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Chapter 17 Hygiene

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Chapter 17 Hygiene * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 17 Hygiene


1
  • Chapter 17 Hygiene

2
Hygiene
  • Hygiene practices that promote health through
    personal cleanliness
  • Activities that foster hygiene
  • Bathing cleaning and maintaining fingernails and
    toenails
  • Performing oral care
  • Shampooing and grooming hair
  • Maintaining hearing aids and eyeglasses

3
Integumentary System
  • Most hygiene practices are based on maintaining
    or restoring a healthy intguementary system.
  • Integumentary System Components
  • Skin
  • Mucous membrane
  • Hair
  • Fingernails, toenails
  • Teeth

4
Skin
  1. Epidermis
  2. Dermis
  3. Subcutaneous layer

5
Mucous Membrane
  • Line body passages such as the digestive,
    respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems
  • Mucous membrane also lines the conjunctiva of the
    eye
  • Goblet cells in the mucous membranes secrete
    mucus, a slimy substance that keeps the membranes
    soft and moist

6
Hair
  • Made up of keratin
  • Forms from cells at the base of a single follicle
  • Helps to prevent heat loss
  • Sebaceous glands in the hair follicles release
    sebum, an oily secretion

7
Nails
  • Fingernails and toenails are made of keratin,
    which in concentrated amounts gives them their
    tough texture
  • Normal nails are thin, pink, and smooth
  • Fingernails and toenails provide some protection
    to the digits

8
Teeth
  • Present beneath the gums at birth
  • Contain the outer covering, enamel, a keratin
    structure
  • Exposed portion of each tooth crown
  • Portion within the gum root
  • Adults 28 to 32 permanent teeth
  • Saliva keeps the teeth clean and inhibits
    bacterial growth

9
Common Dental Problems
  • Sugar, plaque, and bacteria may eventually erode
    the tooth enamel, causing caries
  • Gingivitis gum inflammation

10
Hygiene practices Bathing
  • Uses a cleansing agent such as soap and water to
    remove sweat, oil, dirt, and microorganisms from
    the skin
  • Advantages of bathing
  • Eliminates body odor.
  • reduces the potential for infection
  • Stimulates circulation.
  • provides a refreshed and relaxed feeling.
  • improves self-image

11
Types of Bathing according to hygiene purposes
  1. Tub bath or shower There is no contraindication
  2. Partial bathing washing only those body areas
    subject to greatest soiling or that are sources
    of body odor.
  3. For those who are independent persons
  4. Bed bath( washing with a basin of water at the
    bedside)
  5. Towel bath The nurse uses a single large towel
    to cover and wash a client

12
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13
Types of Bathing according to function
  • Sitz bath Immersion of buttocks and perineum in
    a small basin of continuously circulating water
    (as in case of piles or episiotomy )
  • purposes
  • Remove blood , serum, stool or urine
  • Reduce local swelling.
  • Relieves discomfort.

14
Types of Bathing according to function (contd)
  • Sponge bath application of tipped water to the
    skin.
  • purposes
  • Reduces a fever.
  • Medicated bath soaking or immersing in a
    mixture of water and another substance, such as
    (sodium bicarbonate)
  • purposes
  • Relieve itching or rashes

15
Types of Bathing according to function (contd)
  • Whirlpool bath warm water that is continuously
    agitated within a tub or tank
  • purposes
  • Improve circulation.
  • Increase joint mobility.
  • Remove dead tissue
  • Relieve discomfort.

16
Shaving
  • Removes unwanted body hair
  • Accomplished with an electric or a safety razor
  • Surgery sites

17
Oral Hygiene
  • Brushing and flossing the teeth
  • Dentures and bridges require special cleaning and
    care
  • Oral hygiene in unconscious clients whom need
    oral care more frequently than conscious clients
  • Prevents aspiration of oral hygiene products and
    water

18
Hair Care
  • Apply a conditioner to loosen tangles
  • Use oil on the hair if it is dry
  • Brush the hair slowly to increase circulation of
    sebum
  • Use a wide-toothed comb, combing from end to
    crown
  • Use shampoo to clean hair

19
Nail Care
  • Keeping the fingernails and toenails clean and
    trimmed
  • Nail care should be provided with extreme caution
    for the following clients
  • Clients with diabetes
  • Clients with impaired circulation
  • Client with thick nails

20
Visual and Hearing Devices
  • Eyeglasses and hearing aids improve communication
    and socialization
  • Eyeglasses
  • Contact lenses
  • Artificial eyes
  • Hearing aids
  • Examples of Hearing Aids
  • In the ear
  • Behind the ear

21
General Gerontologic Considerations
  • Poor hygiene and grooming in older adults signs
    of visual impairments, functional changes,
    dementia, depression, abuse, or neglect
  • Older adults do not need to bathe as frequently
    as younger adults
  • Use mild, nonperfumed soap
  • Oils are not used in showers or bathtubs due to
    increased risk for falls

22
General Gerontologic Considerations (contd)
  • For older adults with limited range of motion or
    mobility, provide
  • Long-handled bath sponges
  • Nonskid strips on the floor of bathtubs
  • Showers with strategically placed handles and
    grab bars a tub/shower seat

23
General Gerontologic Considerations (contd)
  • Due to increased susceptibility to dry skin,
    tears and scratches
  • Avoid skin care products containing alcohol,
    perfumes that aggravate dry skin
  • Nails keep trimmed and smooth
  • Feet regularly inspect condition
  • Modify clothing to promote independence
  • Tooth loss

24
Question
  • Is the following statement true or false?
  • Older adults need to bathe frequently because
    they perspire a lot.

25
Answer
  • False.
  • Older adults do not need to bathe frequently
    because they have diminished perspiration and
    sebum production.
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