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Standards and Trade

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Environmental requirements/SPS measures Key questions Effects, both positive and negative, ... experiences South Asia Africa Central America ... 16 RTAs Examples Env ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Standards and Trade


1
Standards and Trade
UNCTAD
TRADE, ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
  • Geneva, 16 and 17 May 2002

2
Environmental requirements/SPS measures Key
questions
  • Effects, both positive and negative, on exports
    from developing countries
  • Constraints, costs of compliance
  • Perceptions (protection/protectionism)
  • Responses at national/regional levels
  • Recommendations to mitigate adverse trade effects
    and strengthen capacities to respond to these
    standards
  • (a) national/regional
  • (b) bilateral/multilateral
  • (c) multilateral trading system

3
Sectors
South Asia Fishery products Peanuts, rice, spices, tea Organic products
Central America Fishery products Poultry Organic products
Africa Fishery products Horticulture Organic products
4
Outputs
  • Research in three developing regions
  • South Asia
  • Eastern Africa, Mozambique
  • Central America
  • Three regional scoping papers
  • Overall scoping paper
  • Scoping paper on organic agriculture

http//www.unctad.org/trade_env/test1/openF1.htm
5
Objectives of this meeting?
  • Review scoping papers
  • What conclusions can be drawn?
  • Enhance co-operation and co-ordination
  • Discuss possible follow-up activities

6
Agenda, day 1
  • Environmental requirements/SPS measures
  • Regional experiences
  • South Asia
  • Africa
  • Central America
  • Fish and fish products
  • Organic agricultural products

7
Agenda, day 2
  • The Impact of Standards and SPS Measures in
    Selected Food Sectors
  • Strengthening capacities
  • WTO aspects
  • The way forward

8
Environmental requirements
9
Environment-related NTMs
  • Technical standards and regulations
  • Product content (limit values for certain
    substances)
  • Banned substances
  • Recycled content
  • Emissions
  • Energy efficiency
  • Recycable, degradable
  • Packaging regulations
  • Labelling
  • Mandatory labelling
  • Voluntary labelling (e.g. eco-labelling)

10
Environment-related NTMs
  • Certain SPS measures
  • Licenses (MEAs)
  • Quantitative restrictions (MEAs)
  • CITES
  • Basel Convention
  • Montreal Protocal
  • International Commission for the Conservation of
    Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT)
  • Taxes and charges
  • Informal requirements (non-government)
  • Buyers requirements
  • NGO actions

11
Notifications to the WTO, 2000
Area Total Env. Examples
TBT 639 97
SPS 468 27 Food safety
Subsidies 133 32 Investm., regional aid, energy
Agriculture 229 40 Env programmes (green box)
Licensing 70 17 Basel, CITES, Montreal Protocol
Safeguards 87 1 Import of wheat gluten
Cust. Val. 36 3 Dangerous products, wastes
RTAs 16 Almost all have env. provisions
TRIPS 328 5 Non-patentability living beings, negative env. impact, compulsory licensing
QRs ? 5 CITES, Montreal Protocol Used vehicles
Source WT/CTE/W/195
12
WTO, 2000
  • No environment related notifications under
  • Anti-dumping
  • State trading
  • GATS
  • Balance of Payments
  • Textiles and clothing
  • Preshipment inspection
  • Rules of origin
  • Government procurement
  • Information technology

Source WT/CTE/W/195
13
Notifications to the TBT Agreement
Year Number of environment-related TBT notifications Total number of TBT notifications Percentage of environment-related TBT notifications
1991 35 358 9.7
1992 36 394 9.1
1993 42 487 8.6
1994 35 508 6.9
1995 41 365 10.6
1996 53 460 11.5
1997 89 794 11.2
1998 98 648 15.1
1999 84 669 12.5
2000 97 639 15.2
Source WT/CTE/W/195
14
Africa
Pesticide residues Standards for maximum residue levels for pesticides
Packaging requirements Has created some concern
Eco-labelling May become more important in the cut flowers and fisheries sectors
Timber Exports may be affected by consumer boycotts and/or timber certification.
CITES Ivory trade
Montreal Protocol Methyl bromide, used in agriculture
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