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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Chapter 25 Sexually Transmitted Infections & HIV/AIDS – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sexually Transmitted Infections


1
Chapter 25
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections HIV/AIDS

2
The Risk of STIs
  • Sexually transmitted disease (STD) or Sexually
    transmitted infections are infectious diseases
    spread from person to person through sexual
    contact

3
STDs The Hidden Epidemic
  • Epidemics occurrences of disease in which many
    people in the same place at the same time are
    affected
  • Many people are asymptomatic meaning they are
    without symptoms
  • Even though STDs are diagnosed they are not
    always reported

4
High Risk Behaviors
  • Being sexually active with more than 1 person
  • Engaging in unprotected sex
  • Selecting high-risk partners
  • Using alcohol and other drugs

5
Consequences of STDs
  • Some STDs are incurable Some symptoms can be
    treated but the virus can still remain in the
    body
  • Some STDs cause cancer hepatitis B virus can
    cause cancer of the liver. HPV can cause cancer
    of the cervix

6
Consequences of STDs
  • Some STDs can cause complications that affect the
    ability to reproduce females can develop PID
    which can damage the reproductive organs
  • Some STDs can be passed from an infected female
    to her child before, during or after birth

7
Preventing an STD through abstinence
  • Abstinence the deliberate decision to avoid
    harmful behaviors, including sexual activity
    before marriage and the use of tobacco, alcohol,
    and other drugs

8
Common STIs
  • Lesson 2

9
Human Papillomavirus
  • Human Papillomavirus or HPV is a virus that can
    cause genital warts or asymptomatic infection
  • A PAP test and other medical examinations may
    detect changes associated with HPV
  • Most cases appear to be temporary and are
    probably cleared by the immune system

10
Genital Warts
  • These are pink or reddish warts with cauliflower
    like tops that appear on the genitals, the
    vagina, or the cervix one to three months after
    infection from HPV
  • Diagnosis is determined by a health care worker
    by examination of the warts

11
Genital Warts
  • Examination treatment is essential, because
    once you have acquired the virus you have it for
    life

12
Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that affects
    the reproductive organs of both males and females
  • It is asymptomatic often goes undetected
  • It is diagnosed by laboratory examinations of
    secretions
  • It can be treated with antibiotics

13
Genital Herpes
  • Genital Herpes is an STD caused by the herpes
    simplex virus. There are 2 types
  • Herpes Simplex 1 usually causes cold sores
  • Herpes Simplex 2 usually causes genital sores
  • Both types can infect the mouth and the genitals

14
Genital Herpes
  • Genital Herpes is another one of the viruses that
    once you have contracted it, you have it for
    life!
  • The virus can spread even when no signs or
    symptoms are present
  • Medication can help prevent outbreaks and help
    control herpes but there is no cure

15
Gonorrhea
  • Gonorrhea is a bacterial STD that usually affects
    mucous membranes
  • 50 of all females show no symptoms of gonorrhea
  • It can be treated with antibiotics
  • It is diagnosed by examining the discharge from
    males and females

16
Trichomoniasis
  • Trichomoniasis is an STD caused by a microscopic
    protozoan that results in infections of the
    vagina, urethra, and bladder
  • The disease could lead to vaginitis in women and
    inflammation of the vagina characterized by a
    discharge

17
Syphilis
  • Syphilis is an STD that attacks many parts of the
    body and is caused by a small bacterium called a
    spirochete
  • The disease spreads throughout the blood stream
    and if left untreated will lead to damage of the
    liver and other organs

18
No Symptoms
  • The following STDs can be present without any
    symptoms (asymptomatic)
  • Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Genital Herpes,
    Trichomoniasis, some HPV Viruses

19
HIV / AIDS
  • Lesson 3

20
AIDS / HIV
  • AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus

21
How HIV Attacks Cells
  • 1. HIV attaches to cell surface
  • 2. Virus core enters cell and goes to nucleus
  • 3. Virus makes a copy of its genetic material
  • 4. New virus assembles at cell surface
  • 5. New virus breaks away from host cell

22
HIV the human body
  • As the virus enters your body and takes over
    cells, it reproduces and looks to decrease the
    number of T cells. Therefore making the immune
    system more susceptible to disease
  • Opportunistic Infections are infections that
    occur in individuals who do not have healthy
    immune systems

23
How HIV is transmitted
  • HIV can only be transmitted 1 of 4 ways
  • Through Blood
  • Semen
  • Vaginal Secretion
  • Breast Milk

24
How is HIV transmitted
  • HIV enters cells of the immune system, where it
    makes more viruses that break away and attack
    other cells

25
HIV Rumors
  • You cannot get HIV from the following
  • Kissing
  • Toilet Seats
  • Pay Phones
  • Hugging
  • Insect Bites

26
Treatment for HIV AIDS
  • Lesson 4

27
Stages of HIV infection
  • Stage 1 Asymptomatic stage a period of time
    during which a person infected with HIV has no
    symptoms
  • During this stage a person may show no signs for
    6 months to 10 years
  • However, the virus continues to grow the
    infected person can still transmit the virus

28
Stages of HIV infection
  • Stage 2 Symptomatic Stage the stage in which a
    person infected with HIV has symptoms as a result
    of a severe drop in immune cells
  • Such symptoms may include swollen glands, weight
    loss, and yeast infections

29
Stages of HIV infection
  • Final Stage AIDS, during the ladder stage of
    HIV infection, more serious symptoms appear until
    the infection meets the official definition of
    AIDS

30
Detecting HIV
  • There are basically 2 tests used in detecting HIV
  • EIA or the ELISA test is a test that screens for
    the presence of HIV antibodies in the blood

31
Detecting HIV
  • The EIA test can give inaccurate results 2
    reasons include
  • 1. Developing antibodies takes time perhaps the
    virus has not yet been completely developed in
    the body. Remember it could take many weeks
  • (3-4 weeks) to get an accurate reading

32
Detecting HIV
  • 2. Certain health conditions such as
    hemophilia, hepatitis, and pregnancy can cause
    false readings

33
Detecting HIV
  • If the EIA test is positive then they will
    perform it a second time just to be sure that
    the results are accurate.
  • If this is the case then they move onto another
    test called the Western Blot Test

34
Detecting HIV
  • Western Blot is the most common confirmation test
    for HIV in the United States
  • If this test comes back positive that means that
    all 3 tests have came back positive and then the
    person is determined to have HIV or HIV-Positive
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