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American and Florida History

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Title: American and Florida History


1
American and Florida History
  • Mrs. Maddox Mr. Piernick

2
First Industrial Revolution
  • Spread from Great Britain to the United States
  • Production passed to factories powered by
    machines, mostly in northern states.
  • Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. Southern
    states became major cotton producers.
  • Erie Canal built, as well as other canals,
    railroads, and roads.
  • Robert Fulton developed the first commercially
    successful steamboat

3
Social reform movements
  • Abolitionism (Harriet Tubman, William Lloyd
    Garrison, John Brown, Frederick Douglass, Harriet
    Beecher Stowe)
  • Temperance
  • Womens rights (Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady
    Stanton, Elizabeth Blackwell)
  • Movements to improve conditions for workers and
    prisoners
  • Public education (Horace Mann)

4
Famous writers
  • James Fenimore Cooper
  • Washington Irving
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Henry David Thoreau
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • Edgar Allan Poe
  • Herman Melville
  • Walt Whitman
  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

5
North vs South
  • Slavery existed in all 13 colonies, but
    widespread slavery was only profitable in the
    South.
  • After independence, the North and South differed
    on tariffs, banking and currency, internal
    improvements at federal expense, and slavery.
  • North was more commercial and industrialized,
    while the South was more agricultural.
  • The Southern economy depended on slavery, but
    most Southern whites did not own slaves.

6
Missouri Compromise 1820
  • Balance of power in Congress between slave and
    free states was maintained, when Maine was
    admitted along with Missouri.
  • Maine had been part of Massachusetts. Missouri
    was a slave state.
  • Slavery in western territories was banned north
    of 36 30 N. latitude

7
Compromise of 1850
  • California was admitted as a free state
  • Abolition of the slave trade in the District of
    Columbia
  • Western territories could decide whether to
    permit slavery
  • Fugitive Slave Act

8
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
  • Missouri Compromise had banned slavery in these
    areas.
  • Law allowed these territories citizens, however,
    to decide whether to allow slavery upon
    statehood.
  • Bleeding Kansas violent clashes between
    opponents and supporters of slavery.

9
Dred Scott case 1857
  • Supreme Court decided that Dred Scott, a slave
    from Missouri, did not become free by entering
    Illinois, a free state.
  • The Court declared that slaves were property, not
    citizens, and had no standing to sue.
  • The Missouri Compromise was declared
    unconstitutional because Congress could not
    prohibit slavery in western territories

10
John Brown
  • John Brown led a raid on Harpers Ferry,
    Virginia, attempting to seize a federal arsenal
    and begin a slave uprising in the South.
  • Brown was defeated and he was hanged.
  • South saw this as proof that most Northerners
    wanted to achieve abolition by force.

11
Outbreak of the Civil War
  • The new Republican Party opposed the expansion of
    slavery. Its candidate, Abraham Lincoln of
    Illinois, won the presidential election of 1860
    because the Democratic party had split over the
    issue of the expansion of slavery.
  • Southern states responded by seceding from the
    Union, starting with South Carolina, followed by
    Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia,
    Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee,
    and North Carolina

12
Outbreak of the Civil War
  • These eleven states formed the Confederate States
    of America
  • War started with the Confederate attack on Fort
    Sumter in Charleston, SC, in April 1861

13
North and South
  • Larger population
  • Greater wealth and more natural resources
  • Far more railroads and factories
  • Controlled the navy , which blockaded the South,
    and continued trading overseas
  • Motivation was to preserve the Union, which
    didnt command everyones support
  • Only needed to fight a defensive war.
  • Hoped for British and French recognition and
    assistance, since they depended on Southern
    cotton
  • Excellent military leadership
  • Stronger motivation to fight, since they were
    defending their homeland and their independence.

14
War strategies
  • North
  • Blockade the Confederate coast in order to
    cripple the Southern economy
  • Seize control of the Mississippi valley in order
    to cut the South in half.
  • Seize the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA
  • South
  • Capture Washington, DC and force the North to
    surrender
  • Exhaust the North, wear it down through
    determined and brave resistance, and force it to
    surrender, since it was less motivated to fight.

15
Civil War
  • Battle of Gettysburg, July 1863. Robert E. Lees
    invasion of the North failed
  • Battle of Vicksburg, July 1863. North captured
    last remaining Southern position on the
    Mississippi
  • Ulysses Grant then became commander in the North.
    He invaded Virginia, while William Sherman
    invaded through Georgia, cutting the Confederacy
    in half.
  • Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox
    Courthouse, VA, in April 1865.

16
Consequences of the Civil War
  • More Americans were killed than in any other war
    in U.S. history
  • Southern way of life was lost, and bitterness and
    resentment remained as a legacy in the South for
    decades.
  • Modern technologies and techniques played a
    decisive role trench warfare, repeating rifles,
    submarines, ironclad ships, telegraphs,
    railroads.
  • The principle that no state can leave the Union
    became accepted, and a unified US went on to
    become a great power.
  • Slavery was abolished, although racism survived.

17
Reconstruction
  • Lincoln wanted generous terms for the
    Confederacy, but he was assassinated days after
    the war ended.
  • Under President Andrew Johnson, Congress imposed
    harsher terms as it was dominated by Radical
    Republicans.
  • States were under federal army occupation. The
    Freedmens Bureau was supposed to aid former
    slaves, which led to resentment among Southern
    whites.
  • Southern states adopted black codes, which denied
    basic civil rights to blacks. Ku Klux Klan was
    established a secret terrorist organization in
    order to intimidate blacks through violence.

18
Reconstruction
  • Congress responded by passing the 13th Amendment
    (abolition of slavery), 14th Amendment (former
    slaves became citizens), and the 15th Amendment
    (blacks could not be denied the right to vote).
  • Andrew Johnson was impeached because of his
    conflicts with the Republican Congress.

19
Society and economy 1870-1914
  • After the Civil War, the United States became
    fully industrialized and urbanized, and railroads
    linked the entire country.
  • The United States had abundant natural resources
    coal, iron, forests, copper, oil.
  • Railroads and mass production made consumer goods
    widely available.
  • New technologies electric light bulb,
    phonograph, typewriter, telephone, barbed wire,
    automobile, skyscraper

20
Society and economy 1870-1914
  • Mass immigration, which provided a labor force
    and market for industry.
  • Large corporations grew, and many monopolies and
    trusts arose.
  • Workers and farmers formed unions and
    organizations to defend their rights.
  • Susan B. Anthony began campaigning for womens
    suffrage. Wyoming became the first state to grant
    women the right to vote.

21
Progressive reforms (T. Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson)
  • Civil Service or Pendleton Act
  • Introduction of the secret ballot.
  • Direct election of senators
  • Muckraking journalists exposed abuses and
    corruption
  • Sherman and Clayton Antitrust Acts
  • Federal Reserve Bank was established
  • Safety of food and drugs
  • Conservation of natural areas

22
Imperialism
  • 1890s. US became more interested in foreign
    affairs, and some wanted to expand overseas, as
    European powers were doing.
  • Cuba rebelled against Spanish rule, and many
    Americans wanted to intervene on Cubans behalf.
  • U.S. declared war on Spain in 1898 after the
    battleship Maine blew up in Havana.
  • Treaty of Paris. U.S. acquired Guam, Puerto Rico,
    and the Philippines. Spain lost Cuba, which
    became independent after U.S. occupation.

23
Imperialism
  • President Theodore Roosevelt believed that the
    U.S. should be a world power and in intervening
    in the Americas. Speak softly and carry a big
    stick.
  • U.S. intervened in countries like the Dominican
    Republic, Mexico, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Cuba
  • Panama became independent, and the U.S. gained
    the right to build, operate, and own the Panama
    Canal

24
World War I
  • President Woodrow Wilson declared American
    neutrality, but the U.S. entered the war in 1917
    because of Germanys practice of unrestricted
    submarine warfare.
  • Zimmermann Telegram US discovered that Germany
    was encouraging Mexico to enter the war against
    the United States.
  • New technologies tank, poison gas, airplane,
    submarines, machine guns

25
  • Massive mobilization of men and industry to fight
    the war.
  • Wilsons peace plan was the Fourteen Points
    peace without victory, self-determination,
    disarmament, new international organization to
    preserve peace.
  • Paris Peace Conference ignored most of the
    Fourteen Points, but Wilson went along in order
    to get his League of Nations established.
  • The Central Powers were punished harshly. They
    lost territory and were forced to pay
    reparations.
  • U.S. Senate rejected the League because most
    Americans did not want to commit themselves to
    automatic involvement in foreign wars.

26
1920s
  • 18th Amendment Prohibition of the manufacture
    and sale of alcoholic beverages
  • 19th Amendment women won the right to vote.
  • Much greater influence of automobiles.
  • Jazz, motion pictures, aviation, household
    appliances, and radio became part of daily life.
  • Tremendous economic boom, with much investment in
    the stock market.

27
Great Depression
  • Much stock speculation involved investing in
    stock with borrowed money.
  • Stock market crash of October 1929 led to
    financial ruin for many, the failure of many
    banks, business failures, and very high
    unemployment. Foreign trade collapsed.
  • Depression was more severe in Germany, which
    relied on American bank loans to pay its war
    debts.

28
Origin of World War II
  • Italy was fascist, under Benito Mussolini.
  • Japan, under Emperor Hirohito, was increasingly
    militaristic.
  • Both dictatorships saw aggressive nationalism and
    expansion as the solution to their economic
    problems. Japan invaded China, and Italy invaded
    Ethiopia.
  • The humiliation of the harsh peace treaty, loss
    of territory, the economic collapse, and the
    failure of democratic governments led to the rise
    to power of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party in
    Germany in 1933.

29
Origin of World War II
  • Nazi Germany began rearming. It remilitarized the
    Rhineland in 1936, annexed Austria in 1938,
    seized the Sudetenland in 1938, and occupied the
    rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939.
  • Italy and Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil
    War (1936-1939), and the Soviet Union under
    Stalin aided the other side.
  • Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939,
    beginning World War II. Germany then conquered
    much of the rest of Europe.

30
United States and World War II
  • President Franklin Roosevelt sympathized with the
    Allies and feared an Axis victory. U.S. supplied
    Allies with war materials.
  • Isolationists did not want to get involved.
  • U.S. opposed Japanese expansionism in Asia, and
    restricted exports to Japan.
  • In 1941, Japan attacked the Pearl Harbor naval
    base in Hawaii in order to disable the U.S. fleet
    so that it could have a free hand in the Pacific.

31
World War II in Europe
  • Allies agreed to concentrate on defeating Germany
    before Japan. Allied leaders Roosevelt, Stalin,
    and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
  • U.S. invaded North Africa, and then Italy in
    1943.
  • Germany had invaded the Soviet Union in 1941,
    violating the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact of
    1939. Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point,
    where Germany started losing.
  • D-Day (June 1944). Allies invaded France at
    Normandy.
  • Germany was overrun by Allied armies from the
    East and West, and surrendered in May 1945.

32
World War II in the Pacific
  • Japan conquered much of Southeast Asia and the
    Pacific.
  • U.S. pursued island-hopping to push toward Japan.
  • Japan surrendered after atomic bombs were dropped
    on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.

33
Consequences of World War II
  • Germany and its capital Berlin were divided into
    four occupation zones (United States, Soviet
    Union, Great Britain, and France). Germany lost
    its eastern territory to Poland and the Soviet
    Union
  • Nazi Party was banned, and the German military
    disbanded.
  • War crimes trials were held for German and
    Japanese leaders.
  • Japan was under U.S. military occupation, under
    General Douglas MacArthur. Japans new
    constitution eliminated the political role of the
    emperor and denied Japan the right to wage war.
  • United Nations was established to prevent future
    wars.

34
Consequences of World War II
  • Millions were killed in Nazi concentration camps.
    Holocaust. Millions of civilians were killed, and
    cities destroyed.
  • United States and the Soviet Union became the
    worlds leading powers., and their alliance soon
    fell apart.
  • Soviets established communist governments across
    Eastern Europe.
  • Mao Zedongs communist forces seized control of
    China in 1949.

35
Cold War
  • Dominated U.S. foreign policy between 1945 and
    1990.
  • Struggle and intense hostility between communist
    bloc, led by the Soviet Union, and the U.S. and
    its allies. Never became a hot war.
  • Nuclear arms race both sides built up their
    arsenals until they developed the ability to
    destroy each other.
  • Truman Doctrine or containment US policy was to
    contain or halt the spread of communism

36
  • Marshall Plan (1947) After World War II, social
    and economic chaos in Western Europe led to fears
    that it could fall to communism. Marshall Plan
    helped rebuild Western Europe economically and
    assist its recovery
  • Soviets tried to prevent German economic
    unification and to expel the western Allies from
    West Berlin through a blockade. Berlin Airlift
    (1948) Western Allies resupplied the city by air.

37
Korea and Vietnam
  • Korean War (1950-1953) North Korea invaded South
    Korea, and US troops, along with other UN
    members, defended the South.
  • War ended with a cease-fire, and Korea remains
    divided.
  • US under Eisenhower and Kennedy began aiding
    South Vietnam defend itself from communist forces
    supported by North Vietnam.
  • Under Lyndon Johnson, US troops entered the
    conflict. War grew immensely unpopular, and US
    was divided.
  • US in 1973, under Nixon, signed an agreement with
    North Vietnam, and withdrew its troops.

38
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
  • Soviets decided to install nuclear missiles in
    Cuba in order to defend Cuba from a feared US
    invasion. US spy planes discovered them. Kennedy
    decided to quarantine Cuba and demanded the
    missiles withdrawal.
  • Worst crisis of the cold war.
  • Soviets withdrew the missiles from Cuba, and US
    withdrew its missiles from Turkey. US promised
    not to invade Cuba.

39
Richard Nixon 1969-1974
  • US had not recognized the communist government of
    China since 1949. Nixon went to China in 1972 in
    order to gain leverage in its negotiations with
    North Vietnam and the Soviet Union. Changed the
    nature of the cold war. US and China established
    relations in 1979.
  • Nixon resigned in 1974 after his involvement in
    covering up the break-in at the Democratic Party
    headquarters in the Watergate was discovered.

40
Jimmy Carter 1977-1981
  • Hosted negotiations at Camp David between Egypt
    and Israel, who signed a peace treaty in 1979.
  • Shah of Iran was overthrown in 1979, replaced by
    an Islamic theocracy under Ayatollah Khomeini. US
    embassy in Iran was overrun, and the diplomats
    were held hostage.
  • Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979.
  • US was now seen as weak.

41
Ronald Reagan 1981-1989
  • US helped stop communist forces in El Salvador,
    and tried to overthrow the communist government
    in Nicaragua.
  • Iran-contra scandal Profits from selling arms to
    Iran were used to fund Nicaraguan rebels.
  • 1983 Hundreds of US marines were killed in a
    suicide bombing in Beirut, Lebanon.
  • 1983 US invasion of Grenada.

42
End of the cold war
  • Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev began to reform
    the Soviet Union and ease tensions with the
    United States.
  • Berlin Wall fell in 1989.
  • Communist governments fell across Eastern Europe,
    and replaced by democracies.
  • Yugoslavia fell apart, and some of its ethnic
    groups went to war with each other.

43
George H. W. Bush 1989-1993
  • 1989. US invaded Panama to overthrow military
    dictator Manuel Noriega.
  • 1990 Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait.
  • 1991 Operation Desert Storm. US and its allies
    freed Kuwait from Iraqi control.

44
Bill Clinton 1993-2001
  • North American Free Trade Agreement.
  • 1993 Failed intervention and withdrawal in
    Somalia
  • Military Intervention in wars in Bosnia (1995)
    and Kosovo (1999)
  • 1994 Invasion of Haiti to restore Aristide

45
George W Bush 2001-2009
  • Election decided by the Supreme Court after
    disputed election in Florida
  • September 11, 2001 Islamic suicide hijackers
    crashed planes into the World Trade Center and
    the Pentagon
  • War on terror began. Invasion of Afghanistan
    (2001) and overthrow of the Taliban.
  • 2003 Invasion of Iraq and overthrow of Saddam
    Hussein.

46
  • New Deal (response to the Great Depression)
    relief for farmers, regulation of banks, public
    works, social security.
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
    ended segregation of public schools.
  • Civil rights movement (1950s-1960s). Led by Rev.
    Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Civil Rights Act
    (1964) prohibited racial discrimination in
    housing, employment, and public accommodations.
  • Use of oil led to dependence on imports, which
    left US vulnerable to shortages and price
    increases. Also contributed to pollution

47
  • 19th century immigrants served as a labor force
    for the Industrial Revolution.
  • Before about 1880, most immigrants were from the
    British Isles, Scandinavia, Germany, and the
    Netherlands.
  • After, most came from Southern and Eastern
    Europe.
  • Large numbers of Chinese went to the Pacific
    coast states, especially to work on the railroads.

48
  • Hispanics, mostly from Mexico, came in the first
    half of the 1900s to work in California and the
    Southwest, mostly in agriculture, and many
    seasonally.
  • Problem of illegal immigration Millions have
    come from Latin America to work without
    permission to work or reside in the United States.

49
African-Americans
  • After the Civil War and the abolition of slavery,
    African-Americans still suffered from
    discrimination and inequality.
  • Booker T. Washington advocated self-improvement
    and vocational education. Founded the Tuskegee
    Institute
  • W.E.B. DuBois advocated continuous protests
    against injustice. Founded the NAACP

50
  • Major Native American tribes in Florida 1)
    Calusa and Tequesta (South) 2) Ais (Central) 3)
    Timucuans (North Central and Northeast) 4)
    Apalachee (Northwest)
  • Juan Ponce de Leon landed in northeastern Florida
    on Easter Sunday 1513 and named it after Pascua
    Florida (Spanish for Easter). Spain would rule
    Florida for the next 250 years.

51
  • Spain sponsored several failed attempts at
    colonizing Florida Juan Ponce de Leon in 1521,
    Panfilo de Narvaez in 1527, Hernando de Soto in
    1539, Tristan de Luna in 1559 in Pensacola. They
    were looking unsuccessfully for treasure.
  • French Protestants established Fort Caroline in
    1562, which led Spain to establish a permanent
    settlement nearby.
  • Pedro Menendez de Aviles established Saint
    Augustine in 1565, which became the first
    permanent European settlement in the United
    States.
  • Most of the French were killed. Spanish fort in
    St. Augustine is the Castillo de San Marcos.

52
Colonial Florida
  • Spanish established Catholic missions and forts
    in Florida.
  • In the 1700s, English colonists in South Carolina
    and Georgia were hostile to Spain and attacked
    Florida several times. Most of the missions were
    burned.
  • Creek Indians moved into Florida at this time,
    and were known as Seminoles.
  • British obtained Florida in 1763 in the Treaty of
    Paris, in exchange for Havana.

53
Colonial Florida
  • British split Florida into two colonies. East
    (Saint Augustine) and West (Pensacola).
  • Spain was an ally of the American
    revolutionaries, and invaded and captured
    Pensacola in 1781. Spain regained Florida in 1783
    in the peace treaty.
  • Spain would again rule Florida until 1821.
  • Andrew Jackson led an army into Florida in 1818
    in an expedition against Seminoles. Spanish
    Florida was also a haven for escaped slaves.

54
Territorial Florida
  • US military pressure led to the Adams-Onis Treaty
    of 1819, where Spain agreed to cede Florida to
    the United States, which occurred in 1821. Andrew
    Jackson established the territorial government as
    Floridas military governor.
  • Settlers came to Florida from the southern states
    to establish plantations. Tallahassee became the
    capital because it was midway between Pensacola
    and St. Augustine.

55
Seminole Wars and statehood
  • Whites desired Indian lands, and resented the
    Seminoles for giving sanctuary to fugitive
    slaves.
  • Jackson wanted to remove them to the West. This
    led to the Seminole wars. Many Seminoles were
    able to seek refuge in the Everglades.
  • Florida became a state on March 3, 1845. William
    D. Moseley became its first governor.

56
Civil War
  • Most white Floridians supported slavery and
    opposed the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
    As a result of his victory, Florida seceded from
    the Union on January 10, 1861.
  • No decisive Civil War battles were fought in
    Florida. Many ports were in Union hands, but the
    interior remained Confederate.
  • Florida supplied the South with agricultural
    supplies. Tallahassee was the only Confederate
    capital east of the Mississippi which remained in
    Confederate hands until the end of the war.

57
  • Reconstruction. Republicans held office in
    Florida, and blacks were able to vote.
  • The Republican state government ensured that
    Rutherford Hayes won Florida in the election of
    1876.
  • Reconstruction then ended, and white Democrats
    reestablished control of the state government
  • Economic development cattle ranches, phosphate
    mining, paper mills, lumber, cigar manufacturing,
    citrus farming, railroad building (under Henry
    Plant and Henry Flagler)

58
  • With steamships and railroads, tourism began in
    the 1870s as northerners came to Florida for its
    warm climate.
  • The state offered land cheaply to those building
    railroads.
  • Railroad builders like Flagler built lavish
    hotels near their railroad lines.
  • Tampa served as the primary staging area for the
    U.S. intervention in Cuba during the
    Spanish-American War in 1898.

59
  • Early 20th century. With the automobile, Florida
    was even more accessible to tourists. In South
    Florida, land was developed and swamps were
    drained.
  • Many military bases were built in Florida during
    World War II, and many soldiers came to train.
    Many veterans later settled in Florida after the
    war.
  • In the 1950s, Cape Canaveral became the center of
    US space exploration. Satellites and manned space
    missions launch from the Kennedy Space Center.
  • 1960s to the present Major immigration to
    Florida, especially from Cuba and Haiti.
  • Tremendous urban and suburban growth, especially
    after the construction of Walt Disney World in
    the 1970s.
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