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Situation of Persons with Disabilities in Ethiopia


Situation of Persons with Disabilities in Ethiopia Tirussew Teferra, Professor Addis Ababa University Ethiopia – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Situation of Persons with Disabilities in Ethiopia

Situation of Persons with Disabilities in Ethiopia
  • Tirussew Teferra, Professor
  • Addis Ababa University
  • Ethiopia

Facts about Ethiopia
Population 77,000,000 Languages 80 (200
dialects) Religion Christianity
Islam Land 1.14 000,000
sq.kms Climate - Cool temperate
highlands gt 2500Ms
-Moderate warm
lands b/w
1500-2500 ms
- Hot lowlands
Disability in Ethiopia
  • Prevalence
  • WHO Estimation 10 -Over 7,000,000
  • 1995 Baseline Survey 2.95-Over 2,500,000

Prevalence of Disability by Type

Tirussew etal. Baseline Survey, 1995 MD Motor
Disorders VI Visual Impairment HI
Hearing Impairment ID Intelectual
Disablity BP Behavioural problems S M
Speech Multiple Disablitit
Causes of Disability
  • Pre-, Peri- Post-natal Disabling factors
  • Health and psychosocial condition of the
    prospective mother (health, nutrition and
    psychological conditions)
  • Complications during at the time of delivery
  • Childhood infectious diseases
  • Malnutrition Under-nutrition
  • Harmful traditional practices
  • Periodic episodes of draught and famine
  • Lack of personal hygiene environmental
  • Genetic anomalies

Strong Connection b/w Poverty and Disability
Conceptualization of Disability
  • Traditional Model (Socio-cultural, religious
    social constructs)
  • Divine force, possessed by POSSESSED evil
    spirits, wrong deeds, curse punishment etc.
  • Dependent, subject of charity,
  • Sign of shame and disappointment
  • Hidden behind the home

Attitudinal Barriers
  • Discrimination of service provision (education,
    health, employment, transportation and other
    accessibility issues)
  • Unemployment (Dependency Syndrome)
  • Psychological ramifications (low self-esteem)
  • Constitute the poorest of the poor in society

Education of Children with Disabilities
  • I Special Schools (20)
  • a) Day Residential Schools for the Deaf
  • GOs, NGOs, National Associations of PwDs
  • Faith-Based Organization
  • b) Residential Schools of the Blind
  • GOs, NGOs, National
    Associations of PwDs
  • Faith-Based Organization
  • II Special Classes in Regular Public Schools
    (over 250)
  • III Inclusive Schools Emerging NGOs GOs
  • (Education of the Blind persons with motor

Access to Education
  • Number of School age Children in Ethiopia 7-16
    age 15,203,092 (3 (456092)(MOE,2005)
  • 1- 4560 have access to education
  • Children with Disabilities
  • Children with sensory impairment
  • Children with intellectual disabilities

Opportunities/Government Policies
  • Education Training Policy TGE, 1994
  • While this provision is meant to address the
    needs of all children, the Policy, with an
    appreciation of the needs of students with
    disabilities has indicated that "Special
    educational and training will be provided for
    people with special needs" (No. 3.2.9).It has
    further confirmed that efforts will be made to
    enable both the handicapped and the gifted learn
    in accordance with their potential and need (No.

Government Policies
  • Developmental and Social Welfare Policy
  • FDRE,1997
  • affirms that all efforts shall be made to
    implement all international and regional
    conventions and legal instruments concerning the
    rights of children which Ethiopia has already
    acceded to (Article 5.1.3).
  • The Constitution FDRE, 1995
  • article 41 sub articles no.5 and no. 50 clearly
    state about the rights of citizens to equal
    access to publicly funded services the support
    that shall be given to accommodate the needs of

Opportunities Conventions the Rights Education
of CwDs, Associations of PwDs NGOs civil
  • International and Regional Conventions on the
    rights of persons with disabilities
  • UN Disability Convention, 2007
  • Dakar World Education Forum, Senegal,2000
  • African Charter on the Rights Welfare of the
  • Salamanca Frame-work of Action, Spain,1994
  • EFA Jomtien, Thailand, 1990,
  • Conventions on the Rights of the Child,1989
  • UNESCO Flagship on the Right to Education for
    PwDs Towards Education
  • Education Sector Partners Financial Assistance

Encouraging Trends in the Ministry of Education
  • The expansion of special classes aim at creating
    inclusive schools
  • The inclusion of SNE in ESDP III (2005-2010)
  • Emergence of Cluster Resource Centers (school in
    the catchments )
  • Expansion of SNE Teacher Education Programs in
    Higher Education Institutions
  • School-based In-service Professional Development
  • Community-based rehabilitation and intervention
    programs (NGO, National Associations etc.)
  • ECCE Policy Frame-work (inter-sectorial

Encouraging Developments at Addis Ababa
  • Center for Disabled and Career Development
  • Counseling service under the Dean of Students
  • Braille Collection Reading Section at Kennedy
  • Financial support (monthly pocket money, for
    writing senior essays, thesis and for exam
  • Accommodation and dining during summer vacation
  • Associations of SwDs VISA,PISA HISA)

The Way to the Future Inclusive Education
  • The Development of SNE Strategy Program,
    (MOE,1996) Inclusive Education
  • Why the shift to Inclusive Education in
  • Developmental Implications
  • Educational Implications
  • Economical Implications
  • Ethical and Human Rights Considerations

Developmental Implications
  • Psychological benefits
  • Proximal Sensory Exposure
  • Reciprocal -fear of the unknown
  • Develop trust on the surrounding and self
  • Learn to cope with difficulties
  • Promotes selfenhancement development
  • Build-up self-confidence and self-esteem
  • Learn to develop positive feelings and bridge
    attitudinal barriers b/n children with
    disabilities and without

Developmental Implications
  • Social benefits
  • Fosters reciprocal service interaction
  • Enhances social skills through observational
  • Learn to live play together and appreciate
  • Learn to understand differences cooperate with
  • Develop pro-social behavior

Educational Implications
  • Quality Education
  • where diversity and flexibility are seen as
    important ingredients for the development and
    personal growth of all learners
  • All accommodating flexible type of curriculum
    teaching methods
  • Promoting learner centered approach in the
    learning-teaching process
  • Working with peers creating cooperative-learning
  • Providing additional educational support for
    children in need
  • Supply of disability-specific instructional
  • Using disability-specific adaptive technology
  • Working with parents
  • Provides optimal opportunities for development

Economical Implications
  • Children with disabilities go to local schools
    (costs society when it does not provide education
    for its citizens)
  • Reduces wastage of repetition and drop out
  • Children with disabilities live with their
  • Use other community infrastructure such as
    health and social services
  • Opens the door for independent living
  • Breaks the vicious circle b/w disability

Ethical Human Rights Practical Considerations
  • UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with
    Disabilities, 2007
  • Salamanca World Conference on SNE, Spain. 1994
  • World Education Form, Dakar, Senegal,2000
  • EFA, Jomtien, Tailand,1990
  • Conventions on the Rights of the Child,1989
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948

Challenges of Inclusive Education in
  • The Educational System

Unable to accommodate diversity
Rigid curriculum methods Neg. attitude of
teachers school mangers Large class size Many
Early drop-outs repeaters
Lack of Instructional materials equipment
Architectural Barriers services facilities
  • thank you !!