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Visual communication

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Visual communication Motion Pictures – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Visual communication


1
Visual communication
  • Motion Pictures

2
Motion pictures
  • Movies - a term for motion pictures that are
    produced primarily for entertainment. i.e.
    Hollywood
  • Films motion pictures that are primarily
    non-fiction or art films. i.e. documentaries,
    biographies, foreign and independent films

3
Technical background
  • The illusion of movement
  • Persistence of vision
  • Still images projected in rapid succession
  • Frame rate the number of still pictures
    projected per each second to create the illusion
    of constant fluid motion
  • Flicker (critical fusion) rate the number of
    frames required each second to eliminate visible
    flicker

4
Frame rates
  • Original motion pictures were based on a frame
    rate of sometimes 12-16 frames per second
  • Images appeared jerky with noticeable flicker
  • 12 frames per second (fps) is the minimum to
    create the illusion of seamless motion
  • 18 (fps) is the minimum to avoid flicker

5
Frame rates
  • Home movie formats (8 millimeter) used 18 fps
  • Commercial films use 24 fps
  • Television uses 30 fps
  • In modern motion pictures, the shutter projects
    each frame twice to reduce flicker

6
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7
History
  • Persistence of vision (animation) first
    demonstrated by Eadweard Muybridge
  • Muybrigde was settling a bet on whether all 4 of
    a horses left the ground at any point in its
    gallop
  • Arranged a series of still cameras along the
    track with trip wires

8
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10
Zoetrope
11
Mutoscope
12
Kinetoscope
  • Edison invented the kinetoscope
  • Used Eastman roll film

13
Kinetoscope
14
Mutoscope/kinetoscope
  • The penny arcade
  • Machines that cost a penny to view
  • Some adult content
  • Edison also developed a projection device based
    on the kinetoscope called the kinetograph
  • Operated on electricity Edisons pet project

15
History
  • Robert Paul bought the Edison Kinetograph and
    gave it a crank
  • This was the first movie camera

16
Lumiere
  • Lumiere Brothers (French) used the
    cinematographe to both record and show films
  • Lumiere films were documents of daily life
  • They exhibited the films at night in the towns
    and villages where they filmed

17
Thomas Edison
  • Pioneer filmmaker
  • Created documents of daily life and simple acts
  • Also pioneered in fantasy and drama
  • Edison built a studio on a turntable to make
    films turned to make use of sunlight
  • The Black Maria was covered with black tar paper

18
Black Maria
19
Black Maria
20
George Melies
  • A surrealist - magician and filmmaker
  • The inventor of special effects
  • Accidentally discovered the stop trick
    disappearance effect
  • Pioneered other science fiction effects

21
George Melies
22
Milestones/pioneers
  • D.W. Griffith
  • Birth of a Nation
  • The blockbuster
  • Epic drama about the Civil War
  • Nanook of the North
  • The first documentary
  • About an Eskimo

23
Nickelodeon
24
Nickelodeon
  • Nickel 5
  • Odeon roofed theater
  • Neighborhood theaters in early 20th century

25
Sound in the movies
  • Early films were silent sometimes with live
    musical accompaniment
  • RCA Vitaphone system used 78 rpm records
    synchronized with the silent film
  • Now film sound is recorded onto the film optically

26
Optical sound - Photophone
27
The movies
  • Sound helped the industry grow
  • Studios grew and their control expanded
  • The movie industry was controlled by a few huge
    studios that were vertically integrated
  • Production, talent, distribution, exhibition
  • United Artists Mary Pickford, Douglas
    Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin formed as reaction
    to the big studios

28
Scandals
  • Sex scandals
  • Culminating in the Roscoe Fatty Arbuckle
    scandal in which he assaulted a minor
  • House Un-American Activities Commission
  • The Red Scandal
  • Joe McCarthy
  • Blacklist

29
Threats to the movies and how they responded
  • Radio siphons off audience
  • Movies introduce color
  • Technicolor
  • Television siphons audience
  • Movies introduce wide screen
  • Cinerama 3 cameras
  • Cinemascope Panavision
  • Movies create ornate palaces
  • Other gimmicks
  • 3-D, Smell-a-vision, Sensurround

30
Threats
  • Color television challenges the movies
  • Movies respond double features
  • Giving birth to the B movie
  • Cheap movies to be shown with a big budget movie
  • Drive ins
  • Other media still challenge the movies
  • Surround sound
  • Cineplex

31
Technical considerations
  • Film width
  • 8 mm home movies
  • 16 mm independent and documentary
  • 35 mm commercial film production
  • 70 mm super wide screen
  • Imax 70 mm projected horizontally

32
Technical considerations
  • Aspect ratio
  • 5 X 3 flat prints
  • 16 X 9 anamorphic wide screen Cinemascope

33
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34
Technical considerations
  • Color
  • The principle of color photography was introduced
    by James Clerk Maxwell in the 1800s with additive
    color
  • Color in the movies
  • Hand tinting
  • Kinemacolor 2 color process
  • Technicolor 3 color process

35
Technical considerations
  • Early films used hand-cranked cameras
  • Lighting was not available to allow indoor
    filming with deep focus
  • Lens optics did not permit deep focus
  • Early sound films used blimped cameras that
    were extremely large and heavy
  • The camera did not move only panned and tilted
    and not often

36
Technical considerations
  • Films are shot MOS silent
  • Sound is added in post production
  • Looping
  • ADR automatic dialogue replacement
  • Foleying
  • Sound tracks include dialogue, score and sound
    effects (Foley)

37
Ratings
  • The Hays Code
  • Named for William Hayes former Postmaster General
    of the United States
  • The U.S. Motion Picture Production Code
  • Replaced by the Motion Picture Association of
    America
  • G M R X
  • M replaced by GP
  • Now G PG PG13 R NC17

38
The language of filmmaking
  • The shot
  • The basic component of filmmaking
  • a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture
    film, created of a series of frames, that runs
    for an uninterrupted period of time. Shots are
    generally filmed with a single camera and can be
    of any duration
  • Shots are assembled into scenes
  • Scenes share a common location

39
Issues
  • Stereotypes in the movies
  • Racial
  • Gender
  • Cultural
  • Other?

40
Contemporary issues
  • Foreign Marketing
  • Product placement
  • Merging technologies marry film, vide, and
    computers
  • Future directions
  • CGI
  • Interactivity
  • ???
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