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CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM

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CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM Bone Physiology and Joints – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM


1
CHAPTER 7 SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Bone Physiology and Joints

2
(No Transcript)
3
Human Skeleton
  • Adult skeleton is composed of 206 bones (babies
    have 300).
  • Two divisions
  • Axial Skeleton bones that form the longitudinal
    axis of the body
  • Appendicular skeleton bones of the limbs and
    girdles
  • Skeletal system includes bones, joints,
    cartilages, and ligaments

4
Functions of Bones
  1. Support internal framework of body
  2. Protection protects soft organs
  3. Movement muscles attached by tendons
  4. Storage minerals and fat
  5. Blood cell formation marrow cavities

5
Classification of Bones
  • Two basic types of bone tissue
  • Compact Bone dense, looks smooth, homogenous
  • Spongy Bone composed of small needlelike pieces
    of bones and lots of open space

6
Types of Bones
  • Long bone ex. Include humerus, femur
  • Short bone examples include tarsals and carpals
  • Flat bone include frontal, ribs, and scapula
  • Irregular bone include vertebrae, mandible, ear
    bones

7
Long Bone Structure
  • Diaphysis is hollow, shaft like portion composed
    of compact bone
  • The diaphysis is covered and protected by a
    fibrous connective tissue membrane the
    periosteum.

8
Long Bone Structure
  • Epiphyses are at ends of long bone and made up of
    a spongy or cancellous bone
  • Articular cartilage is thin hyaline cartilage
    that covers surface of epiphyses to decrease
    friction at joints

9
Long Bone Structure
  • The cavity of the shaft is storage for adipose
  • Called yellow marrow or medullary cavity.
  • Red marrow is found in infants in this area and
    in flat bones of adults (makes blood cells).
  • Projections and depressions mark bones

10
Bone Markings
11
Bone Markings
12
Microscopic Structure of Bone
  • Mainly calcified matrix of calcium salts with
    collagenous fibers
  • Matrix of compact bone is made of thousands of
    structures called haversian systems (osteons)

13
The Haversian System (Osteon)
  • Lamellae concentric, cylinder-shaped rings of
    calcified matrix
  • Lacunae microscopic spaces containing bone
    cells -osteocytes
  • Canaliculi tiny canals radiating from lacunae,
    connecting them with haversian canal
  • Haversian canal extends lengthwise through
    center of each system contains blood and lymph
    vessels

14
Bone Formation - Ossification
  • Skeleton pre-formed in hyaline cartilage models
  • Endochondral ossification is a process that
    replaces hyaline cartilage with true bones
  • Most change into bone but not complete until age
    25
  • Osteoblasts within membranous layers form bone
    tissue

15
Resorption
  • Resorption is the process of breaking down bone
  • Osteoclasts bone destroying cells, release Ca2
    into blood.
  • When calcium levels are too high, calcium is
    deposited in bone matrix as calcium salts

16
Joseph Merrick
  • Lived 1862 1890 in England
  • Known as the Elephant Man due to his
    deformities
  • Thought to be either Proteus Syndrome or
    Neurofibromatosis
  • Caused great enlargement of bone and surrounding
    tissue
  • Died due to a dislocation of the neck (strain
    from head weight)

17
Merrick Skeleton
18
Bone Growth and Resorption
  • Epiphyseal plate site of growth in length, by
    thickening of hyaline cartilage followed by
    ossification
  • Disk located between diaphysis and epiphysis
  • Growth in diameter medullary cavity enlarged by
    osteoclasts destroying bone added around bone by
    osteoblasts

19
Bone Growth (cont.)
  • Opposing forces of bone formation go on
    throughout life
  • Youth Formation gt resorption
  • Young adult balance
  • Age 35-40 Resorption greater causing weaker
    bones

20
Bone Fractures and Repair
  • Fracture is any break of a bone
  • Simple skin remains unbroken
  • Compound skin is broken
  • Effective healing requires alignment and
    immobilization
  • Reduction proper set or alignment of fracture
  • Osteomyelitis bone infection

21
Steps in Bone Repair
  1. Blood escapes from ruptured blood vessels forms
    hematoma
  2. Spongy bone and fibrocartilage form in damaged
    areas
  3. A bony callus replaces fibrocartilage
  4. Osteoclasts remove excess

22
Bone Diseases
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) chronic degenerative
    condition that affects articular cartilage. Aging
  • Cartilage softens and exposed bones thicken,
    restricting movement
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) autoimmune disease
    affecting synovial joints. Cause unknown.
  • Thicken into pannus which erodes articular
    cartilage
  • Osteoporosis bone-thinning disease
  • 50 of women, 20 of men

23
Vertebral Disorders
  • Either congenital or developmental from disease,
    poor posture or unequal muscle pull on the spine

24
Joints of the Skeletal System
  • Articulations are joints between two bones.
  • They hold bones together but also permit movement
    between them.
  • Can be classified by degree of movement or by
    type of tissue holding them together

25
Classification based on Movement
  • Synarthrosis non-movable joints
  • Amphiarthroses slightly movable joints
  • Diarthoses freely movable joints

26
Classification based on Tissue
  • Fibrous joints united by fibrous tissue.
  • Syndesmosis long fibers of conn. Tissue
  • Includes joints between distal ends of radius and
    ulna tibia and fibula
  • Cartilaginous joints united by cartilage.
  • Example pubic symphysis of pelvis
  • Synovial joints joints united by synovial
    membrane

27
Synarthrotic Joints
  • Sutures between flat bones
  • Gomphosis roots of teeth to maxilla and mandible

28
Amphiarthrotic Joints slight movement
  • Synchondrosis growth plate
  • Symphysis pad of cartilage

29
Diarthrotic The Synovial Joint
  • Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones
  • A joint capsule, strengthened by ligaments holds
    bones together
  • Synovial membrane lines inside of joint capsule

30
Menisci and Bursae
  • Menisci divides some joints into compartments
  • Bursae between skin and bony projections
    cushion and aid in movement of tendons

31
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Ball-and-socket shoulder and hip
  • Allow greatest variety of movement

32
Condyloid
  • Includes joint between metacarpals and phalanges
  • Allow a wide variety of movement

33
Gliding
  • Articular surfaces are nearly flat
  • Movements are sliding back and forth
  • Include tarsals and carpals

34
Hinge
  • Include elbow and knee
  • Permits movement in only one plane

35
Pivot
  • Found at proximal ends of radius and ulna
  • Permits rotational movement

36
Saddle
  • Found between metacarpal and carpal of thumb
  • Allows variety of movements

37
Types of Movements
  • Flexion decrease angle
  • Extension return from flexed position
  • Abduction move away from midline
  • Adduction move toward midline
  • Rotation pivoting bone on central axis
  • Circumduction moving distal end of bone in a
    circle causing entire bone to circle
  • Supination turning palm out
  • Pronation turning palm in

38
More Movements
  • Inversion turning sole inward
  • Eversion turning sole outward
  • Protraction moving body part forward
  • Retraction reverse of protraction
  • Elevation moving part upward
  • Depression moving part downward
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