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Chapter 1 An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages

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Title: Chapter 1 An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages


1
CHAPTER 1 AN OVERVIEW OF COMPUTERS AND
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
2
  • In this chapter, you will
  • Learn about different types of computers
  • Explore the hardware and software components of a
    computer system
  • Learn about the language of a computer
  • Learn about the evolution of programming
    languages
  • Examine high-level programming languages
  • Discover what a compiler is and what it does
  • Examine how a high-level language program is
    processed
  • Learn what an algorithm is and explore
    problem-solving techniques
  • Become aware of structured design and
    object-oriented design programming methodologies
  • Become aware of Standard C and ANSI/ISO
    Standard C

3
  • A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
  • Computers that are in use can be classified in
    the following categories
  • Main frame computers.
  • Mid size computers.
  • Micro computers (also called personal computers).

4
  • ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM
  • Hardware
  • CPU-The CPU has several components in it.
  • CU - It has three main functions.
  • Fetch and decode the instruction.
  • Control the flow of information (instruction or
    data) in and out of MM.
  • Control the operation of the internal components
    of CPU.
  • PC-program counter points to the next instruction
    to be executed.
  • IR-instruction register holds the instruction
    that is currently being executed.
  • ALU-arithmetic logic unit. This component is
    responsible for carrying out all arithmetic and
    logical operations.
  • ACC-accumulator. Once ALU performs the operation
    the results are placed in ACC.

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  • Main Memory
  • Directly connected to the CPU.
  • All programs must be loaded into MM before they
    can be executed.
  • All data must be brought into MM before it can be
    manipulated.
  • When the power of the computer is turned off
    every thing in the main memory is lost for good.

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  • Secondary storage
  • Everything in main memory is lost when the
    computer is turned off.
  • Information stored in main memory must be
    transferred to some other device for permanent
    storage.
  • The device that stores information permanently is
    called secondary storage.
  • Examples of secondary storage are hard disks,
    floppy disks, Zip disks,CD-ROMs, and tapes.

9
  • Input/Output devices
  • For a computer to perform a useful task, it must
    be able to take in data and programs and display
    the results of calculations.
  • The devices that feed data and programs into
    computers are called input devices.
  • The keyboard, mouse, and secondary storage are
    examples of input devices.
  • The devices that the computer uses to display
    results are called output devices.
  • A monitor, printer, and secondary storage are
    examples of output devices.

10
  • Software
  • Software are programs written to perform specific
    tasks.
  • Two types of programs
  • System programs - programs that take control of
    the computer.
  • Application programs - programs that perform a
    specific task. (Word processors, spreadsheets,
    and games are examples of application programs.)

11
  • THE LANGUAGE OF A COMPUTER
  • Two types of electrical signal - analog and
    digital. Since inside the computer digital
    signals are processed, the language of a computer
    is a sequence of 0s and 1s.
  • The language of a computer is called the machine
    language.
  • The digit 0 or 1 is called a binary digit or in
    short form a bit.
  • A sequence of 0s and 1s is also referred as a
    binary code.

12
  • Bit A bit is a binary digit 0 or 1.
  • A sequence of 8 bits is called a byte.
  • Coding Scheme
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
    Interchange).
  • 128 characters
  • A is encoded as 1000001 (66th character)
  • 3 is encoded as 0110011.
  • EBCDIC (used by IBM)-256 characters
  • Unicode - 65536 characters. Two bytes are needed
    to store a character.

13
  • THE EVOLUTION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
  • Early computers were programmed in machine
    language.
  • Suppose we want to represent the equation
  • wages rate hours
  • to calculate the weekly wages in machine
    language.
  • If 100100 stands for load, 100110 stands for
    multiplication and 100010 stands for store, then
    the following sequence of instructions might be
    needed to calculate the weekly wages.
  • 100100 0000 010001
  • 100110 0000 010010
  • 100010 0000 010011

14
  • Assembly languages - an instruction in assembly
    language is an easy-to-remember form called a
    mnemonic.

Using the assembly language instructions, the
equation to calculate the weekly wages can be
written as follows LOAD rate MULT hour STO
R wages Assembler An assembler is a program
that translates a program written in assembly
language into an equivalent program in machine
language.
15
  • High level languages- Basic, FORTRAN, COBOL,
    Pascal, C, C
  • In order to calculate the weekly wages, the
    equation
  • wages rate hours
  • in C, can be written as follows
  • wages rate hours
  • Compiler A compiler is a program that translates
    a program written in a high level language to an
    equivalent machine language.

16
  • PROCESSING A HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGE PROGRAM
  • The following steps are necessary to execute a
    program written in a high level language, say,
    C
  • 1. Use an editor to create a program (that is
    type) in C. This program is called the source
    program.
  • Source program A program written in a
    high-level language.
  • 2. Check that the program obeys the rules of the
    programming language and translate the program in
    to an equivalent machine language. All this is
    accomplished by the compiler. The equivalent
    machine language program is called an object
    program.
  • Object program The machine language version of
    the high-level language program.

17
  • 3. The programs that you write in a high-level
    language are developed using a software
    development kit (SDK), which contains many
    programs that are useful in creating your
    program. This prewritten code resides in a place
    called the library.
  • Linker A program that combines the object
    program with other programs provided by the SDK
    and used in the program to create the executable
    code.
  • 4. The next step is to load the executable
    program into the main memory for execution and a
    program called loader accomplishes this.
  • Loader A program that loads an executable
    program into main memory.
  • 5. The final step is to execute the program.

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19
  • PROGRAMMING WITH THE PROBLEM
    ANALYSISCODINGEXECUTION CYCLE
  • Programming is a process of problem solving.
  • Problem solving techniques
  • Analyze the problem
  • Outline the problem requirements
  • Design steps, called an algorithm, to solve the
    problem
  • Algorithm A step-by-step problem-solving
    process in which a solution is arrived at in a
    finite amount of time.

20
  • Problem solving process
  • 1. (a) Analyze the problem.
  • (b) Outline the problem and its solution
    requirements.
  • (c) Design steps (algorithm) to solve the
    problem.
  • 2. (a) Implement the algorithm in a
    programming language,
  • such as C.
  • (b) Verify that the algorithm works.
  • 3. Maintenance Maintenance requires using and
    modifying the program if the problem domain
    changes.

21
  • Problem Analysis-Coding-Execution Cycle

22
  • Analysis of the problem is the first and the most
    important step. This phase requires us to
  • 1. Thoroughly understand what the problem is
    about.
  • 2. Understand the problem requirements. Some of
    the requirements could be
  • a. Does the program require interaction with the
    user?
  • b. Does the program manipulate data? If the
    program manipulates data, the programmer must
    know what the data are and how the data are
    represented, that is, look at sample data.
  • c. Is there any output of the program? If yes,
    the programmer should know how the results should
    be generated.
  • 3. If the problem is complex, divide the problem
    into sub-problems. Analyze each sub-problem as
    above.

23
  • Dividing a problem into smaller subproblems is
    called structured design.
  • The structured design approach is also known as
    top-down design, stepwise refinement, and modular
    programming.
  • In structured design, the problem is divided into
    smaller problems.
  • Each subproblem is then analyzed, and a solution
    is obtained to solve the subproblem.
  • The solutions of all subproblems are then
    combined to solve the overall problem.
  • This process of implementing a structured design
    is called structured programming.

24
  • The next step is to design an algorithm to solve
    the problem.
  • If the problem was broken into subproblems,
    design algorithms for each subproblem.
  • Once the necessary steps have been designed,
    check the correctness of the algorithm.
  • Sometimes algorithms correctness can be tested
    using sample data.
  • At times some mathematical analysis might be
    required to test the correctness of the
    algorithm.
  • Once the algorithm is designed and correctness
    verified, the next step is to write the
    equivalent code into the high level language.
  • Then using an editor enter the program into the
    computer.

25
  • The next step is to ensure that the program
    follows the constructs of the language.
  • Run the code through the compiler.
  • If the compiler generates error, we must go back,
    look at the code, remove the errors, and run the
    code again through the compiler.
  • If there are no syntax errors, the compiler
    generates the equivalent machine code, the linker
    links the machine code with the systems
    resources, and the loader can then place the
    program into the main memory so that it can be
    executed.
  • The final step is to execute the program.
  • The compiler only guarantees that the program
    follows the rules of the language. It does not
    guarantee that the program will run correctly.

26
  • Example 1-1
  • Design an algorithm to find the perimeter and
    area of a rectangle.
  • The perimeter and area of the rectangle are given
    by the following formulas
  • perimeter 2 (length width)
  • area length width

27
  • The algorithm to find the perimeter and area of
    the rectangle is, therefore
  • 1. Get the length of the rectangle.
  • 2. Get the width of the rectangle.
  • 3. Find the perimeter using the following
    equation
  • perimeter 2 (length width)
  • 4. Find the area using the following equation
  • area length width

28
  • Example 1-2
  • Design an algorithm that calculates the monthly
    paycheck of a sales-person at a local department
    store.
  • Every salesperson has a base salary. The
    salesperson also receives a bonus at the end of
    each month based on the following criteria If
    the salesperson has been with the store for five
    or less years, the bonus is 10 for each year
    that he or she has worked there. If the
    salesperson has been with the store for more than
    five years, the bonus is 20 for each year that
    he or she has worked there. The salesperson can
    earn an additional bonus as follows If the total
    sale made by the salesperson for the month is
    more than 5000 but less than 10000, he or she
    receives a 3 commission on the sale. If the
    total sale made by the salesperson for the month
    is at least 10000, he or she receives a 6
    commission on the sale.

29
  • The algorithm to calculate a salespersons
    monthly paycheck.
  • 1. Get baseSalary.
  • 2. Get noOfServiceYears.
  • 3. Calculate bonus using the following formula
  • if(noOfServiceYears is less than or equal to
  • five)
  • bonus 10 noOfServiceYears
  • otherwise
  • bonus 20 noOfServiceYears
  • 4. Get totalSale.

30
  • 5. Calculate additionalBonus using the following
    formula.
  • if (totalSale is less than 5000)
  • additionalBonus 0
  • otherwise
  • if(totalSale is greater than or equal to
  • 5000 and totalSale is less than 10000)
  • additionalBonus totalSale (0.03)
  • otherwise
  • additionalBonus totalSale (0.06)
  • 6. Calculate payCheck using the equation
  • payCheck baseSalary bonus additionalBonus

31
  • OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
  • In OOD, the first step in the problem-solving
    process is to identify components called objects,
    which form the basis of the solution, and
    determine how these objects interact with one
    another.
  • After identifying the objects, the next step is
    to specify for each object the relevant data and
    possible operations to be performed on that data.
  • Each object consists of data and operations on
    that data.
  • An object combines data and operations on the
    data into a single unit.
  • A programming language that implements OOD is
    called an object-oriented programming (OOP)
    language.
  • Because an object consists of data and operations
    on that data, you need to learn how to represent
    data in computer memory, how to manipulate data,
    and how to implement operations.
  • To create operations, you write algorithms and
    implement them in a programming language.
  • To work with objects, you need to know how to
    combine data and operations on the data into a
    single unit.
  • C was designed especially to implement OOD.
    Furthermore, OOD works well and is used in
    conjunction with structured design.
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