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Chapter 8 Cont

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Chapter 8 Cont d Lecture 14 Acid Rain Smog Effects of Acid Rain Outdoor Objects Over long periods of time this affects: National monuments Mt. Rushmore Statue ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 8 Cont


1
Chapter 8 ContdLecture 14
  • Acid Rain

2
Smog
3
http//www.eoearth.org/article/Acid_rain
4
http//www.eoearth.org/article/Acid_rain
5
Effects of Acid Rain Outdoor Objects
  • Over long periods of time this affects
  • National monuments
  • Mt. Rushmore
  • Statue of Liberty
  • Buildings
  • Sears Tower
  • Empire State Building
  • Vehicles (paint)
  • Homes (siding)

6
This photograph shows a small section of masonry
from a church in northern France. The rock was
originally a smooth pillar like structure forming
part of the outside decoration of the building.
Over the last hundred years or so, acidic rain
water has constantly dripped onto the rock from a
rain gutter several meters above it.
http//www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/environ/acid
.html
7
(No Transcript)
8
Ways to Reduce Acid Rain
  • Use energy in a more efficient way
  • Use cleaner fuel that contributes less to acid
    rain
  • Clean regular fuel before burning
  • Burn regular fuel and remove SOx and NOx before
    released into atmosphere
  • Burn regular fuel in a way that produces less SOx
    and NOx

9
Using Cleaner Fuels
  • For example use WY coal that contains less sulfur
  • Advantages
  • Would meet clean air regulations
  • Probably would not require new equipment
  • Disadvantages
  • Lower heating value more coal needed to get same
    energy
  • Higher moisture content hauling useless water
  • Harder to grind more energy used for this
  • May contain higher levels of toxic trace elements
    (mercury)

10
Clean Regular Fuel Before Burning
  • Advanced Physical Cleaning
  • Requires grinding to very small particles very
    costly
  • Only removes pyritic sulfur
  • Difficult and costly to dry large amounts of
    clean coal
  • Chemical Cleaning
  • React coal with strong acid or base
  • Expensive and toxic chemical remains in the
    cleaned coal
  • Biochemical Cleaning
  • Use very selective microorganisms to react with
    coal
  • Takes time and money

11
Burn Regular Fuel Clean Exhaust Before Entering
Atmosphere
  • Filters
  • Electrostatic precipitator (ESP)
  • Metal plates are electrically charged
  • As particles (SOx, NOx) flow past the plates they
    become oppositely charged than the plates and are
    attracted to them
  • They stick to the plates and attract other
    particles
  • At some point the stuck particles must be removed
    to begin the process again
  • Add an adsorbent that adheres to the SOx
  • This can be removed as a dry power or wet slurry
    before the exhaust

12
Burn Regular Fuel Clean SOx and NOx Before
Entering Atmosphere
  • Some NOx and SOx (pollutants) removed at 1st ESP
  • More pollutants removed by injecting
    calcium-limestone
  • Smallest pollutants removed at 2nd ESP

13
Burn regular fuel in a way that produces less SOx
and NOx
  • Goal is to burn fuel with N (coal) with less
    oxygen initially
  • More N turns into hydrogen cyanide (HCN) that can
    be removed
  • After HCN is made then add necessary amount of
    air to complete reaction

14
Burn regular fuel in a way that produces less SOx
and NOx
  • Heating up coal in oxygen deficient atmosphere
    causes N and S to form molecules which are easier
    to remove
  • Add sufficient oxygen afterwards

15
Burn regular fuel in a way that produces less SOx
and NOx
  • Inject coal, limestone, and air into Bubbling
    bed
  • This design removes much of the pollutants before
    they enter exhaust gas

16
Fig. 8-21, p. 279
17
Table 8-2, p. 258
18
lt 10 µm
USA - 2003
Fig. 8-7, p. 251
19
Fig. 8-8, p. 254
20
Los Angeles Basin
Fig. 8-9, p. 260
21
Fig. 8-11a, p. 262
22
Fig. 8-11b, p. 262
23
(No Transcript)
24
History of NAAQS
  • 1971, EPA NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality
    Standard) for particulate matter under Section
    109. The standard was the "high-volume" sampler.
    This type of sampler collects particulate matter
    up to a size of 45 micrometers in diameter,
    called "total suspended particulate" (TSP).
  • 1987, PM10 was created and abolished the TSP
    standard.
  • Recognizing the risks of adverse health effects
    associated with smaller particles that are more
    likely to penetrate deeper into the respiratory
    system, EPA created a new particulate matter
    standard, based upon particles with a diameter of
    10 microns or less (PM10 ). standard.
  • 1997, PM 2.5 Standard was created as a new
    size-specific indicator for particulate matter,
    EPA concluded that PM10 would not provide the
    most effective and efficient protection from the
    detrimental health effects of particulate matter.
  • create a new annual PM2.5 standard of 15 µg/m3.
  • create a new 24-hour PM2.5 standard of 65 µg/m3.
  • retain the current 24-hour PM10 standard of 150
    µg/m3.
  • 2001, the United States Supreme Court upheld
    EPA's authority under the Clean Air Act to set
    national ambient air quality standards for the
    protection of public health.
  • 2002, the D.C. Circuit court rejected all of the
    remaining challenges to the standard. With the
    resolution of these legal issues, EPA began
    developing new strategies for implementation of
    the PM 2.5 standards.
  • 2004, EPA designated areas not in attainment with
    the standard.  

25
Table 8-5, p. 268
26
1998
Fig. 8-13, p. 269
27
Fig. 8-20, p. 278
28
ESP Before After
Fig. 8-17, p. 275
29
CO Picture from Terra Satellite
30
Fig. 8-19, p. 278
31
Fig. 8-14, p. 271
32
Table 8-4, p. 267
33
Table 8-6, p. 272
34
Table 8-3, p. 265
35
Project 2
  • Engr 303I
  • Due
  • August 3, 2009

36
Project 2
  • Home retrofit for Solar Thermal Hot Water and
    Wind Mill Electricity (max. 10 kW)
  • Use the following criteria for your selection
  • Do not attempt to design custom components. Go
    online and select ones that have been built and
    use those specifications for your project.
    Explain your choices and where you found the
    information.
  • Solar thermal is for hot water heater, not home
    heating.
  • Explain your reasoning in all selection criteria.
  • Sites can be anywhere in Illinois, where you work
    off of an existing home its energy needs.

37
Format
  • Title page with title, Site Location, team
    personnel
  • Table of contents with each persons name next to
    their responsibility
  • Short text with pictures to illustrate project
    area
  • Important List all assumptions used in this
    report
  • Maps showing global, regional, and local site
  • Summary paragraph
  • Summary of selection criteria
  • Include estimated cost of land and project
  • Any calculations conducted during this project
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