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The Coming of World War II

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The Coming of World War II Notes Chapter 25 Section 1 Objective: Trace the changes in American policy from isolationism to involvement in the war in Europe and Asia. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Coming of World War II


1
The Coming of World War II
  • Notes Chapter 25 Section 1

Objective
Trace the changes in American policy from
isolationism to involvement in the war in Europe
and Asia.
2
Rise of Dictators
  • Rise of dictatorships during 1920s in Germany,
    Italy, and Japan
  • Fascism
  • -totalitarian organization of government and
    society by a single-party dictatorship, intensely
    nationalist, racist, militarist, and imperialist

3
Fascism
  • Fasces
  • A Latin word referring to a bundle of sticks
    bound to the handle of an axe.

4
Characteristics Fascism
  • Censorship
  • No criticism of the government
  • Schools teach fascist philosophy
  • No individual freedom

5
Characteristics Fascism
  • Private ownership
  • Fascist powers look back in history to their
    nations great and glorious past.
  • War is the most noble goal of man- Hitler

6
Communism v. Fascism
  • Poor and underdeveloped countries Russia and
    China
  • Pre-democratic
  • Coercive way of industrializing an underdeveloped
    society
  • Wealthier and advanced technology German,
    Italy, and Japan
  • Post-democratic
  • Based on brutality and mass support the more
    brutal, the more popular
  • Propaganda
  • Appealed to industrialists and land owners and
    lower middle class
  • Opposed communism

7
Italy Benito Mussolini
  • Short changed in Treaty of Versailles gained
    few territories
  • 1919 formed Fascist party with other veterans
  • Wanted to restore the former glory that was Romes

8
Mussolini Il Duce
  • 1922 threatened to march on Rome unless his
    authority was recognized
  • King Victor Emmanuel III asked him to become
    prime minister

9
1925 declared dictatorship
  • Efficiency and order would make Italy great
  • Suspended elections
  • Centralized the economy
  • Modernized the military
  • Make the Mediterranean an Italian Sea Attacked
    Ethiopia in 1935

10
Hitler
  • Corporal in WWI
  • Enraged at Germanys defeat and terms of
    Versailles Treaty
  • National Socialist German Workers Party Nazi
  • Fascist
  • Anti-Semite

11
Munich Putsche
  • November 1923
  • Attempted to seize Munich government
  • Guilty of high treason
  • Sentenced to 5 years
  • Served 9 months
  • Wrote Mein Kampf

12
Mein Kampf
  • Book written while Hitler was jailed
  • Diagnosed Germanys problems and how to cure them
  • Expressed hatred for the Jews and Slavic people
  • Hatred for communism
  • Said Germany needed Lebensraum

13
Anti-Semitism
  • Hatred of the Jews
  • Blamed Jews for Germanys problems
  • Germans were the Master Race
  • Ordered boycott of Jewish shops, burned books,
    imprisoned Jews in concentration camps

14
Conditions in Germany
  • People had little faith in the weak existing
    democratic government
  • A multi-party system hindered the growth of a
    strong center party
  • Fear of communism
  • Avenge defeat of WWI
  • Unemployment severe, inflation, depression
  • German middle class hungered for stability even
    at the cost of liberty
  • Police and military high command offered no
    serious opposition when Nazis used strong-arm
    methods to gain control

15
Rise to Power
  • 1920 National Socialist Workers Party
  • 1923 Tried to seize Munich?jailed for 9 months
  • Promised to stabilize country and rebuild economy
  • Promised to revive German Empire
  • 1933 Nazis largest party in Reichstag
  • Hitler named chancellor

16
Hitler Seizes Power
  • Reichstag burns down
  • Hitler suspended civil liberties
  • Received dictatorial powers
  • New government Third Reich
  • Der Fuhrer

17
How fortunate for leaders that men do not
think. - A. Hitler
18
Book burning - May 10, 1933
19
Hitler Repudiates the Treaty of Versailles
  1. Insisted on equality of arms
  2. Announced withdrawal from League of Nations
  3. 1935 announced rearmament of Germany

20
The Nuremberg Rally
21
German Propaganda Posters
"Hitler is building. Help him. Buy German goods."
22
Hitler strengthens his power
  • 1933 Concentration camps
  • 1935 The Nuremberg Laws
  • 1938 Kristallnacht The Night of Broken
    Glass

23
The Nuremberg Laws Nazi Racial Legislation
  • Laws designed to
  • - Purify Germany
  • - Define citizenship
  • - Define the position of
  • Jews in the Third Reich.

24
The Nuremberg Laws Nazi Racial Legislation
  • A few examples 1933-1939
  • suspends Jewish doctors from the citys charity
    services.
  • removes Jews from government service.
  • The Gun Law excludes Jewish gun merchants.
  • invalidates all German passports held by Jews.
  • Jews must surrender their old passports, which
    will become valid only after the letter J had
    been stamped on them.
  • Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life
    closes all Jewish-owned businesses.
  • expels all Jewish children from public schools.
  • restricts the freedom of movement of Jews.

25
Jim Crow LawsUS Racial Legislation
  • A few examples
  • Nurses No person or corporation shall require any
    white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in
    hospitals, either public or private, in which
    negro men are placed. Alabama
  • Education The schools for white children and the
    schools for negro children shall be conducted
    separately. Florida
  • Intermarriage It shall be unlawful for a white
    person to marry anyone except a white person. Any
    marriage in violation of this section shall be
    void. Georgia
  • Textbooks Books shall not be interchangeable
    between the white and colored schools, but shall
    continue to be used by the race first using them.
    North Carolina
  • Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or
    corporations, who or which furnish meals to
    passengers at station restaurants or station
    eating houses, in times limited by common
    carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said
    meals to white and colored passengers in the same
    room, or at the same table, or at the same
    counter. South Carolina

26
1938 Kristallnacht "Night of Broken Glass"
  • Jewish teenager murders a German official in
    Paris
  • Violent pogrom (persecution) against Germanys
    Jews
  • Initiated on the 15th anniversary of the failed
    Munich putsch.
  • 1,000 synagogues burned 7,000 Jewish businesses
    looted
  • Jewish cemeteries, hospitals, schools homes
    looted
  • 30,000 arrested for being Jewish
  • Jewish business not allowed to reopen
  • Curfews on Jews leaving their homes

27
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28
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29
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30
1931-32 World EventsJapan invades Manchuria
Shanghai
  • American Response
  • Diplomatic protest
  • No Action

31
Japan
  • Wanted to be a world power
  • Chain of islands in Pacific
  • Limited resources
  • Japan needed raw materials for industrial economy
  • Depended upon the U.S. for iron, coal, and
    petroleum

32
Japanese Resentment
  • Material dependency
  • Lack of gains from Treaty of Versailles
  • 1922 Washington Naval Disarmament Treaty
  • Restrictions on immigration to US
  • High U.S. tariffs prohibited Japanese imports to
    U.S.
  • Led to prolonged depression in Japan

33
Two factions in Japan
  • Moderates wanted strict observance of treaties
    and conciliations to U.S.
  • Militarists wanted an end to the power of the
    West in the W. Pacific

34
Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
  • Japanese Monroe Doctrine
  • Japan announces interest in maintenance of order
    in the W. Pacific
  • 1931 Japan attacked Manchuria
  • 1932 Japan controlled Manchuria
  • Set up a puppet government
  • Manchukuo
  • League of Nations condemned Japanese aggression
  • Japan withdraws from the League

35
1935World EventItaly invades Ethiopia
  • American Response
  • The Neutrality Acts are passed

36
Italo Ethiopian War 1935-36
  • Italy attacked primitive Ethiopia with a modern
    air force
  • Emperor Haille Salasi appealed to the L of N

37
Italy Ethiopia
  • 1935 Italy invades the African nation of Ethiopia
  • More empty threats by League
  • 1936 Ethiopia falls

38
League branded Italy the aggressor
  • Minor economic sanctions
  • Failed to embargo oil
  • Italy conquered and annexed Ethiopia

39
American Response Isolationism
  • Disillusioned by WWI
  • 70 polled feel WWI a mistake
  • Nye Committee merchants of death
  • College students
  • 39 refuse to fight
  • 33 only if US attacked
  • Nationwide student strike opposing war prep
  • Spans political spectrum
  • Keep America Out - unionists
  • America First Committee Henry Ford Charles
    Lindbergh denounced any move by the govt
    toward involvement

40
The Neutrality Acts
  • Designed to keep the US out of war
  • 1935 Banned war supplies
  • 1935 Forbid travel
  • 1936 Prohibited loans
  • 1937 Included the Spanish CW
  • 1939 cash-and-carry
  • Replaced by lend-lease

41
Neutrality Acts
  • Designed to avoid the same issues that caused
    U.S. to enter WWI
  • 1st Neutrality Act
  • Prohibited sale of war implements to belligerents
  • Prohibited loans to belligerents
  • Prohibited Am. from sailing on ships of
    belligerents
  • Restricted entry of U.S. merchant ships into war
    zones

42
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43
1936World EventGermany rearms sends troops
into the Rhineland
  • American Response
  • Britain, France U.S.
  • No action

44
1936 The Axis PowersGermany - Italy
  • Rome-Berlin Axis
  • Supporting parallel interests

45
The Axis Powers
  • Axis- a straight line around which a geometric
    figure can rotate.
  • Draw a line between Rome Berlin The two
    dictators wanted the rest of Europe to revolve
    around their regimes.

46
1936World EventCivil War in SpainGeneral
Francisco Franco
Guernica, Picasso 1937
  • American Response
  • Neutrality Acts amended

47
Spanish Civil War
  • 1936-37
  • Rebels army, Churchmen, fascists Franco and
    Nationalist forces
  • Govt of Spain (The Republic) anticlericals,
    industrial workers, socialists, and communists,
    foreign volunteers
  • Italy and Germany sent volunteers to help the
    Nationalist
  • Franco rules from 1939 until his death in 1975

48
Spanish Civil War
  • 27 nations involved
  • England and France embargoed arms to both sides
    because of danger of world war
  • Majority of Am. refused to take sides
  • Minority of Am. supported loyalists Abraham
    Lincoln Brigade
  • U.S. invoked neutrality laws and refused to sell
    arms
  • Dress rehearsal for WWII

49
  • This nation will remain a neutral nation I
    hate war I hope the United States will keep out
    of this war. I believe this is wise.
  • - President Roosevelt
  • Fireside Chat, Aug. 14,1936

50
1937World EventJapan begins full scale
invasion of China WW II officially starts in
Asia
  • American Response
  • Diplomatic protest
  • Congress appropriates 1 billion to expand the
    navy

51
Japanese aggression
  • 1937 Invasion of Northern China
  • Captures Nanjing and slaughters 300,000 Chinese
    civilians
  • Believe America is weak
  • Neutral position on Manchurian Crisis
  • Steps toward Philippine independence
  • Efforts toward American Naval disarmament

52
Undeclared War
  • July, 1937 an undeclared war on China
  • Americans are sympathetic and do not invoke
    neutrality laws
  • FDR Quarantine Speech denounced aggressor
    nations and asked peace-loving nations to
    preserve order, as a community approves and
    joins in quarantine against disease

53
Germany annexesAustria (Anschluss)
SudetenlandThe Munich Pact is signed
  • 1938World Events

54
Munich Conference
  • 1938
  • Great Britain and France met with Hitler
  • Hitler promises Sudetenland last territorial
    claim
  • PM Chamberlain of G.B. said We have won peace
    in our time.
  • Appeasement Keeps the peace by giving in to
    Hitlers demands
  • Emboldens Hitler

55
The Munich Pact
56
1939World Event
  • Germany invades Czechoslovakia
  • Stalin Hitler sign a Non-Aggression Pact
  • Hitler invades Poland from the west
  • Stalin invades from the east
  • Poland
  • Estonia
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Finland

57
Blitzkrieg (lightning war)
  • Germany attacks Poland Sept. 1, 1939
  • G.B. and France declare war against Germany
    Sept. 3, 1939.

58
1939 American Response
  • The Neutrality Acts are amended to cash carry

59
1940 World Event
  • Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium
    France
  • WW II officially starts in Europe
  • Blitzkrieg
  • Dunkirk
  • The Battle for Britain

60
1940 American Response
  • Selective Service Act
  • Destroyers for Bases Deal
  • Lend-Lease Plan

61
Arsenal of Democracy
  • Roosevelt moved to help Great Britain PM
    Winston Churchill asked for destroyers to convoy
    supplies across the Atlantic
  • FDR gave 50 old American ships in return for
    sites on which to build 8 naval and air bases
  • Lend lease The U.S. will lend-lease goods to
    any country whose defense is necessary for the
    defense of U.S.

62
Fall of France
  • Maginot Line
  • Germans invade through the Ardennes Forest
  • Italy declares war against France

63
Evacuation Miracle at Dunkirk 338,000 British
soldiers saved
64
Fall of Paris
  • Occupied France German occupied north and west
    disarmed
  • Vichy France Marshall Petain collaborationist
    regime
  • Free French led by Charles de Gaulle escapes to GB

65
The Axis PowersGermany - Italy - Japan
  • 1940 Tripartite Pact
  • Rome Berlin Tokyo Axis

66
Japan sought control of SE Asia
  • 1940 began to attack European possessions in SE
    Asia
  • 1940 signed an alliance with Germany and Italy
  • 1941 invaded southern Indo-China a colony of
    France

67
Election of 1940
  • Democrats drafted FDR Henry Wallace was his
    running mate
  • Wendell Wilkie nominated by the Republicans
  • Issues
  • Third term
  • Intervention
  • FDR won an unprecedented third term

68
1941World Event
  • German invasion of the USSR
  • Operation Barbarossa

69
Battle of Britain
  • Round the clock bombing
  • Ultra and the development of radar
  • Role of RAF
  • Operation Sea Lion - Postponed

70
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71
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72
We shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may
be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall
fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in
the fields, and in the streets, we shall fight on
the hills we shall never surrender W. Churchill
73
Atlantic Charter (1941)
  • Roosevelt and Churchill identify common
    principles
  • Freedom from fear, want, and tyranny
  • Condemned aggression
  • Free trade
  • Affirmed national self-determination
  • Disarmament
  • Collective security
  • Foundation for UN

74
Undeclared War in the Atlantic
  • Germans cut off England
  • wolf packs hunt Am. supply ships
  • September, 1941 US destroyer Greer attacked
  • Oct. 31 destroyer Reuben James sunk with 115
    crew members
  • Summer 1941 10,000 tons of Allied ships sank
    daily
  • FDR ordered US ships to shoot German subs on
    sight
  • Ordered our merchant ships to be armed
  • U.S. began to convoy ships

75
1941 American Response
  • FDR The Four Freedoms Speech

76
Freedom From Fear
77
Freedom From Want
78
Freedom of Speech
79
Freedom of Worship
80
  • Sunday morning,
  • Dec. 7, 1941

81
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82
Pearl Harbor
  • Tension between U.S. and Japan 1940 the U.S.
    stopped selling airplanes to Japan terminated
    trade agreements- embargoed scrap metal and oil
    to Japan
  • Japan attacked French Indo-China U.S. froze
    Japanese assets in U.S.
  • U.S. naval fleet in Pearl Harbor stood in the way
    of Japanese dominance in Asia and Pacific

83
Pearl Harbor
84
Pearl Harbor Ford Island
85
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86
The Attack
  • Knock out the Pacific fleet before and all-out
    military conflict
  • Dec. 7, 1941
  • Lost 5 battleships, 3 cruisers, several smaller
    vessels, 200 airplanes, 2,400 people
  • Missed Aircraft carriers
  • Dec. 8 U.S. declared war on Japan
  • Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.

87
The Pearl Harbor attack
  • The largest surprise attack in history
  • 353 planes Launched from 274 miles away
  • Two waves
  • 1st 753 AM -183 planes 2nd 840 AM -170
    planes

88
Pearl Harbor The damages
  • 2,400 dead
  • 1,200 wounded
  • 8 battleships
  • 3 destroyers
  • 3 cruisers
  • 188 planes

89
Japanese photo of the Pearl Harbor attack
90
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91
USS SHAW
Battleships USS WEST VIRGINIA USS TENNESSEE
USS CALIFORNIA
USS ARIZONA
92
USS CALIFORNIA
USS OKLAHOMA
USS WEST VIRGINIA (left) USS ARIZONA (right)
USS NEVADA beached
93
P-40 - WHEELER ARMY AIR FIELD
Destroyers USS CASSIN USS DOWNES
94
WHEELER ARMY AIR FIELD
95
B-17- HICKAM ARMY AIR BASE
96
Map of the Axis Powers 1942
97
  • I fear that all we have done is awaken a
    sleeping giant, and fill him with a terrible
    resolve."
  • - General Yamato of the Imperial Japanese Navy

98
FDR requests a declaration of war
99
Pearl Harbor
  • "Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live
    in infamy - the United States of America was
    suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
    air forces of the Empire of Japan."
  • -Franklin Roosevelt, December 8, 1941

100
"...Every single man, woman, and child is
partnerin the most tremendous undertaking of our
history."FDR
101
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102
A Global War Dec. 11 1941
  • Germany Italy declare war on the U.S.
  • Hitler declares war against the half Judaized
    and the other half Negrified America
  • The U.S. acknowledges a state of war

103
Aerial photo USS Arizona Memorial
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