Thyroid Function and Disease - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 69
About This Presentation

Thyroid Function and Disease


Thyroid Function and Disease Sponsored by ACCESS Medical Group Department of Continuing Medical Education Funded by an unrestricted educational grant from Abbott ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:351
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 70
Provided by: sfrostNetP


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Thyroid Function and Disease

Thyroid Functionand Disease
Sponsored by ACCESS Medical Group Department of
Continuing Medical Education Funded by an
unrestricted educational grant from Abbott
The Thyroid Gland and Thyroid Hormones
Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland
Follicles the Functional Units of the Thyroid
  • Follicles Are the Sites Where Key Thyroid
    Elements Function
  • Thyroglobulin (Tg)
  • Tyrosine
  • Iodine
  • Thyroxine (T4)
  • Triiodotyrosine (T3)

The Thyroid Produces and Secretes 2 Metabolic
  • Two principal hormones
  • Thyroxine (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Required for homeostasis of all cells
  • Influence cell differentiation, growth, and
  • Considered the major metabolic hormones because
    they target virtually every tissue

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Regulates thyroid hormone production, secretion,
    and growth
  • Is regulated by the negative feedback action of
    T4 and T3

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid AxisNegative
Feedback Mechanism
Biosynthesis of T4 and T3
  • The process includes
  • Dietary iodine (I) ingestion
  • Active transport and uptake of iodide (I-) by
    thyroid gland
  • Oxidation of I- and iodination of thyroglobulin
    (Tg) tyrosine residues
  • Coupling of iodotyrosine residues (MIT and DIT)
    to form T4 and T3
  • Proteolysis of Tg with release of T4 and T3 into
    the circulation

Iodine Sources
  • Available through certain foods (eg, seafood,
    bread, dairy products), iodized salt, or dietary
    supplements, as a trace mineral
  • The recommended minimum intake is 150 ?g/day

Active Transport and I- Uptake by the Thyroid
  • Dietary iodine reaches the circulation as iodide
    anion (I-)
  • The thyroid gland transports I- to the sites of
    hormone synthesis
  • I- accumulation in the thyroid is an active
    transport process that is stimulated by TSH

Iodide Active Transport is Mediated by the
Sodium-Iodide Symporter (NIS)
  • NIS is a membrane protein that mediates active
    iodide uptake by the thyroid
  • It functions as a I- concentrating mechanism that
    enables I- to enter the thyroid for hormone
  • NIS confers basal cell membranes of thyroid
    follicular cells with the ability to effect
    iodide trapping by an active transport
  • Specialized system assures that adequate dietary
    I- accumulates in the follicles and becomes
    available for T4 and T3 biosynthesis

Oxidation of I- and Iodination of Thyroglobulin
(Tg) Tyrosyl Residues
  • I- must be oxidized to be able to iodinate
    tyrosyl residues of Tg
  • Iodination of the tyrosyl residues then forms
    monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT),
    which are then coupled to form either T3 or T4
  • Both reactions are catalyzed by TPO

Thyroperoxidase (TPO)
  • TPO catalyzes the oxidation steps involved in I-
    activation, iodination of Tg tyrosyl residues,
    and coupling of iodotyrosyl residues
  • TPO has binding sites for I- and tyrosine
  • TPO uses H2O2 as the oxidant to activate I- to
    hypoiodate (OI-), the iodinating species

Proteolysis of Tg With Release ofT4 and T3
  • T4 and T3 are synthesized and stored within the
    Tg molecule
  • Proteolysis is an essential step for releasing
    the hormones
  • To liberate T4 and T3, Tg is resorbed into the
    follicular cells in the form of colloid droplets,
    which fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes
  • Tg is then hydrolyzed to T4 and T3, which are
    then secreted into the circulation

Conversion of T4 to T3 in Peripheral Tissues
Production of T4 and T3
  • T4 is the primary secretory product of the
    thyroid gland, which is the only source of T4
  • The thyroid secretes approximately 70-90 ?g of T4
    per day
  • T3 is derived from 2 processes
  • The total daily production rate of T3 is about
    15-30 ?g
  • About 80 of circulating T3 comes from
    deiodination of T4 in peripheral tissues
  • About 20 comes from direct thyroid secretion

T4 A Prohormone for T3
  • T4 is biologically inactive in target tissues
    until converted to T3
  • Activation occurs with 5' iodination of the outer
    ring of T4
  • T3 then becomes the biologically active hormone
    responsible for the majority of thyroid hormone

Sites of T4 Conversion
  • The liver is the major extrathyroidal T4
    conversion site for production of T3
  • Some T4 to T3 conversion also occurs in the
    kidney and other tissues

T4 Disposition
  • Normal disposition of T4
  • About 41 is converted to T3
  • 38 is converted to reverse T3 (rT3), which is
    metabolically inactive
  • 21 is metabolized via other pathways, such as
    conjugation in the liver and excretion in the
  • Normal circulating concentrations
  • T4 4.5-11 ?g/dL
  • T3 60-180 ng/dL (100-fold less than T4)

Hormonal Transport
Carriers for Circulating Thyroid Hormones
  • More than 99 of circulating T4 and T3 is bound
    to plasma carrier proteins
  • Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), binds about 75
  • Transthyretin (TTR), also called
    thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA), binds about
  • Albumin binds about 7
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL), binds about 3
  • Carrier proteins can be affected by physiologic
    changes, drugs, and disease

Free Hormone Concept
  • Only unbound (free) hormone has metabolic
    activity and physiologic effects
  • Free hormone is a tiny percentage of total
    hormone in plasma (about 0.03 T4 0.3 T3)
  • Total hormone concentration
  • Normally is kept proportional to the
    concentration of carrier proteins
  • Is kept appropriate to maintain a constant free
    hormone level

Changes in TBG Concentration Determine Binding
and Influence T4 and T3 Levels
  • Increased TBG
  • Total serum T4 and T3 levels increase
  • Free T4 (FT4), and free T3 (FT3) concentrations
    remain unchanged
  • Decreased TBG
  • Total serum T4 and T3 levels decrease
  • FT4 and FT3 levels remain unchanged

Drugs and Conditions That Increase Serum T4 and
T3 Levels by Increasing TBG
  • Drugs that increase TBG
  • Oral contraceptives and other sources of estrogen
  • Methadone
  • Clofibrate
  • 5-Fluorouracil
  • Heroin
  • Tamoxifen
  • Conditions that increase TBG
  • Pregnancy
  • Infectious/chronic active hepatitis
  • HIV infection
  • Biliary cirrhosis
  • Acute intermittent porphyria
  • Genetic factors

Drugs and Conditions That Decrease Serum T4 and
T3 by Decreasing TBG Levels or Binding of Hormone
to TBG
  • Drugs that decrease serum T4 and T3
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Androgens
  • L-Asparaginase
  • Salicylates
  • Mefenamic acid
  • Antiseizure medications, eg, phenytoin,
  • Furosemide
  • Conditions that decrease serum T4 and T3
  • Genetic factors
  • Acute and chronic illness

Thyroid Hormone Action
Thyroid Hormone Plays a Major Role in Growth and
  • Thyroid hormone initiates or sustains
    differentiation and growth
  • Stimulates formation of proteins, which exert
    trophic effects on tissues
  • Is essential for normal brain development
  • Essential for childhood growth
  • Untreated congenital hypothyroidism or chronic
    hypothyroidism during childhood can result in
    incomplete development and mental retardation

Thyroid Hormones and the Central Nervous System
  • Thyroid hormones are essential for neural
    development and maturation and function of the
  • Decreased thyroid hormone concentrations may lead
    to alterations in cognitive function
  • Patients with hypothyroidism may develop
    impairment of attention, slowed motor function,
    and poor memory
  • Thyroid-replacement therapy may improve cognitive
    function when hypothyroidism is present

Thyroid Hormone Influences Cardiovascular
Thyroid hormone Mediated Thermogenesis (Peripheral
Local Vasodilitation
Release Metabolic Endproducts
Decreased Systemic Vascular Resistance
Elevated Blood Volume
Decreased Diastolic Blood Pressure
Cardiac Chronotropy and Inotropy
Increased Cardiac Output
Laragh JH, et al. Endocrine Mechanisms in
Hypertension. Vol. 2. New York, NY Raven
Thyroid Hormone Influences the Female
Reproductive System
  • Normal thyroid hormone function is important for
    reproductive function
  • Hypothyroidism may be associated with menstrual
    disorders, infertility, risk of miscarriage, and
    other complications of pregnancy

Doufas AG, et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci.
200090065-76. Glinoer D. Trends Endocrinol
Metab. 1998 9403-411. Glinoer D. Endocr Rev.
Thyroid Hormone is Critical for Normal Bone
Growth and Development
  • T3 is an important regulator of skeletal
    maturation at the growth plate
  • T3 regulates the expression of factors and other
    contributors to linear growth directly in the
    growth plate
  • T3 also may participate in osteoblast
    differentiation and proliferation, and
    chondrocyte maturation leading to bone

Thyroid Hormone Regulates Mitochondrial Activity
  • T3 is considered the major regulator of
    mitochondrial activity
  • A potent T3-dependent transcription factor of the
    mitochondrial genome induces early stimulation of
    transcription and increases transcription factor
    (TFA) expression
  • T3 stimulates oxygen consumption by the

Thyroid Hormones Stimulate Metabolic Activities
in Most Tissues
  • Thyroid hormones (specifically T3) regulate rate
    of overall body metabolism
  • T3 increases basal metabolic rate
  • Calorigenic effects
  • T3 increases oxygen consumption by most
    peripheral tissues
  • Increases body heat production

Metabolic Effects of T3
  • Stimulates lipolysis and release of free fatty
    acids and glycerol
  • Induces expression of lipogenic enzymes
  • Effects cholesterol metabolism
  • Stimulates metabolism of cholesterol to bile
  • Facilitates rapid removal of LDL from plasma
  • Generally stimulates all aspects of carbohydrate
    metabolism and the pathway for protein degradation

Thyroid Disorders
Overview of Thyroid Disease States
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperthyroidism

  • Hypothyroidism is a disorder with
    multiple causes in which the thyroid fails to
    secrete an adequate amount of thyroid hormone
  • The most common thyroid disorder
  • Usually caused by primary thyroid gland failure
  • Also may result from diminished stimulation of
    the thyroid gland by TSH

  • Hyperthyroidism refers to excess synthesis and
    secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid
    gland, which results in accelerated metabolism in
    peripheral tissues

Typical Thyroid Hormone Levels in Thyroid Disease
  • TSH T4 T3
  • Hypothyroidism High Low Low
  • Hyperthyroidism Low High High

Prevalence of Thyroid Disease
The Colorado Study
At a statewide health fair in Colorado (N25
862), participants were tested for TSH and total
T4 levels
  • 9.5 of subjects had elevated TSH most of them
    had subclinical hypothyroidism (normal T4 with
    TSH gt5.1 ?IU/mL)
  • Among the subjects already taking thyroid
    medication (almost 6 of study population), 40
    had abnormal TSH levels, reflecting inadequate
  • Among those not taking thyroid medication, 9.9
    had a thyroid abnormality that was unrecognized
  • There may be in excess of 13 million cases of
    undetected thyroid failure nationwide

Canaris GJ, et al. Arch Intern Med.
Prevalence of Thyroid Disease by Age
  • The incidence of thyroid disease increases with

Elevated TSH, (Age in Years)
18 25 35 45 55 65 75 Male 3 4.5 3.5 5 6 10.5 16 F
emale 4 5 6.5 9 13.5 15 21
  • Canaris GJ, et al. Arch Intern Med.

Prevalence of Thyroid Disease by Gender
  • Studies conducted in various communities over the
    past 30 years have consistently concluded that
    thyroid disease is more prevalent in women than
    in men
  • The Whickham survey, conducted in the 1970s and
    later followed-up in 1995, showed the prevalence
    of undiagnosed thyrotoxicosis was 4.7 per 1000
    women and 1.6 to 2.3 per 1000 men
  • The Framingham study data showed the incidence of
    thyroid deficiency in women was 5.9 and in men,
  • The Colorado study concluded that the proportion
    of subjects with an elevated TSH level is greater
    among women than among men

Increasing Prevalence of Thyroid Disease in the
US Population
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
    (NHANES I and III)
  • Monitored the status of thyroid function in a
    sample of individuals representing the ethnic and
    geographic distribution of the US population
  • NHANES III measured serum TSH, total serum T4,
    and thyroid antibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb)
    and to thyroperoxidase (TPOAb)
  • Hypothyroidism was found in 4.6 of those, 4.3
    had mild thyroid failure
  • Hyperthyroidism was found in 1.3

Hypothyroidism Types
  • Primary hypothyroidism
  • From thyroid destruction
  • Central or secondary hypothyroidism
  • From deficient TSH secretion, generally due to
    sellar lesions such as pituitary tumor or
  • Infrequently is congenital
  • Central or tertiary hypothyroidism
  • From deficient TSH stimulation above level of
    pituitaryie, lesions of pituitary stalk or
  • Is much less common than secondary hypothyroidism

Bravernan LE, Utiger RE, eds. Werner Ingbar's
The Thyroid. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott
Williams Wilkins 2000. Persani L, et al. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 853631-3635.
Primary Hypothyroidism Underlying Causes
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Agenesis of thyroid
  • Defective thyroid hormone biosynthesis due to
    enzymatic defect
  • Thyroid tissue destruction as a result of
  • Chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis
  • Radiation (usually radioactive iodine treatment
    for thyrotoxicosis)
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Other infiltrative diseases of thyroid (eg,
  • Drugs with antithyroid actions (eg, lithium,
    iodine, iodine-containing drugs, radiographic
    contrast agents, interferon alpha)
  • In the US, hypothyroidism is usually due to
    chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis

Clinical Features of Hypothyroidism
Puffy Eyes
Enlarged Thyroid (Goiter)
Forgetfulness/Slower Thinking
Moodiness/ Irritability
Hoarseness/Deepening of Voice
Persistent Dry or Sore Throat
Inability to Concentrate
Thinning Hair/Hair Loss
Difficulty Swallowing
Loss of Body Hair
Slower Heartbeat
Dry, Patchy Skin
Menstrual Irregularities/Heavy Period
Weight Gain
Cold Intolerance
Elevated Cholesterol
Muscle Weakness/Cramps
Family History of Thyroid Disease or Diabetes
Mild Thyroid Failure
Definition of Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Elevated TSH level (gt4.0 ?IU/mL)
  • Normal total or free serum T4 and T3 levels
  • Few or no signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism

McDermott MT, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2001864585-4590. Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds.
The Thyroid A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 8th
ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott, Williams
Wilkins 20001001.
Causes of Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Exogenous factors
  • Levothyroxine underreplacement
  • Medications, such as lithium, cytokines, or
    iodine-containing agents (eg, amiodarone)
  • Antithyroid medications
  • 131I therapy or thyroidectomy
  • Endogenous factors
  • Previous subacute or silent thyroiditis
  • Hashimoto thyroiditis

Biondi B, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2002137904-914.
Prevalence and Incidence of Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Prevalence
  • 4 to 10 in large population screening surveys
  • Increases with increasing age
  • Is more common in women than in men
  • Incidence
  • 2.1 to 3.8 per year in thyroid
    antibody-positive patients
  • 0.3 per year in thyroid antibody-negative

McDermott MT, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2001864585-4590. Caraccio N, et al. J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2002871533-1538. Biondi B, et
al. Ann Intern Med. 2002137904-914.
Populations at Risk for Mild Thyroid Failure
  • Women
  • Prior history of Graves disease or postpartum
    thyroid dysfunction
  • Elderly
  • Other autoimmune disease
  • Family history of
  • Thyroid disease
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Type 1 Diabetes mellitus

Caraccio N, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2002871533-1538. Carmel R, et al. Arch Intern
Med. 19821421465-1469. Perros P, et al.
Diabetes Med. 199512622-627.
Mild Thyroid Failure Affects Cardiac Function
  • Cardiac function is subtly impaired in patients
    with mild thyroid failure
  • Abnormalities can include
  • Subtle abnormalities in systolic time intervals
    and myocardial contractility
  • Diastolic dysfunction at rest or with exercise
  • Reduction of exercise-related stroke volume,
    cardiac index, and maximal aortic flow velocity
  • The clinical significance of the changes is

McDermott MT, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
2001864585-4590. Braverman LE, Utiger RD, eds.
The Thyroid A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 8th
ed. Philadelphia, Pa Lippincott, Williams
Wilkins 20001004.
Mild Thyroid Failure May Increase Cardiovascular
Disease Risk
  • Mild thyroid failure has been evaluated as a
    cardiovascular risk factor associated with
  • Increased serum levels of total cholesterol and
    low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
  • Reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
    (HDL-C) levels
  • Increased prevalence of aortic atherosclerosis
  • Increased incidence of myocardial infarction

The Rotterdam Study Design and Objectives
  • A population-based cross-sectional cohort study
    conducted in a district of Rotterdam, the
  • Cohort included 3105 men and 4878 women aged 55
    and older
  • Thyroid status was determined from a random
    sample of 1149 elderly women (mean age 69 7.5
    years) selected from the study
  • The study's objective was to investigate whether
    mild thyroid failure and thyroid autoimmunity are
    associated with aortic atherosclerosis and
    myocardial infarction

Mild Thyroid Failure Increases Risk of Myocardial
Infarction (MI)
  • Findings from the Rotterdam Study
  • Mild thyroid failure contributed to 60 of MI
    cases in patients with diagnosed mild thyroid
    failure, and 14 of all MI instances in the study
  • Mild thyroid failure appeared to be a strong
    indicator of risk for aortic atherosclerosis and
    MI in older women
  • Thyroid autoimmunity by itself was not associated
    with aortic atherosclerosis or MI

Hak AE, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2000132270-278.
Mild Thyroid Failure Associated With Aortic
Presence of Aortic Atherosclerosis
Condition Present
Condition Absent
Euthyroid Women Without Antibodies to Thyroid
Women With Mild Thyroid Failure
Euthyroid Women
Women With Mild Thyroid Failure and Antibodies to
Thyroid Peroxidase
Hak AE, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2000132270-278.
Relationship Between Thyroid Hormone and LDL
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) specifically binds
    and transports lt1 of total circulating T4
  • LDL facilitates entry of T4 into cells by forming
    a T4-LDL complex that is recognized by the LDL
  • LDL receptors are down-regulated by cholesterol
    loading and up-regulated by cholesterol
  • Hypothyroidism is usually accompanied by elevated
    total- and LDL-cholesterol caused by increased
    cholesterol synthesis

Colorado Study Cholesterol End Points
  • Treating mild thyroid failure may aid in the
    treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevent
    associated cardiovascularmorbidity
  • As TSH levels rise, cholesterol levels rise

Mean Cholesterol by TSH
Abnormal TSH
Mean Total Cholesterol (mg/dL)
TSH (?IU/mL)
Canaris GJ, et al. Arch Intern Med.2000160526-53
Four Stages in the Development of Hypothyroidism
  • Consensus
  • Stage FT4
    FT3 for Treatment
  • Earliest Normal Within
    population None
  • reference range
  • Second Normal High
  • (5-10 ?IU/mL)
  • Third Normal High
    Treat with (gt10 ?IU/mL) LT4
  • Fourth Low High Uniform
  • (gt10 ?IU/mL) Treat with LT4

Treat if patient falls into predefined
Chu J, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
The Rate of Progression of Mild Thyroid Failure
to Overt Hypothyroidism
  • Mild thyroid failure is a common disorder that
    frequently progresses to overt hypothyroidism
  • Progression has been reported in about 3 to 18
    of affected patients per year
  • Progression may take years or may rapidly occur
  • The rate is greater if TSH is higher or if there
    are positive antithyroid antibodies
  • The rate may also be greater in patients who were
    previously treated with radioiodine or surgery

Disorders Characterized by Hyperthyroidism
Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
Hoarseness/Deepening of Voice
Mental Disturbances/ Irritability
Persistent Dry or Sore Throat
Difficulty Swallowing
Difficulty Sleeping
Bulging Eyes/Unblinking Stare/ Vision Changes
Impaired Fertility
Enlarged Thyroid (Goiter)
Weight Loss or Gain
Menstrual Irregularities/Light Period
Heat Intolerance
Increased Sweating
Frequent Bowel Movements
Sudden Paralysis
Warm, Moist Palms
Family History ofThyroid Diseaseor Diabetes
First-Trimester Miscarriage/ Excessive Vomiting
in Pregnancy
Hyperthyroidism Underlying Causes
  • Signs and symptoms can be caused by any disorder
    that results in an increase in circulation of
    thyroid hormone
  • Toxic diffuse goiter (Graves disease)
  • Toxic uninodular or multinodular goiter
  • Painful subacute thyroiditis
  • Silent thyroiditis
  • Toxic adenoma
  • Iodine and iodine-containing drugs and
    radiographic contrast agents
  • Trophoblastic disease, including hydatidiform
  • Exogenous thyroid hormone ingestion

Graves Disease(Toxic Diffuse Goiter)
  • The most common cause of hyperthyroidism
  • Accounts for 60 to 90 of cases
  • Incidence in the United States estimated at 0.02
    to 0.4 of the population
  • Affects more females than males, especially in
    the reproductive age range
  • Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder possibly
    related to a defect in immune tolerance

Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis(Hashimoto
  • Occurs when there is a severe defect in thyroid
    hormone synthesis
  • Is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease
    characterized by destruction of the thyroid gland
    by autoantibodies against thyroglobulin,
    thyroperoxidase, and other thyroid tissue
  • Patients present with hypothyroidism, painless
    goiter, and other overt signs
  • Persons with autoimmune thyroid disease may have
    other concomitant autoimmune disorders
  • Most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes

Thyroid Nodular Disease
  • Thyroid gland nodules are common in the general
  • Palpable nodules occur in approximately 5 of the
    US population, mainly in women
  • Most thyroid nodules are benign
  • Less than 5 are malignant
  • Only 8 to 10 of patients with thyroid nodules
    have thyroid cancer

Multinodular Goiter (MNG)
  • MNG is an enlarged thyroid gland containing
    multiple nodules
  • The thyroid gland becomes more nodular with
    increasing age
  • In MNG, nodules typically vary in size
  • Most MNGs are asymptomatic
  • MNG may be toxic or nontoxic
  • Toxic MNG occurs when multiple sites of
    autonomous nodule hyperfunction develop,
    resulting in thyrotoxicosis
  • Toxic MNG is more common in the elderly

Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Incidence
  • Thyroid carcinoma occurs relatively infrequently
    compared to the common occurrence of benign
    thyroid disease
  • Thyroid cancers account for only 0.74 of cancers
    among men, and 2.3 of cancers in women in the US
  • The annual rate has increased nearly 50 since
    1973 to approximately 18 000 cases
  • Thyroid carcinomas (percentage of all US cases)
  • Papillary (80)
  • Follicular (about 10)
  • Medullary thyroid (5-10)
  • Anaplastic carcinoma (1-2)
  • Primary thyroid lymphomas (rare)
  • Metastatic from other primary sites (rare)

Association Between Goiters, Thyroid Nodules, and
Thyroid Carcinoma
  • Risk factors for carcinoma associated with
    presence of thyroid nodules
  • Solitary thyroid nodules in patients gt60 or lt30
    years of age
  • Irradiation of the neck or face during infancy or
    teenage years
  • Symptoms of pain or pressure (especially a change
    in voice)
  • Solitary nodules tend to present a higher but not
    significantly increased risk of cancer compared
    with nodules in multinodular goiters
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)