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Skeletal, Muscular,


Skeletal, Muscular, & Nervous System Chapter 15 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Skeletal, Muscular,

Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous System
  • Chapter 15

Functions of the skeletal system
  • Provides a living structure for your body
  • Supports your upper body and head
  • Plays a crucial role in movement
  • Protects internal tissues and organs from trauma
  • Store minerals

Structure of the skeleton
  • You have 206 bones in your body
  • Axial Skeleton the 80 bones of the skull,
    spine, ribs, vertebrae, and sternum or breastbone
  • Appendicular skeleton the remaining 126 bones
    of the upper and lower limbs, shoulders, and hips

Types of bones
  • Long Bones your arms and legs
  • Humerus is the bone in your upper arm
  • Diaphysis main column of a long bone
  • Epiphysis is the end of a long bone

Types of bones
  • Short Bones are almost equal in length and
  • Small bones in the wrist ankles

Types of bones
  • Flat Bones somewhat thinner and much flatter
    than other bones
  • The skull, scapula, or shoulder blade are all

Types of bones
  • Irregular Bones are irregularly shaped
  • Some facial bones vertebrae are examples

  • Cartilage a strong, flexible connective tissue
  • Found at the ends of long bones
  • End of the nose
  • Within the outer ear
  • In some joints like the knee acts like a cushion

  • Ossification is the process by which bone is
    formed, renewed, repaired
  • This happens early in the embryonic developmental

  • Joints are points at which bones meet

Types of Joints
  • Ball--socket joint formed when the rounded
    head of one bone fits into the rounded cavity of
    an adjoining bone
  • Hinge joint found at the elbow, knee, ankle
  • Pivot joints allow limited rotation or turning
    of the head

Types of Joints
  • Ellipsoidal joints such as the ones in your
    wrist, have an oval-shaped part that fits into a
    curved space
  • Ligament a band of fibrous, slightly elastic
    connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
  • Tendon a fibrous cord that attaches muscle to
    the bone

Care Problems of the Skeletal System
  • Lesson 2

Problems of the skeletal system
  • Fractures any type of break in a bone
  • They can be either compound or simple
  • Compound one in which the broken bones
    protrudes through the skin
  • Simple one in which the broken bone does not

Types of Fractures
  • Hairline fracture the fracture is incomplete
    the two parts of the bones do not separate
  • Transverse fracture the fracture is completely
    across the bone
  • Comminuted fracture the bone shatters into more
    than 2 pieces

  • You can only develop bone now while you are
    growing. Your habits now will affect you later
    in life
  • Osteoporosis a condition in which progressive
    loss of bone tissue occurs
  • Usually affects millions of older Americans has
    no warning signs

  • Scoliosis is a lateral, or side-to-side,
    curvature of the spine
  • This may exist at the time of birth, or it can
    develop during childhood
  • Treatments include wearing braces to help
    straighten the spine and possibly even surgery in
    severe cases

Injuries to Joints
  • Dislocation results when the ligaments that
    attach the bone at the joint are torn as the bone
    slips out of place
  • Torn cartilage can result from a sharp blow or
    the twisting of a joint
  • Bursitis results from the inflammation of a
    fluid-filled sac called the bursa

Injuries to Joints
  • Bunion is a painful swelling of the bursa in
    the first joint of the big toe
  • Arthritis is the inflammation of a joint
  • Repetitive motion injury is damage to tissue
    caused by prolonged, repeated movements such as
    in computer work, sewing or assembly line work

The Muscular System
  • Lesson 3

Functions of the muscular system
  • Help you to breathe, make your heart beat, and
    move food through your digestive system
  • Voluntary muscles muscles you knowingly move
  • Involuntary muscles muscles that move without
    your conscious control

Structure of the Muscular System
  • Muscles are made up of hundreds of long cells
    called fibers
  • Muscles work by means of two complementary or
    opposing actions
  • Contraction shortening of the muscles
  • Extension lengthening of the muscles

Types of Muscles
  • Smooth muscles act on the lining of passageways
    and internal organs (they are involuntary)
  • Skeletal Muscles are attached to bone and cause
    body movements (they are voluntary)
  • Flexor the muscle that close a joint
  • Extensor the muscle that opens a joint

Types of Muscles
  • Cardiac muscles a type of striated muscle that
    forms the wall of the heart (it is an involuntary

Care of the Muscular System
  • Muscle tone the natural tension in the fibers
    of a muscle
  • Regular physical activity can help to keep your
    muscles toned

Problems of the Muscular System
  • Bruise is an area of discolored skin that
    appears after an injury causes the blood vessels
    beneath the skin to rupture and leak
  • Muscle sprain or strain a strained muscles
    results when a muscle is stretched or partially
    torn as a result of overexertion

Problems of the Muscular System
  • Muscles strains are treated using the
  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Compression
  • Elevation
  • Or RICE method

Problems of the Muscular System
  • Tendonitis or the inflammation of a tendon
  • Caused by injury, overuse, or natural aging
  • Hernia when an organ or tissue protrudes
    through an area of weak muscle

Problems of the Muscular System
  • Muscular Dystrophy is an inherited disorder in
    which skeletal muscle fibers are progressively

The Nervous System
  • Lesson 4

Functions of the nervous system
  • It coordinates all of the activities in your body
  • Breathing
  • Or digesting food to sensing pain or feeling fear

Functions of the nervous system
  • The brain, spinal cord, and nerves all work
  • The nervous system has 2 main divisions
  • Central Nervous System
  • Peripheral Nervous System

Functions of the nervous system
  • Central Nervous System consists of the brain
    and spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System gathers information
    from inside and outside your body

  • Neurons are nerve cells

  • Cell body the cell body of a neuron contains
    the nucleus, the control center of the cell
  • Neuron cells have limited ability to repair
    damage or replace destroyed cells

  • Dendrites are branched structures that extend
    from the cell body in most neurons
  • They receive information from other neurons or
    sensory receptors and transmit impulses toward
    the cell body

  • Axons transmit impulses away from the cell body
    and toward another neuron, muscle cell, or gland
  • Axons that are covered by a myelin sheath can
    transmit impulses faster than those without a

Central Nervous System
  • Parts of the central nervous system include the
    spinal cord the brain
  • Brain the main job of the brain is to integrate
    control the activities of the nervous system

Parts of the brain
  • Cerebrum the largest and most complex part of
    the brain, its job is to focus on thought,
    learning and memory
  • Frontal lobe controls voluntary movements has
    a role in the use of language
  • Parietal lobe is involved with sensory
    information such as heat, cold, pain, touch a,
    body position

Parts of the brain
  • Occipital lobe controls the sense of vision
  • Temporal lobe controls the senses of hearing
    smell it is also involved with memory, thought,
    and judgment

Parts of the brain
  • Cerebellum the second largest part of the
    brain, its job is to coordinate the movement of
    skeletal muscles

Parts of the brain
  • Brain stem is a 3 stalk of nerve cells
    fibers that connects the spinal cord to the rest
    of the brain
  • Medulla oblongata is the lowest part of the
    brain stem, helps to regulate heartbeat
    respiratory rate as well as reflexes such as
    sneezing, coughing, vomiting

Medulla oblongata
  • Has 3 parts to it
  • Pons located just above the medulla. This is
    the pathway connecting nerve impulses to other
    areas of the brain. Helps regulate breathing
  • Midbrain the highest portion of the brain stem.
    Controls eyeball movement

Medulla oblongata
  • Thalamus an important relay center for incoming
    sensory impulses. Receives information through
    the eyes and the ears
  • Hypothalamus controls balance and various body
    processes to regulate body temperature, appetite
    awareness, and regulates sleep
  • Pituitary gland controls metabolism, sexual
    development emotional responses

The Peripheral Nervous System
  • Includes all the nerves that are not part of the
    Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • The Peripheral Nervous System can be divided into
    2 parts
  • Autonomic Nervous System
  • Somatic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System
  • Controls involuntary actions such as digestion
    heart rate
  • The Autonomic nervous system is broken down into
    2 parts
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system
  • Cause your heart rate to increase and blood
    vessels leading to your muscles to dilate
  • Reflex s spontaneous response of the body to a

Parasympathetic nervous system
  • During rest it opposes the actions of the
    sympathetic system by slowing body functions
  • Slows down heartbeats, opens blood vessels, and
    lowers blood pressure

Somatic Nervous System
  • Consists of sensory neurons that relay messages
    from receptors in the eyes, ear, nose, tongue,
    skin to the CNS motor neurons that carry
    impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles

Care Problems of the Nervous System
  • Lesson 5

Problems of the Nervous System
  • Drug alcohol use can destroy brain cells
    cause nervous system disorders

Degenerative Disease
  • Parkinsons Disease is the destruction of nerve
    cells in an area of the brain that helps
    coordinate skeletal muscle movement
  • Multiple Sclerosis the destruction of the
    myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of neurons
    in the CNS. Voluntary control of your muscles
    gradually decreases. The body basically attacks
    its own tissues

Degenerative Disease
  • Alzheimers Disease when neurons are destroyed.
    They are then unable to transmit impulses.
  • Resulting in loss of memory confusion

Other disorders problems
  • Epilepsy a disorder of the nervous system that
    is characterized by recurrent seizures
  • Cerebral palsy a group of nonprogressive
    neurological disorders that are the result of
    damage to the brain before, during, or just after
    birth or in early childhood