    movement for both political and religious
    reasons.
  • Calvinism was seen as a way to achieve
    decentralization of power Peace of Augsburg
    as noble families tried to regain some of their
    earlier dominance over the monarchy.
  • Conde and Coligny were military men who combined
    their religious/political/military prowess into
    challenging the weak king and his Italian mother.

8
  • With the death of Francis II in 1560, Catherine
    de Medicis was appointed regent for her minor son
    Charles IX.
  • Catherines motivation was always the
    preservation of her sons power often making
    her side with the growing Huguenots in order to
    counter the Guise family this all despite her
    personal hatred of the Protestant movement.
  • 1562 JANUARY EDICT Huguenots given the right
    to practice publicly outside towns and privately
    within.

9
The Start of the French Wars of Religion (and
politics!)
  • March 1562 Duke of Guise attacked a Protestant
    congregation at Vassy and massacred them
  • Catherine felt obligated to make a deal with the
    ultra-Catholic Guise factions in part due to
    weak initial support for her position by the
    Bourbon of Montmorency-Chatillon factions
  • INITIAL PHASE FRENCH WAR OF RELIGION 1562-1563
    Duke of Guise assassinated French Huguenots
    fought along side Protestant troops for Hesse and
    the Palatinate.

10
  • 1567-1568 second phase
  • 1568-1570 third and most violent phase
  • Conde was killed Coligny became leader of
    Huguenot faction
  • PEACE OF SAINT-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE crown recognized
    Huguenot right to worship in their territories
    and right to fortify their towns.
  • Catherine moved toward the Huguenots and used
    Coligny as a trusted advisor.
  • Secretly, Catherine began to negotiate with the
    Guise faction to subdue the Huguenots and Coligny
  • Coligny was planning to use French troops to help
    LOUIS OF NASSAU in the Netherlands to attack the
    Spanish forces of Philip II.
  • Catherine feared that angering her former
    son-in-law Philip II of Spain would bring Spanish
    and Imperial wrath against France.
  • France could not count on its former ally against
    the Empire the Ottoman Turks since their
    defeat at the BATTLE OF LEPANTO in 1571
  • WHAT WAS CATHERINE TO DO????

11
The Saint Bartholomews Day Massacres 1572
  • 1. Catherines daughter Marguerite of Valois
    married Henry of Navarre leader of the Bourbon
    family and a Huguenot
  • 2. Coligny shot by a would-be assassin
    organized by the Guise with knowledge of
    Catherine
  • 3. Catherine convinced the young king that the
    Huguenots were moving to seize his crown and only
    a swift and massive attack on Huguenots could
    save him.
  • 4. 24 August 1572 Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots
    butchered in Paris over 20,000 died within the
    next few days
  • 5. Pope Gregory XIII and Philip II ordered Masses
    of celebration
  • BUT this proved to be a spark that would
    eventually engulf all of Europe!!!!!!!!!!!!!

12
Protestant Resistance Theory
  • The massacre in France convinced many Protestants
    that the initial reluctance of people such as
    Luther and Calvin to challenge the power of
    legitimate rulers was long past.
  • Protestant leaders began to view the world as a
    struggle between freedom and slavery to Rome.
  • John Knox in Scotland had seen Scotland abused by
    French troops under Marie de Guise and knew of
    the Oxford burnings by Catholic Mary I of
    England.
  • His work First Blast of the Trumpet against the
    Terrible Regiment of Women 1558 was reread with
    new interest as it challenged rulers

13
  • 1573 Franco-Gallia Francois Hartman claimed
    that the Estates General in France had higher
    authority than the monarch this applied to
    religious and civil actions
  • 1574 On the Right of Magistrates over Their
    Subjects Theodore Beza tyrannical rulers
    could be overthrown
  • 1579 Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants
    Philippe du Plessis Mornay urged the use of
    arms against tyrannical rulers in other lands.

14
Rise of Henry of Navarre
  • 1574 Charles IX died and was succeeded by his
    brother Henry III
  • 1576 Catholic League led by the Guise and
    supported by Spanish gold
  • POLITIQUE
  • Peace of Beaulieu 1576 Huguenots granted almost
    complete religious and civil liberties.
  • 1577 Catholic League pressure made Henry III
    reduce the benefits of the Peace pushing all
    sides back to their hard line positions

15
  • Henry of Navarre Henry Bourbon was a direct
    male descendant from Louis IX and Huguenots
    looked to him to be the next French king
  • 1588 Catholic League took over Paris DAY OF
    THE BARRICADES Henry III tried to force the
    League out of Paris failed and he fled
  • 1588 news of the defeat of the Spanish Armada
    inspired Henry III to order the assassinations of
    the duke of Guise and the Cardinal de Guise the
    Catholics began a new slaughter of Protestants
  • Henry III made an alliance with Henry of Navarre

16
  • War of the Three Henries
  • 1589 Dominican friar assassinated Henry III
  • Henry of Navarre ascended to the throne as Henry
    IV and started the House of Bourbon
  • Pope Sixtus V and Philip II were horrified at a
    Huguenots on the throne of France Philip began
    plans to overthrow Henry IV and place his
    daughter Isabella of the throne despite Salic
    Law as she was the grandchild of Henry II and
    Catherine de Medicis

17
Paris of Worth a Mass
  • In an attempt to bring stability to France and
    his throne Henry IV public ally converted to
    Catholicism removing all Spanish, Papal, and
    Imperial objections to his rule.
  • 1598 EDICT OF NANTES Huguenots granted
    freedom of worship and assembly mainly within
    their own town and a right to fortify their
    towns
  • Peace????

18
With all of the bloodshed what happened to the
Catholic Reformation???
  • The Catholic Church eventually woke up to the
    urgency of the threat the Protestant Reformation
    posed to the power of the Catholic Church.
  • How to compete? Fight and/or Reform
  • Return to medieval piety and mysticism
  • St. Teresa of Avila
  • St. John of the Cross

19
The Shock Troops of the Papacy
  • Ignatius of Loyola
  • Society of Jesus
  • Soldiers of Christ
  • Spiritual Exercises

20
The Council of Trent 1545-1563
  • Reforms
  • Bishops had to live in their dioceses
  • Local bishops can discipline religious orders
  • Curtail selling of church offices
  • Bishops had to preach regularly
  • Annual visitations by bishops
  • Parish priests required to dress well, be
    educated, be celibate, work among parishioners
  • Seminaries in every diocese
  • NO THEOLOGICAL CHANGES

21
  • In response to the visually and auditorially
    plain Protestant liturgy from the near Catholic
    Anglican to the minimalist Puritan the Catholic
    church re-embraced extravagant music, paintings,
    architecture etc.
  • Baroque

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24
Politique
  • Political figures in the late 16th and early 17th
    century often had to walk a fine tight rope
    between personal religious beliefs and a need to
    unite a kingdom.
  • When rulers such as Henry IV who converted to
    Catholicism or Elizabeth I who did not
    persecute Catholics who did not break her laws
    put political unity above strict adherence to
    dogma they were called POLITIQUES.

25
Philip II of Spain the Netherlands, France, and
England
  • Spanish power came from gold from the Americas
    and control of European trade through the
    Netherlands.
  • When Charles V abdicated from the throne of Spain
    and HRE his brother Ferdinand was elected HRE
    and his son Philip II was named king of Spain and
    given control of the Netherlands.
  • The Netherlands had been a breeding ground for
    Calvinist thought AND was the main trading
    path for England PROBLEMS with Catholic Philip
    II will arise.!!!!!!

26
  • Spanish forces controlled the New World
    Mediterranean Sea (after Battle of Lepanto 1571)
    portraying the Spanish forces as the forces of
    Catholicism against Turks, Aztecs, and also
    Protestants.

27
The Netherlands
  • The Low Countries or the Netherlands as they
    were called in the late 1500s was a series of
    regions separated by culture, religion and
    language.
  • Areas such as Flanders and Luxembourg spoke
    French or Flemish as their language and were
    overwhelmingly Catholic.
  • Areas in the north spoke primarily Dutch or forms
    of German and were primarily Calvinist Holland,
    and Utrecht

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  • 1559- Philip II left his residence in the
    Netherlands and moved to Spain for the remained
    of his life.
  • His half-sister, MARGARET OF PARMA was named
    regent ruling in his stead with a council.

30
  • Margarets council was headed by CARDINAL
    GRENVELLE whose plan for Philips control of
    the Netherlands rested in
  • Internal church reforms
  • Destroying traditional self-autonomy of the
    various regions
  • Creating a docile, weak, and unified Netherlands

31
Resistance to Granvelle and Margaret
  • The COUNT OF EGMONT and WILLIAM OF NASSAU, THE
    PRINCE OF ORANGE, THE SILENT led the opposition
    to the policies of the council

32
  • William the Silent politique raised Catholic
    married Lutheran granddaughter of Luthers
    benefactor Philip of Hesse St. Bartholomews
    Day Massacre was what inspired him to become a
    Calvinist

33
  • 1564 after attempting to unify the Netherlands
    clergy under Spanish control Egmont and Orange
    were able to united opposition and force
    Granvelles removal from office.
  • The Netherlands grew restless as Calvinists urged
    greater separation from Spain and economic
    changes pushed urban artisans to unrest.

34
  • 1564 Philip II decided to impose all aspects of
    the Council of Trent within the Netherlands
    attempting to unify the Netherlands religiously
    and politically.
  • Protestants and nationalists rallied around Louis
    of Nassau and pledge to the COMPROMISE of 1564
    which was a pledge to oppose the Council of Trent
    and the Spanish Inquisition.
  • 1566 French Huguenot and German Lutheran forced
    flooded into the Netherlands in support of the
    Netherlands.
  • RELIGION AND POLITICS

35
  • While nobles even Protestant nobles did not
    support the foreign troops and the radical
    Calvinists of the Netherlands PHILIP II was
    fearful of revolt and sent the DUKE OF ALBA the
    Iron Duke to restore the complete power of
    Philip II

36
  • 1567 the Duke of Alba marched from Milan with
    10,000 soldiers with the support of the papacy.
  • Alba established the COUNCIL OF TROUBLES which
    arrested and executed thousands of heretics in
    the Netherlands EGMONT as among them.
  • The Protestants renamed the council THE COUNCIL
    OF BLOOD.
  • 10th penny the Netherlands were forced to pay a
    tax for their own subjugation.

37
  • The execution of men such as the Count of Egmont
    and the Spanish subjugation of the Netherlands
    through the Spanish Inquisition and Spanish
    forces led disparate faction in the Netherlands
    to unite in opposition of Philip II and his rule.
    William of Orange was in exile in Germany.

38
Sea Beggars
  • Anti-Spanish militants international in scope
    raided towns along the sea attacking the
    Spanish forces in the Netherlands
  • Initially, Elizabeth I supported their moves
    but their piratical nature threatened Spanish
    retaliation against England so Elizabeth
    withdrew her open support.
  • 1574 town of Leiden was under siege by the
    Spanish the town opened the dikes and flooded
    the land rather than allow the Spanish to take it
    damp earth policy
  • Alba was replaced

39
The Pacification of Ghent
  • 1576 Spanish mercenaries were unpaid and
    leaderless they brutalized Antwerp killing
    thousands THE SPANISH FURY
  • Catholic factions in the south united with the
    Calvinist north in opposition to Spain
    PACIFICATION OF GHENT agreed to allow local
    leaders to determine religion of their areas.
  • 1577 UNION OF BRUSSELS all provinces in the
    Netherlands united against Spain.

40
  • PERPETUAL EDICT 1577 leader of Spanish forces
    in the Netherlands agreed to remove all Spanish
    forces.
  • This was particularly annoying to Philip II not
    only because it challenged his power but
    because the Netherlands was to be the staging
    ground for Philip IIs invasion of Elizabeths
    England.

41
Union of Arras Union of Utrecht
  • 1579 fear of radical Calvinism led the southern
    provinces in the Netherlands to break away from
    the Union of Brussels - they formed the UNION OF
    ARRAS and made peace with Spain
  • Spanish forces used the southern Catholic fear of
    the Calvinists in order to re-introduce Spanish
    power.
  • The northern Calvinist provinces reorganized as
    the UNION OF UTRECHT

42
Lets bring in England and France
  • England under Elizabeth was desperate to keep
    Spanish influence in the Netherlands at a minimum
    because of economics and fear of invasion
  • France liked an independent Netherlands
    allowing French economic influence in the region
    and keeping Habsburg influence at bay

43
  • THE APOLOGY 1580 after Philip II declared him
    an outlaw William of Orange issued the Apology
    which denounced Philip II as a heretic and tyrant
    rejecting Philips right to rule in the
    Netherlands
  • The Union of Arras and the Union of Utrecht
    named the brother of the French king the Duke
    of Alencon as their sovereign

44
  • Alencon was a failure as Calvinist distrust of
    the Catholic and Alencons own ineptitude led him
    to be deposed in 1583.
  • William of Orange was assassinated by a priest in
    1584
  • Philip secretly signed the TREATY OF JOINVILLE
    1584 - with the Guise family against the rule of
    Henry III
  • Philip IIs Spanish Armada in 1588 led
    Elizabeth to send troops to the Netherlands to
    defeat the Spanish.

45
  • Spanish reoccupation with England and France
    allowed the northern provinces to push the
    Spanish forces out 1593.
  • Independent northern provinces recognized by
    England and France in 1596
  • 1609 TWELVE YEARS TRUCE formal peace with
    Spain
  • 1648 TREATY OF WESTPHALIA Spain formally
    recognized the independence of the northern
    provinces UNITED PROVINCES

46
England and Spain a fight for supremacy
  • 1554 the Spanish marriage of Philip II to his
    cousin Mary I of England.
  • Mary provided Philip a balance against France
  • Each monarchy was eager to support the Catholic
    cause and eliminate Protestants

47
  • Even English who supported the return to Rome
    were against the Spanish marriage.
  • Growing nationalism took precedence over
    religious unity
  • Protestants were infuriated over the marriage
    leading to Thomas Wyatts rebellion.
  • Many Protestant leaders fled England Marian
    Exiles many ending up in Geneva where they
    became radicalized by Calvin.
  • Hundreds of Protestants were martyred such as
    Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury at
    Oxford.

48
  • Oxford

49
Elizabeth I r. 1558-1603
  • The Spanish marriage led to the English loss of
    Calais so when Mary I died in 1558 the people
    of England rejoiced.
  • Elizabeth approached the question of religion
    from the position of a politique
  • The monarch retained power through a centralized
    episcopal hierarchy
  • Protestant dogma was combined with Catholic ritual

50
  • Episcopus Latin from the Greek for bishop
    signifying a church organized along a strong
    hierarchy.
  • EPISCOPAL
  • Presbyter term for church elder signifying a
    church with no or limited hierarchy no bishops
    individual churches often nearly autonomous
  • PRESBYTERIAN

51
  • 1559 Act of Supremacy Parliament re-asserted
    the Church of England
  • 1559 Act of Uniformity revised version of The
    Book of Common Prayer neither Catholics nor
    Presbyterians pleased.
  • 1563 THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES dogma for Church of
    England

52
  • Elizabeths main advisor was WILLIAM CECIL, LORD
    BURGHLEY
  • He was with Elizabeth for nearly her entire reign

53
  • Sir Francis Walsingham Elizabeth Is Spy Master
  • Despite the ELIZABETHAN SETTLEMENT which was an
    attempt to maintain Elizabeths power without
    persecuting the Catholics there were many
    Catholic plots to assassinate Elizabeth.
  • Walsinghams spies foiled the assassination plots

54
Catholic Plots against Elizabeth I
  • Spain Philip II was angered over Englands
    religious stance but was especially eager to
    see the death of Elizabeth because of
  • Elizabeths support of the rebels in the
    Netherlands
  • Elizabeths support of Sir Francis Drake and
    other Sea Dogs who plundered Spanish gold with
    support and knowledge of Elizabeth
  • Philip thought the removal of Elizabeth and her
    replacement by her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots
    would make England and Scotland puppets of Spain
    removing threats to Spain and weakening France.

55
Mary, Queen of Scots
56
  • Drake

57
Rising of the North Revolt of the Northern
Earls 1569
  • Since the days of Henry VIII the earls in the
    north of England had chaffed under royal control.
    Many were ardent Catholics and others had
    developed a sense of independence brought about
    by distance from London.
  • 1569 Catholic earls in the north rebelled
    against Elizabeth and her policies many hoped
    to place Mary, Queen of Scots on the throne.
  • The uprising was put down and several earls were
    executed.

58
Ridolfi Plot
  • 1570 Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth
    REGNANS IN EXCELSIS - and removed her subjects
    form their obligation of loyalty to her.
  • The failure of the Rising of the North led many
    to believe that only foreign assistance could
    overthrow Elizabeth
  • Roberto di Ridolfi - international banker
    organized a plot to have the Duke of Alba invade
    from the Netherlands and place Mary, Queen of
    Scots on the throne. News of the plot and Albas
    later reluctance to place a member of the House
    of Guise on the English throne ended the plot.
  • The plot was also led by the Duke of Norfolk
    Elizabeths cousin who hoped to marry Mary,
    Queen of Scots he was executed in 1572

59
  • Norfolk

60
Throckmorton Plot 1583
  • Francis Throckmorton plotted with the Guise
    family in France to assassinate Elizabeth and
    place Mary, Queen of Scots on the throne of
    England.
  • Discovered and Throckmorton executed.

61
Parry Plot
  • 1585 William Parry worked as a double agent
    against Catholics and then against Elizabeth in
    order to pay off his debts.
  • His idea of shooting Elizabeth as she rode in her
    carriage led to his execution.

62
The Babington Plot 1586
  • Sir Anthony Babington plotted with Mary, Queen of
    Scots and JOHN BALLARD Jesuit priest to
    assassinate Elizabeth and use Spanish troops to
    install Mary, Queen of Scots on the throne.
  • FINALLY, Elizabeth was persuaded by her advisors
    that a living and plotting Mary, Queen of Scots
    was too much of a threat to Elizabeth and England
    to live.

63
1587 Mary, Queen of Scots was executed
64
  • Elizabeth I
  • Marys death brought
  • THE ARMADA

65
The Spanish Armada 1588
  • The 1587 execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
    combined with Elizabeths continual assistance in
    money and eventually soldiers to the Protestant
    forces in the Netherlands AND English plundering
    of Spanish gold from the Americas forced Philip
    IIs hand to finally send an invasion force
    designed for the elimination of Elizabeth and the
    return of England to the Church of Rome by force.

66
  • 130 ships and 25,000 men sailed for England led
    by the unhappy and unprepared Duke of
    Medina-Sidonia.
  • In the Netherlands ships and barges filled with
    men were to join the force but never left the
    coast of Europe.

67
The English Wind
  • The English navy under the command of
    Elizabeths cousin Lord Howard and Sir Francis
    Drake defeated (?) the Spanish.
  • Unfavorable winds large and bulky Spanish ships
    contributed to the eventual destruction of the
    Armada saving Elizabeth and England.
  • Elizabeth had a medal of victory commissioned
    but also dismissed many of her sailors in order
    to save money leaving many of them destitute.

68
  • My loving people, we have been persuaded by some,
    that are careful of our safety, to take heed how
    we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear
    of treachery but I assure you, I do not desire
    to live to distrust my faithful and loving
    people. Let tyrants fear I have always so
    behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my
    chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal
    hearts and good will of my subjects. And
    therefore I am come amongst you at this time, not
    as for my recreation or sport, but being resolved,

69
  • in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or
    die amongst you all to lay down, for my God, and
    for my kingdom, and for my people, my honor and
    my blood, even the dust. I know I have but the
    body of a weak and feeble woman but I have the
    heart of a king, and of a king of England, too
    and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain,
  • or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade
    the borders of my realms to which, rather than
    any dishonor should grow by me, I myself will
    take up arms I myself will be your general,
    judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues
    in the field. I know already, by your
    forwardness, that you have deserved rewards

70
  • and crowns and we do assure you, on the word of
    a prince, they
  • shall be duly paid you. In the mean my lieutenant
    general shall
  • be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded
    a more noble
  • and worthy subject not doubting by your
    obedience to my general,
  • by your concord in the camp, and by your valor in
    the field, we
  • shall shortly have a famous victory over the
    enemies of my God,
  • of my kingdom, and of my people.
  • Elizabeth I, 1588

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