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Title: Water

Today's Agenda
Bellwork Announcements Questions Bellwork
Review Lecture
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
including the desire for raw materials and new
markets, yellow journalism, and the desire to
spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E,
G, P) US.23 Evaluate the arguments of
interventionists and non-interventionists of the
period, including Alfred T. Mahan, Senator Albert
Beveridge, Mark Twain, and Theodore Roosevelt.
(C, E, P). US.25 Draw evidence from
informational texts to compare and contrast
Theodore Roosevelts Big Stick diplomacy, William
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilsons
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)

Understand how the United States had the desire
and the ability to spread its beliefs and needs
around the world through American Imperialism

America Imperialism II
Assess the causes of American imperialism in the
late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the
desire for raw materials and new markets, yellow
journalism, and the desire to spread American
democratic and moral ideals. John Green

We Grew....
When the Spanish-American War was over, the U.S.
garnered four of Spain's former colonies.
Pro-Imperialists saw this as a chance to take
them for our use before another European power
had their chance. The rush for Naval Superiority
against the rest of the World was a driving
We were getting full...
End of the frontier 1890 report from the
Superintendent of the Census https//www.census.go
v/dataviz/visualizations/001/ Many Americans
believed the United States had to expand to other
areas or the country was doomed to become
overcrowded. Increase in population from
immigration and better health, increased wealth,
and industrial production demanded more and
resources. There was a growing fear that the
United States could exhaust its supply of
A Country Under Pressure
The Panic of 1893 convinced some businessmen
industry had overexpanded resulting in
overproduction underconsumption. Supply and
Demand. A lot of businessmen wanted to own a
factory, but where were their customers going to
come from? Strikes and Labor unrest/violence
and Farmers unrest (Populism) became rampant due
to industrialism. Overseas markets were
viewed as the solution to over production from
factories and farmes. Our experience of
supplanting the Plains Indian tribes after the
Civil War had established a precedent for
exerting colonial control over dependent people.
Those Pesky Germans...
Germany became our biggest imperialist
competitor and largely spurred U.S. into
imperialism Germany sought colonies in Africa,
Asia, Latin America Caribbean.
A Book Put America into Action
A Man Had a Plan
Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of
Sea Power upon History (1890) His Thesis
Control of the sea was the key to world dominance
and empire. Control the oceans, control the
world. The United States should build large
navy and build defensive bases and refueling
stations, strategically placed around the globe.
Hawaii and other Pacific islands are critical
to this plan. It is imperative we build a
canal in Central America to create a quick route
from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean

An Arms Race Began
A book created a naval race among the world's
great powers. Yellow journalists pushed for a
modern navy of steel ships for our very survival
as a nation. By 1898, the United States had fifth
most powerful navy third by 1900 behind Great
Britain and France.
The Battleship
The Plan Came Together
Space wait, not Space... The Final Frontier -)
Foreign trade becoming increasingly important to
American economy in late 19th century. (Not
Space....) Americans considered acquiring new
colonies to expand markets further. People were
potential customers. Desire to compete with
Europe for overseas empires. Some Americans were
watching European's success in Africa and Asia
with envy and jealousy. Why can't we do
that? Between 1870 and 1900, Europeans had taken
over 1/5 of land and 1/10 of population of the
Our Country (1885)
Josiah Strong Our Country(1885) His book
advocated superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization
over all others. He urged Americans to spread
religion democratic values to the backward
peoples of the world. The yellow journalism of
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
stimulated Americans interest abroad.
We are the Best...
Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge believed
that Social Darwinism meant earth belonged to the
strong fit, including the United
States Stronger nations dominating weak ones was
part of natural law and if the United States was
to survive the competition of the modern world,
it too would have to become an imperial power
itself before it was colonized again. Senator
Albert Beveridge The American Republic is part
of the movement of a superior race, ordained by
Henry Cabot Lodge
US Senator loved Teddy, hated Woodrow
Wilson http//www.biography.com/people/henry-cabo
Senator Albert Beveridge
Beveridge was very Pro-Imperialism http//www.for
James G. Blaine was Secretary of State under
Presidents Garfield and Harrison. Big Sister
policy aimed to gain Latin American support of
U.S. leadership and to open Latin American
markets to U.S. products. It essentially
guaranteed U.S. authority in Latin America in
1880s. First Pan-American Conference was held in
Washington, D.C. in 1889. Our proposals were
rejected by the Latin American countries.
European goods were cheaper for Latin Americans
to purchase. Another reason for rejection was due
to fears of U.S. dominance. The only agreement
was future meetings could be held.
We Almost Went to War
Samoan crisis at Pago Pago United States and
German navies nearly engaged each other in 1889
over the Samoan Islands. Germany did not wish to
provoke U.S. and agreed to settlement, resolved
in a 1900 treaty with Germany and Britain U.S.
gained 76 square miles -- American Samoa
including Pago Pago, Germany received the two
largest islands and Britain was compensated with
other territories in the Pacific.
We almost go to War (Again)
Venezuela Boundary Dispute, 1895-1896 The
Boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela had
been in dispute for over half a century. Gold was
discovered in the border region. President
Cleveland warned Britain to not to take
Venezuelan territory because it violated the
Monroe Doctrine. The United States declared it
now called the shots in the Western
Hemisphere. Britain denied the legality of Monroe
President Cleveland had a Plan
President Cleveland asked for an appropriation
from Congress to create a commission of experts
who could create an equitable border between
Venezuela and British Guiana. He stated that if
Britain refused to accept it, the United States
would go to war. Britain had no real urge to
fight despite a naval superiority of 32-5 in
battleship class warships. Britain was
entangled in the Boer War in South
Africa. Britain feared that we could attack a
vulnerable Canada. British merchant marine would
be vulnerable to American commerce
raiders. Britain was preoccupied with German
naval threat and Russian French unfriendliness
so London consented to arbitration.
We Won Without Firing a Shot
The prestige of our Monroe Doctrine was
enhanced. Latin American republics were pleased
by our determination to protect them. Britain
courted us for friendship and a potential ally
in the face of the continental threat. This left
us able to pursue a more aggressive foreign
Since early 19th century, America gradually came
to regard Hawaiian Islands as an extension of our
Pacific Coast. The 1890 McKinley Tariff raised
barriers against Hawaiian sugar. American sugar
planters sought annexation as it would eliminate
tariffs. Queen Liliuokalani, a nationalist,
insisted Hawaiians should control Hawaii and
white planters, mostly Americans, became alarmed
at the Queen's policies and the American
tariff. White planters, led by Sanford B. Dole,
organized a successful revolt in 1893 even though
there were a tiny minority. They were assisted by
American troops who landed under the unauthorized
orders of U.S. minister in Honolulu, John C.
Stevens. Stevens said The Hawaiian pear is now
fully ripe and this is the golden hour for the
U.S. to pluck it.
Cleveland says NO!
A treaty for annexation was rushed to Washington
for passage. Before treaty could be passed
through Senate, Cleveland assumed the office of
President and refused to sign any
annexation bill and sent special investigator to
Hawaii. The findings indicated the vast majority
of Hawaiians had no desire to be annexed, that
the Provisional government had been established
by force and Cleveland ordered American troops to
be removed from Hawaii.
Some will not take NO for an answer
President Cleveland was unsuccessful in
reinstating the queen to her throne. America
public opinion would not have tolerated force to
unseat white planters. Cleveland could not send
troops to attack the white planters.
Revolutionaries proclaimed a Hawaiian Republic
on July 4, 1894 with Dole as president. Hawaii
was annexed in 1898, and Dole served as the
territorial governor from 1900-03. Hawaii was our
first fully-fledged imperialistic debate in our
nation's history. Cleveland was savagely
criticized by some for trying to stem the new
Manifest Destiny. Others viewed Cleveland's
motives as honorable in the face of international
Atrocities in Cuba were sensationalized and even
made up by the yellow press Spanish's misrule
of Cuba as well as the devastating Wilson-Gorman
Tariff of 1894 damaged Cuba's sugar-based
economy. Many of the plantations were owned by
Americans. A new Cuban rebellion in the 1890s
resulted in American property losses. Spain
reacted. 'Reconcentration' - The Spanish military
concentrated masses of Cuban civilians in areas
under their control. About 100,000 died between
1896 and 1898 in concentration camps. Spain's
leader in Cuba, Valeriano Weyler, was portrayed
in U.S. as Butcher Weyler
Americans Were Upset
President Cleveland refused to intervene in Cuba
and issued a neutrality proclamation. We did
offer mediation in the conflict but Spain
refused. Pulitzer and Hearst attempted to out do
each other and lesser competitors also became
involved. Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington
to Cuba to draw sketches. When Remington reported
conditions not bad enough to warrant hostilities,
Randolph allegedly replied, You furnish the
pictures I'll furnish the war. Remington
depicted Spanish customs officials as brutally
disrobing and searching an American woman. In
reality, female attendants did that duty.
I'll furnish the war
We Almost Go to War (Again)
McKinley's presidency began stronger rhetoric
toward Spain. In autumn of 1897, McKinley came
close to delivering an ultimatum to Spain that
would have resulted in war. Spain ended the
'Reconcentration' in 1897, removed Weyler from
Cuba and gave some autonomy to Cubans. It
appeared that war had been avoided.
Cubans Revolt
Spanish people in Cuba rioted to protest Spain's
talk of granting Cuba some type of
self-government. The United States sent our
first-ever new all-steel battleship, the USS
Maine, to Cuba in 1898 It was sent to protect and
evacuate Americans if danger occurred while also
giving voice to popular distaste for Spain's
reconcentration policies. (Sent ostensibly as a
friendly visit)
The De Lome Letter
On February 9, 1898, Hearst sensationally
headlined a stolen private letter written by the
Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome,
that portrayed McKinley as corrupt and indicated
Spain lacked good faith in instituting reforms in
Cuba. The uproar in America forced Dupuy de Lome
to resign before U.S. called for his recall.
Remember the Maine!
The explosion of the Maine on February 15, 1898
was the immediate cause of Spanish American War.
266 died. A Spanish investigation announced
explosion as internal, presumably accidental.
American's investigation reported that the blast
was caused by a submarine mine. A 1976 U.S. Navy
report showed blast inside the ship was if fact
accidental. Americans accepted the submarine mine
view and leapt to conclusion that the Spanish
government was responsible. The yellow press
helped to fuel the public fire. Americans now
cried for war Remember the Maine! To hell with
Spanish-American War -- 1898
Spain agreed to US demands of the revocation of
reconcentration armistice with Cuban
rebels. President McKinley and Wall Street were
not eager for war but our yellow press forced the
issue. McKinley did not want war but was savagely
criticized by the press. McKinley did not believe
Cuban independence was in our best long-term
interests. U.S. Senator Mark Hanna and Wall
Street did not want war because it might
interfere with trade in Cuba. The public, prodded
by the yellow press, demanded war to free the
abused Cubans.
America Declares War
Demands of preserving the Republican party's
power was the biggest factor in decision for war.
McKinley sent war message to Congress on April
11, 1898. He urged armed intervention to free
oppressed Cubans and Congress agreed. The Teller
Amendment proclaimed to the world that when the
U.S. had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would
give the Cubans their freedom but Europeans were
Battle of Manila Bay
The United States Army was small and weak
compared to Spain's. Our Navy slightly less
powerful than Spain's. While the Secretary of War
was away, the Undersecretary of War, Theodore
Roosevelt, cabled Commodore George Dewey to
attack Spain's Philippines in the event of war.
McKinley subsequently confirmed these
instructions. In May of 1898, Dewey's 6 warships
sailed into Manila Harbor and destroyed all 10 of
Spain's warships. 400 Spaniards were killed and
wounded while 1 American died of heat stroke. It
was a resounding victory for our new modern
We almost go to war with Germany (Again)
Germans arrived in Manila with 5 warships that
were far more powerful than Dewey's ships. Dewey
threatened the German commander with war as soon
as you like. A false story emerged that British
prevented Germans from destroying U.S. fleet.
Three months later, American troops finally
arrived and captured Manila in August, aided by
Filipino insurgents commanded by their
well-educated, part-Chinese leader, Emilio
Aguinaldo (brought in from exile by the U.S.).
After the U.S. annexation of Philippines,
Aguinaldo led an insurrection against the United
Back to Hawaii....
The annexation of Hawaii took place in July of
1898. We used the pretense of needing Hawaii as a
coaling and provisioning way station, in order to
send supplies and reinforcements to Dewey in
Manila Harbor. The white-dominated government in
Hawaii was eager to be annexed (like Texas had
been earlier). A joint resolution of annexation
was rushed through Congress and was approved by
McKinley. Hawaiians were granted U.S. citizenship
and received full territorial status in 1900.
U.S. invasion of Cuba and Puerto Rico
The Spanish fleet eventually landed at
bottle-shaped Santiago Harbor where they were
promptly blockaded by the more powerful American
fleet. The invading American army took the high
ground near Santiago without serious
opposition. Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders
were part of the invading army. Heavy fighting at
El Caney and on San Juan Hill was where the
'Rough Riders' charged up after the hill had
been largely been already won. Two all-black
regiments provided support (about 1/4 of invasion
force). In actuality, the 'Rough Riders' first
took Kettle Hill, suffering heavy casualties.
We Beat Spain!
On July 1, 1898, the Spanish fleet was completely
destroyed The USS Oregon had and used more
firepower than Spain's 4 armored cruisers
combined. About 500 Spaniards were killed while
only one American died during the
battle. Santiago was surrendered by Spain shortly
after the battle. The war was over. U.S.
casualties were about 379 killed in battle while
over 5,000 died due to disease.
1895 Cuban nationalists revolt against Spanish
rule 1896 Spanish General Weyler (the "Butcher")
comes to Cuba. 1897 Spain recalls Weyler Early
1898 USS Maine sent to Cuba February 9, 1898
Hearst publishes Dupuy du Lome's letter insulting
McKinley. February 15, 1898 Sinking of the USS
Maine February 25, 1898 Assistant Secretary of
the Navy Theodore Roosevelt cables Commodore
Dewey with plan attack the Philippines if war
with Spain breaks out. April 11, 1898 McKinley
approves war with Spain April 24, 1898 Spain
declares war on the US
April 25, 1898 US declares war on Spain May 1,
1898 Battle of Manila Bay (Philippines) May,
1898 Passage of the Teller Amendment. July 1,
1898 San Juan Hill taken by "Rough Riders" July
3, 1898 Battle of Santiago Spain's Caribbean
fleet destroyed. July 7, 1898 Hawaii
annexed July 17, 1898 City of Santiago
surrenders to General William Shafter August 12,
1898 Spain signs armistice August 13, 1898 US
troops capture Manila December 10, 1898 Treaty
of Paris signed US annexes Puerto Rico, Guam,
Puerto Rico
The U.S. Army invaded Puerto Rico. We sought to
take the island before the war with Spain ended.
Most of the population regarded U.S. soldiers as
liberating heroes. With the Treaty of Paris,
1898, Cuba was freed from Spain. U.S. received
Pacific island of Guam which they had captured
early in the war. U.S. gained Puerto Rico, the
last vestige of Spain's American empire.
The Philippine issue was a major dilemma in the
negotiations of the Treaty of Paris. U.S. took
Manila the day after Spain sued for peace.
Philippines were thus not one of the spoils of
war. The U.S. agreed to pay Spain 20 million for
the Philippines McKinley's dilemma was that the
valuable Philippines were larger than British
Isles with population of 7 million people. We did
not feel that the U.S. should give islands back
to Spain after just fighting the Spanish in a war
to free Cuba. If left alone, Philippines might
fall into anarchy or perhaps Germany might then
seize it creating a world war. The Least of All
evils was to take Philippines and leave its
independence for later.
Filipinos Wanted Freedom NOW
An Imperialism debate was touched off by the
spoils of the Spanish American War. Philippines
issue created a huge imperialism debate.
Expansionist pressure from various groups also
forced McKinley's hand. The Philippines (and
Hawaii) were seen as necessary stepping-stones to
Asia, especially China. Protestant missionaries
eager to convert Catholic Filipinos. Businessmen
clamored for the new Philippine market, including
Republican Senator and businessman Mark
Hanna. Philippines offer desirable raw materials.
McKinley later reported as saying an inner voice
told him to take all the Philippines and
Christianize and civilize them after he had knelt
seeking divine guidance.
Democrats were anti-imperialists
Democrats tended to be anti-imperialist
especially William Jennings Bryan. (Remember
him?) Democrats feared foreign issues would
overshadow much of the needed reforms at home.
Some feared foreign workers would lower wages at
home. Others feared American factories would be
relocated overseas. Colonies would require
standing army and farmers' sons would be in
harm's way and an increased army would result in
higher taxes. Others feared the mongrelization of
America and exploited racial minorities in
America as opposed to doing the same overseas.
1898 Anti-Imperialist League is founded
Anti-Imperialist League
The Anti-Imperialist League was formed to oppose
McKinley's expansionism. The Group included the
presidents of Stanford Harvard Universities,
philosopher William James, and Mark Twain Samuel
Gompers and Andrew Carnegie. Filipinos wanted
freedom and some felt that their annexation
violated consent of the governed, a philosophy
in the Declaration of Independence. They feared
that despotism abroad might lead to despotism at
home and that the annexation would entangle the
U.S. politically and militarily in Asia.
Mark Twain
Twain was an anti-Imperialist
Some Had Doubts
Because we had once been a colony ourselves, and
we remember our history of desiring to be free,
many Americans felt uneasy being a ruler of
others. Anti-Imperialists felt it violated the
basic tenants of democracy and self-government
that our nation was founded on.
Push, Pull and Impact
What Strategic factors led to American
Imperialism? What Political factors were
involved? How was Economics a Push and Pull
factor? What was the major consequences of
American Imperialism?
We Need Things and Customers
The Need for Raw Materials for our expanding
industrial complex was growing exponentially.
Markets to sell the finished products from those
factories was also a pressing need.
Military Might
With more bases, the larger the footprint we can
have on the globe, and coal-burning ships need
places to get more coal, along with food and
other supplies. Those ports also make useful
trading locations for receiving raw materials and
delivering finished products.
Growing Nationalism
Americans are becoming prouder of their nation's
growing power and prestige. Pledge of Allegiance
written in 1892 http//www.ushistory.org/document
Expansionists and Imperialists
Expansionists appealed to our patriotism and to
the glory of annexation. They played up possible
trade profits, Manila might become another Hong
Kong. The Philippines had abundance of natural
resources. The U.S. should help uplift (and
exploit) the world's poor. The Senate passed a
treaty on February 6, 1899 with the unexpected
support of Bryan. He claimed the sooner U.S.
passed the treaty, the sooner Filipinos would get
their independence. The responsibility for
the Philippines thus rested with the Republicans.
White Man's Burden
Social Darwinism
Remember Social Darwinism? The belief of many in
our country is we are superior to others because
we were fortunate to be born that way.
Do they have Rights?
Insular Cases Cases appeared before the Supreme
Court concerning extent to which constitutional
rights applied to peoples of newly acquired
territories. 1901 Supreme Court rulings stated
that some rights are fundamental and applied to
all American territory. Other rights are
procedural and should not be imposed upon those
unfamiliar with American law. Congress must
determine which procedural rights applied in
unincorporated territories. More importantly, The
Constitution did not follow the flag.
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
including the desire for raw materials and new
markets, yellow journalism, and the desire to
spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E,
G, P) US.23 Evaluate the arguments of
interventionists and non-interventionists of the
period, including Alfred T. Mahan, Senator Albert
Beveridge, Mark Twain, and Theodore Roosevelt.
(C, E, P). US.25 Draw evidence from
informational texts to compare and contrast
Theodore Roosevelts Big Stick diplomacy, William
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilsons
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)

Understand how the United States had the desire
and the ability to spread its beliefs and needs
around the world through American Imperialism

Cuban Independence?
The question then was what about Cuban
independence? A U.S. military government was set
up under General Leonard Wood of the Rough
Riders. Major advances were achieved in
goverment, finance, education, agriculture, and
public health. Gains were made on yellow fever
epidemic by Dr. Walter Reed. The U.S. withdrew
from Cuba in 1902 in honor of the Teller
Platt Amendment
The Platt Amendment was a mechanism to ensure
that Cuba would not be vulnerable to foreign
powers and to maintain U.S. influence in Cuban
affairs. Cubans were forced to write the Platt
Amendment into their own Constitution of 1901 The
Provisions Cuba bound itself not to impair their
independence by treaty or by contracting a debt
beyond their resources. The U.S. government had
right to approve all Cuban treaties. The U.S.
reserved the right to intervene with troops to
restore order and to provide mutual protection.
Cubans promised to sell or lease needed coaling
or naval stations. Guantanamo Bay Naval Base is
still controlled by the U.S. today.
Post-war nationalism after the Spanish American
Splendid little War - John Hay The war
established America's first overseas empire,
albeit modest compared to contemporary European
standards. European powers accorded U.S. more
respect and the Monroe Doctrine was given a
significant boost but Latin America was deeply
suspicious of U.S. motives. Britain became an
ally while Germany grew more frustrated. Philippin
es drew U.S. into Asian affairs but later proved
a liability to defend (WWII vs. Japan) Mahan's
view of necessity for larger navy prevailed and
the U.S. undertook a large naval buildup.
America felt Better about America
Elihu Root improved the War Department and this
became important when U.S. became involved in
World War I. The War served to further heal the
rift between North and South because soldiers
fought side by side. Nationalism was the result
of an urban, mass-culture, industrial society.
Filipinos did not feel good about being a
Insurrection in the Philippines - Filipinos
assumed they would be granted freedom after the
war, like the Cubans. The Senate narrowly refused
to pass such a resolution and the Philippines
became a protectorate. Filipinos were thus
tragically deceived and felt decieved. Open
rebellion began in February of 1899. Emilio
Aguinaldo declared Philippines independent. Savage
fighting resulted in more casualties than
Spanish American War. Filipino armies fled to the
jungle where they waged vicious guerrilla
warfare. Infuriated American troops responded
with atrocities. 4,300 Americans and 57,000
Filipinos died.
Some Americans did not approve
Anti-Imperialists redoubled their protests.
Instead of the U.S. fighting to free Cuba, it was
now waging a war 10,000 miles away and depriving
the population there of their liberty. Atrocity
stories boosted their protests (like 'Butcher'
Weyler in Cuba) The Insurrection was finally
broken in 1901 when Aguinaldo was captured.
McKinley appointed a Philippine Commission to
make appropriate recommendations in 1901. The
Commission was Led by William H. Taft who called
Filipinos his 'little brown brothers'. The U.S
instituted education, sanitation, public health,
and infrustructure reforms though Filipinos
remained resentful. Philippines finally received
independence on July 4, 1946.
Open Door Policy in China
Foreign powers were lured to China by the huge
Chinese market and missionary zeal. By the late
19th century, Japan and western European powers
had carved much of China into separate spheres of
influence. Within each sphere, one nation held
economic dominance. Americans manufacturers
feared Chinese markets would be monopolized by
Europeans while American missionaries had a
number of groups in China.
It was the summer of 1899
The Open Door Note (summer of 1899) was Issued
by Secretary of State John Hay (ex-Lincoln
secretary) The U.S. was at a disadvantage
geographically compared to Russian and Japan and
Americans and feared they might get frozen out if
they didnt act quickly. The Note urged all the
Great Powers to announce where their leaseholds
or spheres of influence were located and asked
that they respect certain Chinese rights and the
ideal of fair competition. In effect, when any
Great Power dealt with a foreign trader, it would
observe an Open Door. Open Door gained wide
acceptance in the U.S. but the policy did not
gain international acceptance as it was weak and
became relatively short-lived.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
Millions of Chinese enraged were over the Open
Door Policy. A Super-patriotic group of
Chinese Boxers killed over 200 missionaries
other whites. A number of foreign diplomats were
besieged in Beijing. A Multinational force of
about 18,000 arrived to put down the rebellion,
including Japan, Russia, Britain, France, Germany
and U.S. troops (2,500 men) The victorious allies
assessed an indemnity of 333 million (U.S. share
24.5 mil) but when Washington found their sum
excessive, they remitted 18 million. Appreciative
of U.S., the Chinese government set aside money
to educate a select group of Chinese students in
the U.S. as a gesture of goodwill. These
students played significant role in westernizing
the Orient.
Open Door
Hay announced in 1900 that henceforth the Open
Door would embrace territorial integrity of China
in addition to its commercial treaty. We sought
to eliminate the carving up of China with Boxer
outrages as a pretext. Hay did not ask for formal
acceptances. China was thus spared partition
during these years. This was probably due more to
distrust among the great powers than Hays policy.
The Election of 1900
The Election of 1900 witnessed the Republicans
nominate McKinley. The United States had won the
war, acquired territory, established the gold
standard, and brought about
economic prosperity. The GOP Platform endorsed
prosperity, gold standard, and overseas
expansion, yet, between 60-88 of Americans were
poor or very poor. Theodore Roosevelt nominated
as vice president. Democrats nominated William
Jennings Bryan, who had the
ill-conceived platform once again pushing for a
silver standard.
1900 - McKinley Wins!
  • The campaign was similar to 1896.
  • McKinley waged a front porch campaign.
    People went to see him.
  • Bryan campaigned throughout the nation
    criticizing Republican imperialism and support of
    trusts but the imperialism issue was now passe.
  • Teddy Roosevelt out-campaigned Bryan and cut
    into his Midwest following, claiming that Bryan
    would rock the boat of prosperity.
  • McKinley defeated Bryan 292-155 in electoral
    votes and by nearly 900,000 popular votes.

Teddy Becomes President
  • McKinley was assassinated in September of 1901
    by deranged anarchist and Polish immigrant, Leon
  • Theodore Roosevelt became the youngest president
    thus far in U.S. history at age 42. Roosevelt
    pledged he would carry out policies of his
  • Theodore Roosevelt became the first President to
    play a significant role in world affairs
  • His view on Imperialism in the Western Hemisphere
    was Speak softly but carry a big stick and you
    will go far
  • Roosevelt was a major proponent of military and
    naval preparedness.

Panama Canal
  • The Spanish-American War emphasized need for a
    canal to connect Atlantic Pacific Oceans. The
    U.S. now had to protect Puerto Rico, Hawaii, the
    Philippines, the U.S. merchant marine.
  • The Canal plan had to overcome legal challenges.
  • The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 prohibited any
    country from securing exclusive control over an
    isthmian canal.
  • Between 1878 1889 the builder of Suez Canal,
    Ferdinand de Lesseps, could not make a canal in
    Panama work. The U.S. was now eager to take over

U.S. Needs Panama to Revolt
  • With the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901),
    Britain agreed to give the U.S. the right to
    build canal and the right to fortify it as well.
  • Britain was occupied with an unfriendly
    Europe and the South African Boer War.
  • The Colombian Senate rejected a treaty
    negotiated with the U.S. for a canal in Panama
    (which was part of Colombia) and declared U.S.
    was inadequate for such a valuable region.
  • We helped with the Creation of Panama throught
    'gunboat diplomacy'. French representative,
    Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, worked with Panama
    revolutionists to raise a tiny 'patriot' army and
    win independence from Colombia.

Panama Becomes Panama
  • On November 3rd, 1903, the Panama revolution
  • U.S. naval forces did not allow Colombian troops
    across the isthmus. On November 6, Roosevelt
    extended recognition of Panama.
  • With the Hay--Bunau-Varilla Treaty (November,
    1903), Bunau-Varilla, now Panamanian minister
    despite his French citizenship, signed a treaty
    in Washington with Secretary of State John Hay.
    Its provisions were that the U.S. would pay
    Bunau-Varillas's New Panama Canal Co. 40 million
    for the rights to build the canal and the Zone of
    the canal was widened from 6 miles to 10 miles.

Roosevelt comes under fire
  • Roosevelt's role in Panama issue became
    controversial. Although the American public
    initially saw Roosevelt's role in Panama as
    politically legitimate, TR in 1911 claimed 'I
    took the canal', and this sparked a wave of
  • U.S. suffered diplomatically as Europeans sneered
    at the apparent U.S hypocrisy and Latin American
    countries grew weary of the 'Colossus of the
    North', in the face of Puerto Rico, Cuba, and now
    Panama.. Canal completed in 1914 at initial cost
    of 400 million. Colonel William C. Gorgas made
    the canal zone safe by using the sanitation
    methods he had used in Havana to fight yellow
    fever and malaria.

Roosevelt Corollary
  • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    was motivated by TR's concern that German
    British bill collection violated Monroe Doctrine.
    Specifically, both Venezuela and Dominican
    Republic owed money to Germany and England.
  • In 1902, the Venezuela Crisis took place, Germany
    sank two Venezuelan gunboats trying to seek
    forced payment for heavy Venezuelan debt to
    Germany and Britain was also owed money by
  • TR devised a policy of 'preventive intervention'
    and this became know as the Roosevelt Corollary.
    In future financial crises concerning Latin
    American debt, the U.S. would intervene, take
    over customs houses, pay off the debts, and keep
    European powers out of the Western Hemisphere.

We do because we 'care'
  • U.S. had a moral obligation because it would not
    allow European nations themselves to intervene in
    bankrupt 'banana republics', and U.S. became
    "Policeman of the Caribbean."
  • Contrasted with Monroe Doctrine that had merely
    told Europeans to stay out, TR's policy was a
    radical departure but its association with Monroe
    Doctrine helped it to gain public acceptance.
    More than any other factor, policy promoted the
    'Bad Neighbor' policy toward Latin America during
    these years.
  • The policy was eventually used to justify
    wholesale interventions and repeated landings of
    U.S. marines in Latin America.

We keep going to visit
  • In 1905, a Dominican treaty gave U.S. supervisory
    powers over Dominican tariff collections. In
    effect, the Dominican Republic became a
    protectorate of the U.S.
  • The U.S. kept high tariffs against Cuban sugar at
    behest of U.S. sugar growers. The resulting
    recession in Cuba combined with discontent over
    Platt Amendment led to a Cuban revolution in
    1906. TR sent in Marines in 1906 who remained
    until 1909.
  • U.S. troops would reoccupy Cuba in 1917 during
    WWI and remain there until 1922.

Russia and Japan go to War
  • Russo-Japanese War begins in 1904 and
    Japanese-American relations are impacted. Russia
    and Japan went to war over issue of ports in
    Manchuria Korea. Japan destroyed much of
    Russian fleet. This is the first defeat of a
    non-European power since the Turkish invasion of
  • As the war dragged on, Japanese ran short of men
    and money.
  • Roosevelt was eager to prevent either side from
    gaining a monopoly in Asia but did not seek war
    for the United States.
  • He is concerned about safety of the newly
    acquired Philippines.
  • Japan secretly asked Roosevelt to help sponsor
    peace negotiations.

Manchuria and Korea
Roosevelt finds Peace
  • The Treaty of Portsmouth is signed in 1905. Both
    sides met at Portsmouth, NH, in 1905. Japan
    demanded huge indemnity and all of strategic
    Sakhalin island. Russia refused to concede
  • And agreement was reached, Japan gained southern
    half of Sakhalin but no indemnity. Secretly,
    Roosevelt agreed to accept future Japanese
    dominance of Korea.
  • For his mediation, Roosevelt received the Nobel
    Peace Prize in 1906. He was also recognized for
    his helping arrange an international conference
    at Algeciras, Spain, in 1906 to mediate North
    African disputes.

Sakhalin Island
We are mean to the Japanese
  • The Portsmouth Treaty had negative results.
    United States and Russian relations soured
    because they felt that Roosevelt robbed them of a
    military victory. Savage massacres of Russian
    Jews drew U.S. protest. Japan felt robbed of its
    indemnity and blamed the U.S. Naval arms race
    between U.S. Japan in Asia resulted as mutual
    distrust grew.
  • Then we had the San Francisco Schoolboard
    Incident. In 1906, 70,000 Japanese immigrants
    poured into California as a result of
    dislocations and tax burdens caused by the
    Russo-Japanese War. Californians feared being
    confronted with another yellow peril and feared
    mongrelization of the races and formed the
    influential Asian Exclusion League. Local San
    Francisco school officials ruled Asian children
    should attend a special school. The school system
    was hard pressed in the face of the devastating
    1906 earthquake.

Japan gets mad
  • The people of Japan became furious over
    discrimination, and became highly sensitive to
    race issues. Irresponsible talk of war sizzled
    in the yellow press. Roosevelt became concerned
    of California starting a war other states would
    have to fight.
  • Roosevelt invited the entire San Francisco Board
    of Education to the White House. He coerced
    Californians to repeal the order and accept what
    came to be known as the Gentleman's Agreement
    Its provisions were that Japan agreed to stop
    flow of laborers to U.S. and Californians agreed
    not to ban Japanese from public schools.

America and Japan to 1920
  • Fearing Japanese perception of United States
    weakness, Roosevelt sent the Great White Fleet
    on a highly visible tour around the world in 1907
    starting in Virginia.
  • In 1908 the Root-Takahira Agreement was signed.
    The U.S. and Japan pledged to respect each
    other's territorial possessions in the Pacific
    and to uphold the Open Door Policy in China.
  • Roosevelt regarded the voyage of his fleet as his
    most important contribution to peace.
  • The Lansing-Ishii Agreement was signed in 1917.
    The U.S. acknowledged Japan's special interests
    in China through reiteration of its Open Door
    policy. Its is actually aimed to reduce German
    influence in around China in WWI.

The Great White Fleet
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vejlPmEtJbNs

The Great White Fleet circled the Globe
Dollar Diplomacy
  • Dollar Diplomacy" became America's policy under
    President Taft (1909-1913). It contained two
    aspects, using a foreign policy to protect Wall
    Street dollars invested abroad (especially in the
    Far East) by using Wall Street dollars to uphold
    foreign policy.
  • It sought to reduce rival powers, especially
    Germany, from taking advantage of the financial
    chaos in the Caribbean. U.S. bankers would
    strengthen U.S. defenses and foreign policies
    while bringing prosperity to the U.S. Dollar
    Diplomacy supplanted the Big Stick as the
    United States method of 'controlling' South
    America and its markets and resources.

Money instead of Bullets
Problems just keep popping up
  • The China-Manchurian Railroad Scheme takes place.
    Taft saw the Manchurian railway monopoly by
    Russia and Japan as a threat to the Open Door
    Policy. In 1909, Taft proposed that a group of
    U.S. and foreign bankers buy the railroads and
    turn them over to China under a self-liquidating
  • The Plan was ill-conceived as Japan and Russia
    refused to give up the important railroad and
    Taft was showered in ridicule.
  • Meanwhile, in the Caribbean Washington urged Wall
    Street bankers to pump money into Honduras and
    Haiti to keep out foreign funds. Wall Street
    didn't see any benefit to helping them and
    ultimately the U.S. sent forces to Cuba,
    Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua
    to restore order after they protested against
    food shortages and poor economies.

American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
including the desire for raw materials and new
markets, yellow journalism, and the desire to
spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E,
G, P) US.23 Evaluate the arguments of
interventionists and non-interventionists of the
period, including Alfred T. Mahan, Senator Albert
Beveridge, Mark Twain, and Theodore Roosevelt.
(C, E, P). US.25 Draw evidence from
informational texts to compare and contrast
Theodore Roosevelts Big Stick diplomacy, William
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilsons
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)

Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson, the candidate from the
Democratic Party, won the Presidential Election
in 1912. As part of his campaign, he promised to
handle foreign affairs with a moral approach,
known as Moral Diplomacy, to right the wrongs of
the Tafts Dollar Diplomacy and Theodore
Roosevelts 'Big Stick' policy.

Wilson begins practicing what he preaches
  • Moral Diplomacy was first used in The
    Philippines. Wilson passed the Jones Act of 1916
    which guaranteed territorial status, gave them a
    bill of rights, gave Filipino male citizens
    suffrage, and promised independence once a
    government was established.
  • In Puerto Rico all inhabitants were granted U.S.
    citizenship and provided a limited
  • For the Panama Canal Congress repealed the act
    that exempted American ships from paying the
    canal toll. This act greatly pleased the British
    who were in objection to that policy.

Do as we say
  • The whole idea behind Moral Diplomacy was that
    the United States would influence the economies
    of the Latin American countries.
  • They would support the countries that were
    democratic, however if the country was not
    democratic, their economies would suffer greatly
    and would have no choice but to cave to what the
    United States wanted them to do.

Wilson and the end of American Imperialism
  • American Imperialism under Wilson was aimed to
    reinforce Western Hemisphere in the face of WWI.
    Although Wilson hated imperialism he eventually
    invaded more countries in Latin America than any
    other president in U.S. history (to protect U.S.
    lives and U.S. property in those countries). He
    kept Marines in Nicaragua making that country, in
    effect, a U.S. protectorate.
  • U.S. forces were sent to Haiti in 1914-15 when
    Haitian president was literally torn to pieces
    during a revolt. In 1916, the Marines sent to
    Dominican Republic when riots civil war broke
    out and the Debt-cursed country became a
    protectorate of the U.S.
  • In 1917, the U.S. purchased Virgin Islands from
    Denmark and the Caribbean sea increasingly
    became dominated by U.S. (along with Panama
    route). The U.S. invaded Mexico in attempt to
    capture Pancho Villa.

Pancho Villa
American Imperialism II
US.22 Assess the causes of American imperialism
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
including the desire for raw materials and new
markets, yellow journalism, and the desire to
spread American democratic and moral ideals. (E,
G, P) US.23 Evaluate the arguments of
interventionists and non-interventionists of the
period, including Alfred T. Mahan, Senator Albert
Beveridge, Mark Twain, and Theodore Roosevelt.
(C, E, P). US.25 Draw evidence from
informational texts to compare and contrast
Theodore Roosevelts Big Stick diplomacy, William
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilsons
Moral Diplomacy. (G, H, P)

Understand how the United States had the desire
and the ability to spread its beliefs and needs
around the world through American Imperialism
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