Chapter 15: Societies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 15: Societies PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6bb564-OGQ1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 15: Societies

Description:

Chapter 15: Societies & Empires in Africa Throughout history different groups of Africans have found different ways to organize themselves to meet their political ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:0
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 5 September 2019
Slides: 33
Provided by: Debra144
Learn more at: http://www.apsva.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 15: Societies


1
Chapter 15 Societies Empires in Africa
  • Throughout history different groups of Africans
    have found different ways to organize themselves
    to meet their political, economic, social
    needs.
  • In the varied regions of Africa, climate
    topography influenced how each community
    developed.
  • 800-1500


2
How did Geography Climate influence development
in Africa?
  • Great variety
  • Climate
  • Topography
  • Landforms

3
North Central African Societies
Hunter-Gatherer
  • formed close-knit family groups
  • Oldest in world
  • Still around
  • Provide clues about ancient times

4
Hunter-Gatherer Societies
  • Semi-nomadic
  • Few possessions, distinctive hunting techniques

5
Stateless Societies
  • Power not centralized
  • Based on lineage groups not individual ruler
  • Family groups based on a common ancestor
  • Living members
  • Past generations
  • Future generations
  • Strong loyalty
  • balance authority among lineages of equal power
  • may be
  • patri-lineal
  • matri-lineal
  • Men usually hold positions of authority

6
Muslim States
  • Islam spread across N. Africa-
  • Rulers converted
  • Government based on Islamic Law (Sharia)
  • Muslim rulers relied on religious scholars as
    government advisors

7
Berbers
  • Desert, mountain dwellers
  • Indigenous to N. Africa
  • Accepted Islam
  • Maintained Berber Identity
  • Almoravids Almohads found empires that united
    N. Africa (Maghrib)

8
Impact of Berber Rule
  • Spread N. African culture
  • Stability order
  • Unity through Islamic teaching
  • North/South Trade flourished

9
West African Civilizations
  • While Berbers built empires in N. Africa, three
    powerful empire flourished in West Africa in the
    Sahel-the savanna region just south of the Sahara
  • Grew strong by controlling trade

10
Empire of Ghana
  • Around 200 AD, trade across Sahara was infrequent
  • Berbers began to use camels
  • Travel great distance without water
  • Taxed trade-grew wealthy

11
Gold-Salt Trade
  • Arab Berber traders crossed desert loaded
    w/salt, cloth, weapons, manufactured goods
  • African traders brought gold north
  • Merchants met in trade cities, exchanged goods,
    officials collected tax ensured fair weights
    and provided protection from bandits

12
Land of Gold
  • By 800, Ghana was an empire
  • King controlled trade, large army, demanded taxes
    and gifts from chiefs of surrounding lands.
  • King controlled supply of gold, kept price high
  • King was religious leader, judge, military
    commander
  • Head of government bureaucracy

13
Islamic Influences
  • Islam spread through trade
  • Ghanas rulers/elites converted to Islam
  • Common people kept traditional beliefs/practices
  • Islam spread literacy
  • Ghana lost power when Almoravids disrupted
    gold-salt trade

14
Empire of Mali
  • By 1235 the kingdom of Mali had emerged.
  • Its founders were Mande-speaking people, who
    lived south of Ghana.
  • Malis wealth was also built on gold.

15
Sundiata Conquers an Empire
  • A powerful king named Sundiata ruled Mali from
    around 1230-1255 AD. He became known as a mansa,
    or emperor.
  • He led the people in conquering and expanding his
    kingdom to be as great as Ghana had been.

16
Mansa Musa Expands Mali (1312-1337)
  • Greatest king of Mali
  • developed gold/salt trade-kingdom became very
    powerful rich
  • Made hajj to Mecca-upon return built many mosques
    in Timbuktu
  • Attracted Muslim judges, doctors, religious
    leaders scholars

17
Ibn Battuta 1352
  • Muslim legal scholar
  • Traveled throughout Muslim world -27 years
  • Wrote a journal
  • Praised the people of Mali for their study of
    Quran
  • Criticized lack of strict practice (women did not
    veil)
  • Within 50 years, gold trade shifted to new fields
    in East
  • Mali weakened

18
Empire of Songhai
  • As Mali declined, Songhai east built an army
    extended territory-gained control of trade
    routes. Gao was the capital.

19
Songhais Powerful Leaders
  • Sunni Ali
  • Built a professional army
  • Askia Muhammad
  • Set up good government

20
(No Transcript)
21
Other Peoples of West Africa Hausa
  • Hausa City-States

22
Other Peoples of West Africa Yoruba
23
Other Peoples of West Africa Benin
24
Eastern City-States Southern Empires
  • In the 3rd century, Aksum traded extensively.
    From Red Sea it traded with Arabia, Persia, India
    Rome
  • Muslims cut them off from their port so they
    moved their capital south
  • Other cities on East coast were thriving from
    Indian Ocean trade

25
East Coast Trade Cities
26
Kilwa
27
Portuguese Conquest
28
Islamic Influences
29
Enslavement of Africans
30
Southern Africa Great Zimbabwe
31
Great Zimbabwe
32
Mutapa Empire
About PowerShow.com