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Title: HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE


1
HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE
  • Class I

2
WHY THIS COURSE?
  • Agriculture is important for India
  • 62 population depend on agriculture
  • Contribution to GDP going down
  • TFP had been declining but now recovering
  • NSS Survey indicates 44 farmers want to quit
    farming
  • Investment in ag. RD declining
  • Youth not attracted to agriculture
  • Situation likely to be alarming after 2025
  • New generation faces a big challenge
  • IARI students Good in subject matter, poor in
    other sub.

3
Origin of Agriculture
  • Modern man (Homo sapiens) believed to have
    evolved from Homo erectus- 135,000-200,000 yrs
    ago
  • Most of this period lived in Nomadic existence in
    forest as hunters gatherers of food
  • Process of domestication-10,000 yrs ago
  • Sign of plant cultivation-8th-7th millennium BC
  • Archaeological remains-wheat, barley, pea,
    lentils etc- near East- spread to Europe, West
    Asia Nile valley
  • More sp. domesticated
  • What motivated them to adopt hunting to settled
    agri.?
  • People on diversified diet healthier than farmers

4
FOOD AGRICULTURE
  • Food an essential need
  • Agriculture- prime source for food
  • History of agri.- co-terminus with civilization
  • History of Indian agri.- complicated
    controversial
  • Absence of literary text for early period
  • Lit. available post Gupta or early medieval
    era

5
Agriculture in India
  • Earliest source- Arthashastra of Kautilya
  • Agri. is way of life, a philosophy a culture
  • Agri. herding under Revenue Admn.
  • Characterized by archaelogical evidences
  • Vindhya-Ganga region
  • North-west of Indian subcontinent
  • Hunting-gathering in late Mesolithic period to
  • Domestication of animals and cultivation of
    plants- 7-6th millenium BC

6
Agriculture in India
  • Indian subcontinent had 2 centres of farming of
    cereals
  • North-west with barley-wheat complex (Mehrgarh)
  • Vindhya-Ganga region for rice latter is earlier
    than former
  • Domestication of rice is found at Atranjikher
    Lal Qila (1200-1500 BC)
  • Rice-wheat-barley-legume agri. Established in
    Narhan Imlikhurd by the end of 3rd millennium
  • Two crop a year started around this period

7
Agriculture in India
  • Millets of African origin
  • -Introduced in India in 3rd millennium BC
  • -Associated with Harappan culture (2,500-2,000
    BC)
  • -Came to middle Ganga plains by 1800 BC
  • Border land of Afghanistan-
  • - Domestication of animals and plants
  • Symbiotic development of sedentary agri.
    pastoral nomadism- quite common in hills

8
Agriculture in India
  • Indus civilization- Well provided with
    development of Agri animal husbandry
  • Higher precipitation
  • Irrigation
  • Cultivation of rice, wheat barley
  • Use of chem. Fertilizers (Gypsum CaSO4)
  • Raising two crops a year

9
Agriculture in India
  • Sixth century BC to 6TH century AD-Variety of
    sources
  • -Pali, Sangam, Sanskrit
  • -Kautilyas Arthsastra Dharmsastra
  • Classification of land
  • Irrigation
  • Export of items-sugar
  • Taxes
  • Medicinal aromatic plants

10
Agriculture in India
  • Early medieval Period (600 AD to 1200 AD)
  • Agrarian structure
  • New type of tools technology
  • Regional agri. South India, Bengal Gujarat
  • British Period
  • -Initialy concerned with development
  • - Ignored agriculture
  • -Led to Bengal Famine

11
Origin of Agriculture- Hypothesis
  • Several hypotheses but debate continues as none
    of them wholly satisfactory
  • Climate change- ice age-11,000 yrs ago-
    favourable environment for farming
  • Population pressure
  • Resource concentration from desertification
  • Land ownership
  • Natural selection
  • Greg Wadley Angus Martin (1993)- cereals and
    milk contain Exorphins- drug like addictive
    properties

12
Origin of Agriculture
  • Origin of agri. Cant be because of particular
    invention
  • Why it took so long to settle and cultivate?
  • Gifted individuals hunting cant go forever,
    lets change- is it better way of life?
  • Change is not easy to humans- discarding old and
    adopting new, nevertheless
  • Change is difficult but change is must for
    progress

13
Domestication
  • First domestication to modern crop production
    wild sp. HYVs MVs- through selection
  • Grain size, colour, tolerance to drought, disease
    and insect pests
  • Creation of agrobiodiversity
  • Movement with people-
  • land races were created with variability
  • Natural and human selection for countless
    generations
  • Supported nearly 1 billion people in early 19th
    century
  • Hybridization and heredity- Mendel- modern crops

14
Crop Nutrition, Production and Protection
  • Application of chemical fertilizer in early 20th
    century
  • Humus-the main source of nutrition
  • Understanding of photosynthesis came much later
  • Pest management- balanced ecosystem- 1200 BC
    botanical pesticidesused in China
  • Dams on river Nile in Egypt, Euphrattes and
    Tigris in Mesopotamia- Iraq
  • Irrigation practices- Mesopotamians evolved
    sophisticated irrigation system
  • Dams in Asia- Cauvery river in 1900 by Chola king
  • Farm implements- scratch plough moldboard,
    sickles, spades and hoes

15
Modern Agriculture
  • Till 18th century- traditional way
  • Scientific discoveries helped in modernization
  • Origin of Species Darwin in 1859
  • Mendels law of inheritance - 1869- 1900
  • Leibigs discovery in 1840 killed humus theory
    chemical fertilizers industry in 1894
  • Steam engine in 1858
  • VISIT AGRICULTURE SCIENCE MUSEUM in NASC

16
Trends in food grain production in India
Production X5 Productivity X3 Area
X0.25 Popln.400 M-1.2B
1960-61- 82.02 MT-710kg/ha 1965-66- 72.35
MT-629kg/ha 1973-74-104.67 MT-827kg/ha
17
Transformation of Agriculture
  • Traditional to Modern

18
Triggers of Growth
  • Science of Heredity-
  • Mendel 1866- 1900
  • Plant nutrient- artificial fertilizers
  • Liebig 1840
  • Pest Management
  • Bordaux mixt. in early 20th century
  • Irrigation
  • Early yrs. of 20th century
  • Mechanization-
  • Charles Hart Charles Parr Tractor in 1902

19
Traditional V/s Modern Agriculture
  • Traditional
  • Small farm
  • Polyculture
  • Heterogenous germplasm
  • Little fertilizers
  • chemicals
  • Minimum tillage
  • Varying period for fallow
  • Modern
  • Large small farms
  • Monoculture
  • Uniform varieties/hybrids
  • Extensive use of fert/chem.
  • Appropriate/timely tillage
  • Intensive land use

20
Triggers of Growth
  • Science of heredity- Mendel 1866, 1900
  • Demolished theories of inheritance
  • Concept of genes
  • Quantitative inheritance
  • Chemical fertilizers
  • Humus theory demolished- C bulk of dry matter
    from humus
  • Photosynthesis CO2 H2O (CH2O) O2
  • Liebig 1840- C from atmospheric CO2
  • Liebigs patented manure- first inorganic
    fertilizers

21
Triggers of Growth
  • Modern fert. Industry-Liebig 1894- Phosphate,
    lime, magnesia potash
  • Direct synthesis of Ammonia from N2 and H2 in
    Germany by Frit Harber in 1913- Nobel Prize in
    Chemistry
  • P form TSP from Phosphoric acid, 1st started in
    Germany in 1870s
  • K from KCl Murate of Potash- Germany, Russia,
    US, Cnada
  • Global prodn- 100 million tonnes Nutrient mining-
    partial replenishment
  • China- the largest producer of N fert. Followed
    by US India
  • Declining TFP- 18/28 MT. (gap of 10 MT
    fertilizer)
  • Balanced fert. Application - NPK
    micronutrients- 421
  • Imbalanced application- leads to toxicity

22
Triggers of Growth
  • Pest Management
  • Irish famine-1840- 1 million died- P. infestans
  • Bordeaux distt.- mixture - CuSO4 lime
  • Chinese botanical pesticides
  • Organic pesticides
  • DDT in 1939 by Paul Muller at Geigy in Basel-
    Colarado potato beetle
  • Killed mosquitoes- saved thousands of lives
  • Most widely used
  • Organophosphorus compounds
  • Carbamates
  • Synthetic pyrethroids
  • Sulphonyl ureas
  • Widespread use
  • Developed countries- 0.49 kg/ha in 1961 to 1.30
    kg/ha 2000
  • Developing countries-late starters- 0.66 in
    1990- 1.02 kg/ha in 2000
  • Pesticide residues
  • IPM

23
Irrigation
  • Water availability
  • Water demand
  • Gravity Arch dams
  • Increasing WUE
  • sprinkler
  • drip
  • micro irrigation

24
State-wise potential and actual area under
micro-irrigation
( Area in 000 ha )
States Drip Drip Sprinkler Sprinkler Total Total
Potential Actual Potential Actual Potential Actual
Andhra Pradesh 730 50 387 52 1117 51
Gujarat 1599 11 1679 8 3278 9
Haryana 398 2 1992 26 2390 22
Karnataka 745 24 697 33 1442 28
Maharashtra 1116 43 1598 13 2714 26
Rajasthan 727 2 4931 14 5658 13
Tamil Nadu 544 24 158 17 702 23
UP 2,207 0.48 8582 0.12 10789 0.20
All India 11659 12 30578 8 42237 9
Total area under MI is currently 3.87 million ha
against estimated potential of 42 million
ha Major crops-field crops (cotton, groundnut,
sugarcane) to vegetables and fruits (banana,
papaya, mango, grapes) and plantation crops
25
Mechanization
  • Early yrs of 20th century in US
  • 38 people engaged in Agri.
  • 3-4 today
  • India
  • -1950- 8,000 tractors
  • -2001-2.61 million machines
  • -largest producer of tractor 400,000 units in
    2009-10
  • -6,25,000 current yr. 2014
  • combines
  • Modern Agriculture
  • Seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, chemicals,
    machines Led to increased output

26
Impact of Modern Agriculture
  • Output of US agri. Doubled during 1910-1970
  • Scientific knowledge/technology
  • Land grant Universities
  • Resesrch
  • Education
  • Extension
  • European agriculture
  • Wheat yields-doubled in UK
  • New varieties
  • Improved agronomy
  • Modern farm inputs

27

Resources and Liabilities
Fresh Water Resources 4 Land 2.3
Population 16 Rainfall 1170 mm
XXXXXXXXXXXX
28
Some Success Stories
  • Maize
  • Potato
  • Cotton
  • Soybean

29
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30
Trends in food grain production in India
Production X5 Productivity X3 Area
X0.25
1960-61-82.02 MT-710kg/ha 1965-66-72.35
MT-629kg/ha 1973-74-104.6 MT-827kg/ha 2010-11-241.
5 MT-1921kg/ha
31
Production and productivity of rice in India
32
Production and Productivity of Wheat in
India
Area X 2.5 Prodn.x 8.5 Prody x3
1950-51 6.5 MT-663 kg/ha 1960-61 11 MT- 851
kg/ha 1963-64 730 kg/ha 1965-66 10.4
MT-827kg/ha 1970-71 21.8 MT-1172kg/ha
33
Production and productivity of maize in India
Prodn. x12 Yield x4 Area x3
34
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35
Bt Cotton in India
Area covered during 2010 8.4 m ha
35
36
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37
Area, Production and Productivity in India
Year Area (m ha) Production (m t) Yield (t/ha) share in oilseeds area share in oilseeds production
1970-71 0.032 0.014 0.426 0.19 0.14
1980-81 0.61 0.44 0.728 3.46 4.69
1990-91 2.56 2.60 1.015 10.60 13.97
2000-01 6.42 5.27 0.822 27.61 28.64
2010-11 9.60 12.74 1.327 35.27 39.22
2011-12 10.18 12.28 1.207 38.50 40.92
2012-13 10.70 14.67 1.37 40.29 42.80
334
1050
3.2
38
Area, Production and Productivity of Soybean
around the World
Country Area (m ha) Production (m t) Yield (t/ha)
USA 30.91 91.42 2.96
Brazil 23.50 69.00 2.94
Argentina 18.60 54.50 2.93
China 9.19 14.98 1.63
India 10.70 IV 14.5 V 1.37 (40)
Paraguay 2.68 7.20 2.69
World 102.17 260.85 2.55
Source USDA, Foreign Agricultural
Service-www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/psdgetreport.  

39
GREEN REVOLUTIONBREAKTHROUGH IN WHEAT IMPROVEMENT
  • WHY MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE?
  • Class III

40
Population Growth
  • 1 M yrs or more- 1st 8 Million people in 8,000 BC
  • 10,000 yrs. 1st 1,000 M by 1830
  • 100 yrs - 2nd 1,000 M by 1930
  • 30 yrs. - 3rd 1,000 M by 1960
  • 15 yrs. - 4th 1,000 M by 1975
  • 25 yrs. - 6 billion by early 21st century
  • 2011 - 7 billion Oct. (6.928 b on July 01)
  • 2025 - 9.2 billion

41
Global Population Explosion
Present Concerns
Current gt7 billion Poor 1 billion (240 m
in India) Underweight Children
Severely 180 million Chronically 800
million Vitamin A deficient 200 million
Pregnant Women Anemia 400 million 1/8
persons hungry
Source - Paroda, 2011
42
Indias Population
2050
1500 mn (expected)
2011
1210 mn
1028 mn
1971
43
Decennial Growth in Human Population
  • Graph
  • Ship-to-mouth
  • Life boat
  • Paddock Brothers Famine 1975

44
Other Factors
  • Developed Vs developing
  • Increased longevity
  • Antibiotics in 1950s
  • Penicillin
  • Chloromycetin
  • Industrial Revolution- strong production
    distribution base for
  • Fert, pesticides, farm machinery
  • Knowledge technology
  • Policy investment
  • Developing countries followed the suit

45
Crop Yields (2009)
  • Grain Prodn. MT Producty
  • _____________________________________
  • Maize 817.11 2.06/5.12
  • Wheat 681.91 2.84/3.2
  • Rice 678.68 2.98/4.2
  • ___________________________________

46
Wheat Improvement in India
  • Domesticated in West Asia
  • Selection of land races by generations of farmers
  • Scientific breeding in early 20th century
  • North America, Europe, Russia, Japan Australia
  • India- 1905 at IARI- Pure line selection
  • 1930-40 Hybridization grain quality disease
    resistance- Dr. BP Pal Assoc. Leaders

47
Wheat Improvement in India-cont.
  • Started at IARI in 1905- Dr. BP Pal
    associates-yield, quality disease resistance
  • NP 700 NP 800 series
  • NP 823- Early Maturing, good quality suitable for
    rainfed
  • NP 824- Good yield in plains lower hills
  • NP 809- Resistant to 3 rusts loose smut through
    hybridization
  • Ch. Ram Dhan SM Sikka at Govt. Agri. College
    Research Instt. Lyallpur (faislabad) developed C
    series wheat in Punjab - yield 3-4 t/ha
  • 1947 av. Yield 700kg/ha remained same for the
    last 40 yrs.

48
Low Productivity of Indian Wheat
  • Remedy of the Malady

49
Wheat Yield in India
  • ______________________________________
  • Year Yield
  • ______________________________________
  • 1950-51 6.46 MT 663 kg/ha
  • 1960-61 11 MT 851 kg/ha
  • 1963-64 734 kg/ha
  • 1965-66 10.4 MT- 827kg/ha
  • 1970-71 21.8 MT- 1172kg/ha
  • Increase in yield not consistent

50
Wheat improvement - Yield barrier
  • 20 varieties grown over 80 yrs. were analyzed
    (Kulshrestha and Jain , 1981)
  • -1910-60 Tall -2 per decade for six
    deacdes-12
  • -1970-80 Dwarf -4 per decade-8
  • Evaluated for
  • -grain yield
  • -HI
  • - effective tillers/sq. m
  • -plant ht.
  • -grain wt
  • -total dry matter
  • Tall var. showed significant differences for
    1st 4 characters but did not show significant
    difference in biol. yield grain. Wt
  • K13 (Kanpur) and NP 165(IARI) showed significant
    but small improvement in yield
  • 1940s, 50s 60s no difference in grain yield
    despite concerted efforts
  • Significant difference recorded in var. of 1970s
    80s
  • Indian breeders struggled to break yield barrier
    over 60 yrs. But did not succeed

51
Wheat ImprovementResponse to fertilizer
  • Inadequate availability
  • Lack of infrastructure for prodn. distribution
  • Attempt made to develop varieties for high soil
    fertility
  • Tall varieties (115 cm or more) lodged at high
    doses beyond 40 Kg/ ha Nitrogen
  • Need for breeding stiff strawed, lodging
    resistant coupled with disease resistance
    quality
  • SP Kohli-Sr. wheat Breeder in early 1960s
    initiated work for identifying sources of
    dwarfing with stiff straw but rust resistance
    was top priority

52
Dwarf Wheat
  • IARI germplasm collection screened- none of them
    dwarf except 3 Italian varieties
  • Funo
  • Falchetto
  • Mara
  • Lodging resistant but susceptible to RUST- less
    used in breeding
  • rht8 gene for reduced plant height identified in
    these varieties
  • Italians developed famous ARDITO released in
    1916
  • Was widely grown in Eastern Europe South
    America

53
Dwarf Varieties
  • HYV winter wheat
  • Russian Scientist -PP Lukyanenko developed
  • Bezostya
  • Kavkag
  • Avrora
  • Great Britain
  • Little Joss (142 cm.) in 1908
  • Holdfast (126 cm.) in 1935
  • Capelle Desperz (110 cm) in 1935
  • Marris Huntman (106 cm) in 1972
  • Armada (97 cm) in 1978
  • USA
  • Honor (120 cm) in 1920
  • Eroga (85 cm.) in 1973
  • Did not havea robust source for dwarfing but
    succeeded in improving wheat yield over a long
    period in Western world

54
Dwarf Winter Wheat
  • Indian wheat breeders struggling to develop dwarf
    wheat varieties, scientists in Japan had found
    solution way back in 1930
  • Daruma- a land race- origin remains obscure
    1873
  • Daruma- registered as variety in 1900
  • Kihara assoc. showed bread wheat 3 sets of
    chr. in 1940s
  • Evolution of NORIN 10
  • -Shiro(white) Daruma
  • -Aka (red) Daruma
  • Shiro Daruma X Glassy Fultz- an American wheat at
    Central Agricultural Experiment Station,
    Nishinghara released Fultz Daruma
  • Fultz Daruma X Turky Red at Ehime Prefectual
    Experiment Station in 1925- The advance progeny
    of this cross yielded NORIN 10 in 1932. It was
    released in Oct. 1935 by Inazuka

55
Dwarf Spring Wheat
  • Norin 10- semidwarf winter wheat height of 52-55
    cm
  • It received its dwarfing gene from Daruma- land
    race
  • selected by Japanese farmers
  • Standard source of dwarfing gene throughout world
  • Free from adverse effects on expression of yield
    contributing characters when placed in right
    genetic background
  • Short internodes reduced plant height without
    reducing length of earhead, of spike bearing
    tillers, of grains/spike

56
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57
Norin 10 In USA
  • Following occupation of Japan in 1945- group of
    scientists sent from USA to Japan
  • SC Salmon- Adviesr to USDA sent Norin 10 to US
  • USDA distributed to wheat breeders-
  • Orville A. Vogel of Washington Agri. Exp. Stn.,
    WSU, Pullman evolved 1st semidwarf, HYV carrying
    Norin 10 outside Japan
  • The variety Gaines gave a record yield of 14.5
    t/ha under high fertility with large dose of
    fertilizers
  • Gaines, however, showed high proportion of
    sterile florets
  • Gaines crossed with Brevor- sterility was
    transferred to Norin 10-Brevor hybrid
  • Further selections led to Breeding lines free
    from sterility
  • Selection 14 crossed with 3 American varieties to
    introduce disease resistant genes
  • Gaines was 85 cm, Brevor 120 cm and Selection
    146 cm height
  • Gaines showed no lodging but Brevor showed 20
    lodging
  • Gaines a winter wheat and could not be grown
    in subtropical conditions

58
Mexican Wheat
  • Norman Borlaug working at CIMMYT, Mexico got
    Norin 10-Brevor hybrid lines from Vogel
  • 1st few crosses with elite Mexical lines not
    successful due to rust
  • Successful crosses showed sterile florets,
    shrivelled grains, poor quality susceptibility
    to rust
  • Sustained efforts for next 6 yrs- winter spring
    gene pools different showed considerable
    genetic divergence
  • Now Borlaug had Norin 10 in spring wheat
    background
  • Pitic 62 Inia 66
  • Penjamo 62 Tobari 66
  • Sonora 63 Ciano 67
  • Sonora 64 Norteno 67
  • Mayo 64 Cietoe Coros
  • Lerma Rojo 64 in 1966

59
Multilocation Evaluation
60
Mexican Wheat in India
  • Rabi 1961-62 -Observational Nursery from USDA
  • Summer 1962 -Multiplication at Wellington
  • Rabi 1962-63 -Demonstration at IARI farm
  • Invitation to Borlaug to visit India visits in
    March 1963
  • Rabi 1963-64 -Multilocation Trial 4 places
  • Rabi 1964-65 -Large Multilocation trails-155
    places
  • 1965- Two Mexican Lines Sonora 64 Lerma Roho 64
    A Released for Commercial cultivation by CVRC
    (CSCSNRV)

61
Area, Production and Productivity of Wheat
in India
Area X 2.5 Prodn.x 8.5 Prody x3
62
Reduction in yield gap has been the main approach
for increasing wheat production
Source IARI/ ICAR network
63
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64
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65
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66
Bt Cotton in India
Area covered during 2010 8.4 m ha
66
67
Incidence of malnutrition among children (lt 3
years)
68
Wide inter-regional variations in yield
State Foodgrain yield, 2006-07 (t/ha)
1. Punjab 4.0
2 Tamil Nadu 2.6
3 West Bengal 2.5
4 Uttar Pradesh 2.1
5 Bihar 1.7
6 Orissa 1.4
7 Madhya Pradesh 1.2
? Focus on high potential eastern central region for immediate yield gains ? Focus on high potential eastern central region for immediate yield gains ? Focus on high potential eastern central region for immediate yield gains
69
Per capita net availability of foodgrains
(g/capita/day)
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