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Chapter 5: Africa in Transition


Chapter 5: Africa in Transition Section 4: Nigeria Lesson Questions How has geography affected Nigeria s economy? How have regionalism and nationalism affected Nigeria? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5: Africa in Transition

Chapter 5 Africa in Transition
  • Section 4 Nigeria

Lesson Questions
  • How has geography affected Nigerias economy?
  • How have regionalism and nationalism affected
  • Why did the military take power in Nigeria?
  • What economic progress has Nigeria achieved?

Geography and People
  • One of the largest and richest nations in Africa
  • Also, the most populous of all nations
  • 1 out of every 6 Africans is Nigerian
  • Nigeria is a powerful force in West Africa

Geography and People cont.
  • Nigeria lies north of the tropics just north of
    the equator
  • The hot, wet climate allows for rain forests
    which in turn yields a productive lumber industry
  • The northern part has savannas and grasslands
    which yield a productive farming and herding

Geography and People cont.
  • Nigeria is named after the Niger river
  • The Benue River also runs through the country
    which allow for irrigation
  • The rivers divide the country into three regions
    based upon ethnicity
  • Northern home to Muslim Hausa and Fulani
  • Southwest Yoruba
  • Southeast Ibo
  • Many southerners follow Christianity and
    traditional beliefs

Geography and People cont.
  • Smaller ethnic groups are scattered throughout
  • 250 ethnic groups belong to Nigeria alone
  • Six major languages are spoken, predominately
  • Ethnicity attachment to ones own ethnic group

Political Development
  • Before European imperialism the major ethnic
    groups of present day Nigeria maintained their
    own states
  • 1800s - G.B. made Nigeria into cash crop
    plantations (crops were peanuts, cocoa, cotton ,
    and palm oil)
  • After WWI and WWII Nigerian nationalism grew and
    the vying ethnic groups (Yoruba, Hausa, Fulani,
    Ibo) joined together under Nnamdi Azikiwes

Political Development
  • 1960, they gained independence
  • Civil war soon ensued because the Ibo thought the
    Muslim Hausa and Fulani controlled too much
    political power
  • The Ibo also claimed they had more of a right to
    the local oil fields in their region
  • The Ibo set up the state of Biafra in 1967 which
    resulted in a three year war that took 1 million
  • To this day, regional support remains alive such
    as in the Muslim controlled north they influence
    the local government through Muslim law
  • Military dictators have controlled Nigeria for
    many years until 1999
  • Modern Nigerian leaders still face the problems
    of uniting their people, improving the economy,
    and reducing corruption

Economic Development
  • The production and distribution of oil from
    Nigeria led to wealth that equated into literacy
    and new schools
  • However, the oil company also led to corruption
    and pollution
  • It widened the gap between the rich and poor
  • The pollution has caused attacks against oil rigs
    in some areas
  • Despite the oil Nigeria has fallen into debt
    whenever world oil prices fall
  • Most of its economy is government owned and
    reforms are needed to combat the countries
    dependence on cash crops

Population Growth
  • A young population, a large percentage under 15
    years old
  • 127 million people
  • Urbanization is increasing and the government has
    now tried to stabilize farm prices, in order to
    slow movement
  • Nonetheless, young people in Africa prefer the
    cities even with the prevalence of poverty

Music and Literature
  • Nigeria is known for its talking drums
  • The pitch can be adjusted to imitate the African
  • King Sunny Ade is known as a standout Nigerian
  • Chinua Achebe, wrote, Things Fall Apart, which
    dealt with how Europeans affect a Nigerian
  • Wole Soyinka, wrote A Dance of the Forests, was
    the first African to ever win the Nobel prize for

King Sunny Ade
  • Wole Soyinka

Chinua Achebe
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