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America Becomes A Colonial Power

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Title: America Becomes A Colonial Power


1
America Becomes a Colonial Power
2
Why did America join the imperialist club at the
end of the 19c?
3
Objectives
  • Roles of Americans in the Spanish-American War
  • Analyze US movements towards becoming a world
    power
  • Sequence of events in the Spanish American war

4
1. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan ? The Influence of Sea Power on
History 1660-1783
5
2. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White Mans Burden
The Hierarchy of Race
6
3. Religious/Missionary Interests
American Missionaries in China, 1905
7
4. Closing the American Frontier
8
Hawaii "Crossroads of the Pacific"
9
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii
Imiola Church first built in the late 1820s
10
U. S. View of Hawaiians
Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849
by virtue of economic treaties.
11
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
12
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
  • 1893 American businessmen backed an uprising
    against Queen Liliuokalani.
  • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of
    Hawaii in 1894.

13
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
14
Alaska
15
Sewards Folly 1867
16
Sewards Icebox 1867
17
Cuba
18
CAUSES of SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
  • What were the causes of the Spanish American War?

19
The Imperialist Taylor
20
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
21
The Spanish-American War
  • Causes and Effects of the First American Conflict
    of the 20th Century

22
Cubans War for Independence
  • Cubans, recognizing the weakening of the Spanish
    government, begins rebelling for their own
    independence.
  • Supported by many Americans invested in Cuba as a
    new trading partner, Jose Marti leads a civil
    war.

23
Yellow Journalism Adds to the Cause
  • American newspapermen, Joseph Pulitzer and W.R.
    Hearst sensationalize stories about the Cuban.
  • Known as yellow journalism, the press creates
    sympathy for Cuban efforts.
  • The main purpose of yellow journalism is to sell
    newspapers, but it also stoked the fires of war.

24
Yellow Journalism Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer
Hearst to Frederick Remington You furnish
the pictures, and Ill furnish the war!
William Randolph Hearst
25
Spanish Ambassador Insults U.S.
  • The Spanish Ambassador to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy
    de Lome, writes a letter calling McKinley weak
    and stupid.
  • Hearst publishes the letter, calling it the
    Worst Insult to the U.S. in its History.
  • American nationalism is enflamed.

26
U.S.S. Maine Sent to Cuba
  • The U.S. warns Spain to end this rebellion
    quickly.
  • Due to the outcry brought on by the yellow
    journalism, President McKinley sends the U.S.S.
    Maine to Havana harbor to protect American
    citizens in Cuba.

27
U.S.S. Maine Explodes
  • The U.S.S. Maine in Havana blows up after coming
    in contact with a mine, killing 266 navy men.
  • With newspapers fueling the flames of war with
    the cry Remember the Maine, McKinley asks
    Congress to go to war.

28
WAR in the Philippines!
  • In the Philippine Islands, Commodore George Dewey
    launches a surprise attack against the once
    formidable Spanish Navy, wiping them out with
    zero American casualties.
  • In another fight against imperialism,
    Philippinos led a successful ground attack
    against the Spanish.

29
WAR in Cuba!
  • Unlike the Philippines, the ground war in Cuba
    did not come as easily.
  • U.S. troops were not well trained, used obsolete
    weapons, and wore heavy wool uniforms.
  • Many men became sick from rotted food and
    contaminated meat.

30
Rough Riders Take to the Ground
  • A new regiment made up of mostly westerners who
    were prepared for difficult conditions.
  • Led by Teddy Roosevelt, the Rough Riders take
    Kettle and San Juan Hills to secure the high
    ground.
  • After a failed attempt by the Spanish fleet to
    escape, the Spanish sought to surrender.

31
End of the Splendid Little War
  • The U.S. and Spain end the war by signing the
    Treaty of Paris.
  • Part of the treaty was that Spain would surrender
    Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the opportunity to
    buy the Philippines.
  • America gave control of Cuba back to the Cubans,
    but did take control of the Philippines, Puerto
    Rico, and Guam.

32
Valeriano Weylers Reconcentration Policy
33
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley
    administration.
  • Imperialist and American nationalist.
  • Criticized President McKinley as having the
    backbone of a chocolate éclair!
  • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

34
The Rough Riders
35
Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
36
The Spanish-American War (1898) That Splendid
Little War
How prepared was the US for war?
37
The Philippines
38
The Spanish-American War (1898) That Splendid
Little War
39
Dewey Captures Manila!
40
Is He To Be a Despot?
41
William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the
Philippines
Great administrator.
42
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Leader of the Filipino Uprising.
  • July 4, 1946 Philippine independence

43
Our Sphere of Influence
44
The Treaty of Paris 1898
  • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
  • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.
  • The U. S. paid Spain 20 mil. for
    the Philippines.
  • The U. S. becomes an imperial power!

45
The American Anti-Imperialist
League
  • Founded in 1899.
  • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and
    William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.
  • Campaigned against the annexation of
    the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

46
Cuban Independence?
  • Teller Amendment (1898)
  • Platt Amendment (1903)
  • Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with
    foreign powers that would endanger its
    independence.
  • The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if
    necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
    govt.
  • Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for
    naval and coaling station.
  • Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.

Senator Orville Platt
47
DILEMMA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
48
Puerto Rico
49
Puerto Rico 1898
  • 1900 - Foraker Act.
  • PR became an unincorporated territory.
  • Citizens of PR, not of the US.
  • Import duties on PR goods
  • 1901-1903 ? the Insular Cases.
  • Constitutional rights were not automatically
    extended to territorial possessions.
  • Congress had the power to decide these rights.
  • Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were
    legal!

50
Puerto Rico 1898
  • 1917 Jones Act.
  • Gave full territorial status to PR.
  • Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the
    US.
  • PRs elected their own legislators governor to
    enforce local laws.
  • PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.
  • A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to
    vote for PR in the House.

51
Panama
52
Panama Canal
TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
53
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
1905
Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as elsewhere,
ultimately require intervention by some civilized
nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
adherence of the United States to the Monroe
Doctrine may force the United States, however
reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing
or impotence, to the exercise of an international
police power .
54
Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!
55
Panama Canal
  • Panamanian Revolution against Colombia - 1903.

Engineered and influenced by U.S. Panama Canal
Zone ceded to U.S. Construction of the canal
begins in 1904. Completed in 1914. Increased
importance of U.S. control of Caribbean
Sea. Protection of Panama Canal is vital to
defense of the U.S.
56
Japan
57
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan 1853
58
Gentlemans Agreement 1908
  • A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports
    to laborers entering the U.S.
  • Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude
    Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by
    other countries.
  • The U.S. government got the school board of San
    Francisco to rescind their order to segregate
    Asians in separate schools.
  • .

59
China
60
Stereotypes of the Chinese
Immigrant
Oriental Chinese Exclusion Act, 1887
61
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • China
  • Sphere of Influence
  • Countries had sole rights to trade in an area

62
The Open Door Policy
  • Secretary John Hay.
  • Give all nations equal access to trade in China.
  • Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by
    any one foreign power.

63
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • Open Door Policy
  • John Hay Secretary of State

64
The Open Door Policy
65
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • Open Door Policy
  • All nations would have equal trading rights in
    China

66
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • In China resentment was building
  • Fists of Righteous Harmony
  • Secret group opposed foreign intervention

67
The Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
  • 55 Days at Peking.

68
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • Became known as Boxers
  • Took diplomats hostage
  • Troops entered to stop rebellion

69
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • Rebellion was stopped and China lost no more land
    and the Open door Policy was in place

70
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • Two reasons why Roosevelt was interested
  • 1. Wanted to keep Open Door Policy open in China
  • 2. Japan would become to strong if they
    controlled China

71
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • Roosevelt sent the Navy around the world to show
    Americas naval strength
  • 16 Battleships became known as the
  • Great White Fleet

72
The Great White Fleet 1907
73
INVOLVEMENT IN ASIA
  • America had now become a player in the Pacific
    region

74
America as a Pacific Power
75
America's New Role
76
The Cares of a Growing Family
77
Constable of the World
78
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
  • Improve financial opportunities for American
    businesses.
  • Use private capital to further U. S.
    interests overseas.
  • Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and
    order abroad that would best promote Americas
    commercial interests.

79
Mexico
80
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and
    puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano
    Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against
    Huerta.
  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz
    and Huerta fled the country.
  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.

81
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
Emiliano Zapata
Pancho Villa
Venustiano Carranza
Porfirio Diaz
Francisco I Madero
82
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • The U. S. should be the conscience of the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Promote peace.
  • Condemn colonialism.

83
Searching for Banditos
General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in
1914.
84
U. S. Global Investments Investments in Latin
America, 1914
85
U. S. Interventions in Latin America 1898-1920s
86
Uncle Sam One of the Boys?
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