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RTI: Following a Structured Problem-Solving Model

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RTI: Following a Structured Problem-Solving Model Workshop Goals The School-Based Intervention Team (SBIT) Project: Definition Teams of educators at a school are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RTI: Following a Structured Problem-Solving Model


1
RTI Following a Structured Problem-Solving Model
2
Everybody is entitled to their own opinion but
theyre not entitled to their own facts. The data
is the data. Dr. Maria Spiropulu, Physicist New
York Times, 30 September 2003 (D. Overbye) Other
dimensions? Shes in pursuit. F1, F4
3
(No Transcript)
4
School-Based Intervention Teams An Introduction
5
(No Transcript)
6
Workshop Goals
  • In this workshop, you will learn
  • About the history of the SBIT project
  • How pre-referral intervention teams can help
    schools to support struggling learnersin
    general-education classrooms
  • What specific roles are assigned to SBIT members
  • How to run an SBIT meeting that follows a
    structured problem-solving process
  • How to create a plan to start a pre-referral
    intervention team in your own school

7
SBIT Meeting Process
Student Assessment
Research-Based Interventions
8
The School-Based Intervention Team (SBIT)
Project Definition
  • Teams of educators at a school are trained to
    work together as effective problem-solvers.
  • SBIT Teams are made up of volunteers drawn from
    general- and special-education teachers and
    support staff.
  • These teams use a structured meeting process to
    identify the underlying reasons that a student
    might be experiencing academic or behavioral
    difficulties
  • The team helps the referring teacher to put
    together practical, classroom-friendly
    interventions to address those student problems.

9
Teachers may be reluctant to refer students to
your SBIT Team because they
  • believe referring to SBIT is a sign of failure
  • do not think that your team has any ideas that
    they havent already tried
  • believe that an SBIT referral will mean a lot
    more work for them (vs. referring directly to
    Spec Ed)
  • dont want to waste time on kids with poor
    motivation or behavior problems when more
    deserving learners go unnoticed and unrewarded
  • dont want to put effort into learning a new
    initiative that may just fade away in a couple of
    years

10
Teachers may be motivated to refer students to
your SBIT Team because they
  • can engage in collegial conversations about
    better ways to help struggling learners
  • learn instructional and behavior-management
    strategies that they can use with similar
    students in the future
  • increase their teaching time
  • are able to access more intervention resources
    and supports in the building than if they work
    alone
  • feel less isolated when dealing with challenging
    kids
  • have help in documenting their intervention
    efforts

11
Difficult-To-Teach Students
  • Experience greater difficulty with learning and
    retention of information
  • May also have behavioral problems
  • Fall along a continuum, with some students
    showing more severe needs than others

12
Difficult-To-Teach StudentsThe Numbers
  • One in ten children in schools is classified as
    Special Education
  • 3-5 of students may qualify for ADHD
  • In 1998, about 40 of 4th grade youngsters fell
    below grade-level on a national reading test

13
Difficult-To-Teach Students
  • An increasing body of evidence supports the
    need for students with disabilities to be
    directly taught the processes and concepts that
    nondisabled children tend to learn naturally
    through experiences.
  • --Office of Special Education Programs
  • 21st Annual Report to Congress (1999)

14
Difficult-To-Teach StudentsWhat Works (OSEP,
1999)
  • Provide the student with
  • Adequate range of examples to exemplify a concept
    or problem-solving strategy
  • Models of proficient performancee.g.,
    step-by-step strategies
  • Experiences where students explain how and why
    they make decisions

15
Difficult-To-Teach StudentsWhat Works (Cont.)
  • Provide the student with
  • Frequent feedback on quality of performance and
    support so the student persists in activities
  • Adequate practice and activities that are
    interesting and engaging

16
Small-Group Activity Select a Student to Refer
  • Go around the group and have each member briefly
    discuss a child with whom they worked this past
    year who was struggling academically and/or
    behaviorally.
  • Select one of these students to serve as your
    groups practice case over the next two days
    as the group tries out the School-Based
    Intervention Team model.

17
Core Elements
  • SBIT has diverse representation including
    classroom teachers
  • SBIT members have a relationship with the
    referring teacher based on equity and a collegial
    relationship
  • The SBIT process is collaborative and
    confidential
  • Parents are involved in the SBIT process. At a
    minimum, they are informed about the referral and
    meeting outcome.

18
Core Elements (Cont.)
  • The SBIT process is defined and conducted in a
    structured problem-solving format
  • The focus of SBIT is on the student within the
    classroom/school environment
  • The referring teachers concerns are explored,
    defined, and prioritized
  • The SBIT recommends interventions that have been
    documented to be effective in school settings

19
Team Roles
  • Coordinator
  • Facilitator
  • Recorder
  • Time Keeper
  • Case Liaison

20
Team Roles
  • Coordinator
  • The only non-rotating role
  • Makes sure referrals are complete and that a
    case liaison is assigned
  • Notifies SBIT members of days, times, and
    locations of meetings
  • Coordinates the assignment of substitutes for
    teachers attending the SBIT meeting

21
Team Roles
  • Facilitator
  • Establishes and maintains a supportive atmosphere
  • Keeps the meeting agenda goal oriented
  • Pay special attention to process issues
  • Attempts to elicit an appropriate level of
    agreement throughout the process
  • Helps resolve conflicts in the group

22
Team Roles
  • Recorder
  • Keeps an accurate, concise record of the meeting
    using the meeting minutes form
  • Asks for clarification about key information
  • Assures all relevant information is obtained and
    recorded

23
Team Roles
  • Time Keeper
  • Monitors how far a team has progressed given the
    guidelines in the meeting minutes forms
  • Prompts the team to keep focused
    on the issue at hand
  • Helps the team come to closure when time is
    running out

24
Team Roles
  • Case Liaison
  • Supports the referring teacher throughout the
    process
  • Helps referring teacher complete the referral
    form
  • Consults with referring teacher
    about types of assessment techniques that might
    be useful

25
Team Roles
  • Case Liaison (cont)
  • Assists the teacher in collecting information
    prior to the meeting
  • Consults with the teacher concerning
    interventions and assessment strategies planned
    during the SBIT meeting
  • Assesses the degree to which the interventions
    and assessment procedures were implemented as
    designed

26
School-Based Intervention Teams Express Meeting
Related Resources
27
SBIT Express Initial Meeting Minutes Form Cover
Sheet
28
SBIT Introductory Script
29
SBIT Introductory Script
  • Welcome to this initial School-Based
    Intervention Team meeting. We are meeting with
    you today to discuss concerns that you have
    about a student, _________________.
  • The purpose of this meeting is for us all to
    work together to come up with practical ideas to
    help this student to be more successful in
    school. I am the facilitator for todays meeting.
    The person taking notes during the meeting will
    be _________________ . The case liaison for this
    student is ___________. The time keeper for the
    meeting is __________________.

30
SBIT Introductory Script (Cont.)
  • You can expect this meeting to last about ____
    minutes. By the time you leave, we should have a
    complete student intervention plan put together
    to help address your concerns. Our team and
    you have a lot to do today and only limited time
    in which to do it. To help us to work efficiently
    and not waste your time, we will follow a
    structured problem-solving model that goes
    through several stages.

31
SBIT Introductory Script (Cont.)
  • Together, our team and you will
  • Assess your major concerns about the student
  • Help you to pick the one or two most important
    student concerns for us to work on today
  • Set specific student goals for improvement
  • Design an intervention plan with strategies to
    help that student improve, and
  • Decide how to share information about this plan
    with the students parent(s)

32
SBIT Introductory Script (Cont.)
  • As the students teacher, you are the most
    important participant in this meeting. Please let
    us know at any time if you disagree with, or
    have questions about, our suggestions. Our
    meeting will not be a success unless you feel
    that the intervention ideas that we offer will
    address the students difficulties and are
    feasible for you to do.

33
SBIT Introductory Script (Cont.)
  • Our meeting notes will document the students
    referral concerns and the intervention plan that
    we come up with. These notes may be shared with
    others who are not here today, including childs
    parent(s) and the building administrator.
    However, we ask that everyone here keep the
    conversations that take place at this meeting
    confidential.
  • Do you have any questions?

34
School-Based Intervention Teams QuickGuide
35
SBIT QuickGuide
36
SBIT Consultative Process
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths and Talents
  • Step 3 Review Baseline Data
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns
  • Step 5 Set Goals
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan
  • Step 7 Method of Monitoring Student Progress
  • Step 8 Plan How to Share Information with the
    Students Parent(s)
  • Step 9 Review the Intervention and Monitoring
    Plans

37
Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns
38
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns GOALS
  • Allow the teacher to discuss major referral
    concerns
  • Review relevant background information,
    including
  • Curriculum-based assessment (for academic
    concerns)
  • Direct observation data (for academic /behavioral
    concerns)
  • Teacher Behavior Report Cards (for academic/
    behavioral concerns)
  • Archival information from student cumulative
    folder, etc. (for academic /behavioral concerns)

39
SBIT Meeting Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns
40
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns SAMPLE
    QUESTIONS
  • Given the information in the referral form, what
    are specific difficulties that you would like to
    address today?
  • How is this student problem interfering with the
    students school performance?
  • What concern(s) led you to refer the student to
    this Team?
  • What information have we already collected that
    can shed some light on the identified concern?

41
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 1 Assess Teacher Concerns
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • Team members have a good understanding of teacher
    concerns, and have reviewed relevant background
    and baseline information on the student.

42
Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths Talents
43
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths Talents
    GOALS
  • Discuss and record the students strengths and
    talents, as well as those incentives that
    motivate the student. This information can be
    valuable during intervention planning to identify
    strategies that the student will be motivated to
    participate in.

44
SBIT Meeting Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths
45
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths Talents
    SAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • What rewards or incentives have you noted in
    school that this child seems to look forward to?
  • What are some things that this student does well
    or enjoys doing around the classroom?
  • Please tell us a few of the students strengths,
    talents, or positive qualities that might be
    useful in designing interventions for him or her.
  • What are hobbies or topics of interest for this
    student?

46
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 2 Inventory Student Strengths Talents
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • The team has identified personal strengths,
    talents, and/or rewards that are likely to
    motivate the student if integrated into an
    intervention.

47
Step 3 Review Baseline Data
48
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 3 Review Baseline Data GOALS
  • Review any baseline data or background
    information that might be important in
    understanding the students academic or
    behavioral concerns

49
SBIT Meeting Step 3 Review Baseline Data
50
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 3 Review Baseline Data SAMPLE
    QUESTIONS
  • What curriculum-based data have we collected on
    this students academic skills?
  • What Daily Behavior Report Card data do we have
    on this student?
  • What is the students attendance record?
  • What disciplinary office referrals does this
    student have?

51
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 3 Review Baseline Data
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • All key background information and baseline data
    have been reviewed.

52
Step 4 Select Target TeacherConcerns
53
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns GOALS
  • Define the top 1-2 teacher concerns in easily
    observable, measurable terms.
  • For behavioral concerns, understand the
    dimensions of the problem (e.g., frequency,
    duration, and/or intensity)
  • For academic concerns, identify the presence of
    underlying academic skill deficits, mismatch
    between student skills and classroom instruction,
    etc.
  • For each teacher concern, decide on what
    functions may help to explain why the student
    displays the target concerns.

54
SBIT Meeting Step 4 Select Target Teacher
Concerns
55
Reason/Function for Students Presenting
Problem(s) in BEHAVIOR
  • Lacks necessary skills
  • Has limited motivation
  • Seeks attention from adults
  • Seeks attention from peers
  • Reacting to teasing/bullying
  • Tries to escape from work demands of setting
  • Seeks access to privileges, rewards

56
Reason/Function for Students Presenting
Problem(s) in ACADEMICS
  • Lacks necessary skills
  • Has limited motivation
  • Struggling academically in current instructional
    placement
  • Needs drill practice

57
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns SAMPLE
    QUESTIONS
  • What are the top one or two problems that you
    would like us to concentrate on today?
  • (Academic) What can you tell us about the
    students current skill levels, homework and
    classwork completion, attention to task, general
    motivation?
  • (Behavioral) How long does each behavioral
    outburst last? About how frequently do episodes
    occur? How severe are the behaviors that you are
    seeing?
  • (Behavioral) What kinds of things happen in the
    room just before the student has an outburst?
    What do you and other students in the room do
    during each outburst?

58
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 4 Select Target Teacher Concerns
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • One or two primary teacher concerns have been
    established and stated in measurable terms (as
    behavioral and/or academic difficulties).
  • The referring teacher agrees with the selection
    and definition of the top 1-2 problems.
  • The team and teacher agree on possible functions
    that explain why the academic/behavioral concern
    is taking place.

59
Step 5 Set Observable, Measurable Goals
60
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 5 Set Observable Goals GOALS
  • The team should estimate goals for improvement
    based on the time that will elapse between the
    initial and follow-up meeting
  • For each of the academic or behavioral referral
    concerns
  • Select at least two ways to monitor student
    progress.
  • set ambitious but realistic goals for
    improvement.

61
SBIT Meeting Step 5 Set Observable, Measurable,
Realistic Goals for Change (Academic)
62
SBIT Meeting Step 5 Set Observable, Measurable,
Realistic Goals for Change (Behavior)
63
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 5 Set Observable Goals SAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • Does the monitoring information really measure
    the teachers referral concern?
  • Who will collect the monitoring information?
  • How frequently should data be collected?
  • How reliable/trustworthy is the information to be
    collected?
  • Who on the SBIT Team or in the building is
    available to monitor this student with
  • curriculum-based assessment?
  • direct observation?

64
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 5 Set Observable Goals
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • Ambitious but realistic student goals for
    improvement have been set.
  • At least two measures have been identified to
    track each referral concern.
  • The referring teacher agrees that both the goals
    for change and the measures selected are
    appropriate for this student case.

65
Step 6 Design an InterventionPlan
66
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan GOALS
  • Select at least one intervention that addresses
    each selected referral concern.
  • Spell out the particulars of the intervention as
    a series of specific teacher-friendly steps
  • Note any important additional information about
    the intervention (e.g., when, where, what
    specialized materials are needed, etc.)
  • Review the intervention(s) with the teacher to
    ensure that the plan is acceptable.

67
SBIT Meeting Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan
68
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan SAMPLE
    QUESTIONS
  • What intervention ideas would best meet this
    students needs?
  • What is it about this particular intervention
    that makes it likely to improve the students
    behavior or academic functioning in the area(s)
    identified?
  • Is there specialized training or materials that
    you feel are needed to carry out this
    intervention?
  • How can our Team assist you the referring
    teacher with the intervention?

69
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 6 Design an Intervention Plan
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • The referring teacher and team members agree that
    the intervention
  • directly addresses the identified concern(s).
  • is judged by the teacher to be acceptable,
    sensible, and achievable.
  • appears likely to achieve the desired goal.
  • is realistic, given the resources committed.
  • can be expected to achieve the stated goal within
    the timeline selected.

70
Step 7 Method of Monitoring Progress
71
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 7 Method of Monitoring Progress GOALS
  • Determine
  • who will do progress-monitoring
  • how frequently monitoring will take place

72
SBIT Meeting Step 7 Method of Monitoring
Progress
73
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 7 Method of Progress-Monitoring SAMPLE
    QUESTIONS
  • How often will we collect data on this student
    to document progress?
  • Who will be responsible for collecting and
    analyzing the data?

74
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 7 Method of Progress-Monitoring
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when it has
  • selected methods to monitor progress that are
    sensitive to short-term student gain
  • has assigned responsibility to specific staff
    members to collect the monitoring data

75
Step 8 Plan HowTo Share MeetingInfo With
Parent(s)
76
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 8 Plan to Share Info With Parent GOALS
  • Agree on who will contact the parent(s) to share
    the students intervention plan and invite the
    parent(s) to a future SBIT meeting.

77
SBIT Meeting Step 8 Plan to Share Meeting Info
With Students Parents
78
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 8 Plan to Share Info With Parent SAMPLE
    QUESTIONS
  • What specific details about the intervention
    would be of greatest interest to the parent(s)?

79
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 8 Plan to Share Info With Parent
  • The SBIT Team is ready to move on when
  • At least one team member (who could be the
    referring teacher) has taken responsibility to
    contact the parent to share information about the
    students intervention plan and future SBIT
    meeting times and dates.

80
Step 9 Reviewthe Intervention Monitoring Plans
81
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 9 Review Meeting Plans GOALS
  • Review main points of the intervention and
    monitoring plans with referring teacher, other
    team members.
  • (Case Liaison) Schedule a time within next week
    to meet with the referring teacher to review the
    intervention plan offer any needed assistance
    ensure that the intervention is being put into
    place as planned.
  • Schedule a follow-up meeting (usually within 6-8
    weeks of the initial SBIT meeting).
  • After the referring teacher leaves the meeting,
    complete the SBIT Team Meeting Debriefing Form,
    debrief as a team about the meeting process and
    content.

82
SBIT Meeting Step 9 Review Intervention
Monitoring Plans
83
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 9 Review Meeting Plans SAMPLE QUESTIONS
  • Do the referring teacher and other members of our
    team know what their responsibilities are in
    carrying out the intervention and monitoring
    plans for this student?
  • Is our team able to support the teacher in
    identifying the most important referral concerns?
  • Did our team help the teacher to assemble a good
    intervention plan that is feasible and can be
    carried out with currently available resources?

84
SBIT Meeting Debriefing Form
85
SBIT Initial Meeting QuickGuide
  • Step 7 Review Meeting Plans
  • The SBIT Team is ready to adjourn!

86
SBIT Referral Form Page 1
87
SBIT Referral Form Page 2
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