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AP Test Review Part Five


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Title: AP Test Review Part Five

AP Test Review Part Five
  • 1914 - 1945

World War I (1914-1918)
  • The war was sparked by the shooting of Austrian
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, but the shooting was
    only a catalyst.
  • All of the elements leading to war had been in
    place for most of the 20th century. The shooting
    just provided an immediate cause.

Underlying Causes of the War
  • Imperialism Colonial rivalries between the major
    European powers created hatred and hostility that
    led to war.
  • Militarism Europe had been experiencing an arms
    race ever since the unification of Germany.
  • Major naval rivalries existed between Germany
    England, and army rivalries existed between
    France and Germany.

More Underlying Causes
  • Nationalism This force brought about WWI in a
    variety of ways
  • nationalism spawned the unification of Italy
    Germany and caused a major shift in the balance
    of power.
  • Nationalism caused the great powers to pursue
    expansionist policies.
  • Nationalism on the part of ethnic minorities in
    Austria led to revolts secret orgs.
  • Russia pursued a policy of Pan-Slavism.

More Underlying Causes
  • Alliance systems These led nations to take rash
    actions, knowing that their allies would come to
    their aid.
  • Triple Alliance (formed 1882) Germany, Italy,
    and Austria-Hungary
  • originally called the Three Emperors League
    (Germany, Russia, Austria), it ended when Russia
    withdrew, due to rivalries with Austria over the
    Balkan region.

More Alliances
  • Two more important alliances played a part in
  • Triple Entente (1910) Russia, France, and
  • This alliance began as the Franco-Russian
    Alliance of 1894, and the dual entente of England
    and France in 1902.
  • The Little Entente Russia, Poland, Romania, and

The Crises Leading to War
  • Imperial rivalries, such as the Fashoda Affair
    between England France, and the Kruger Telegram
    between England Germany, existed in the 1890s.
  • 1905 First Moroccan Crisis Germany tried to
    take over Tangiers (Morocco) and called an
    international conference (Algiciris) to settle
    its ownership. Germany was humiliated France
    kept Morocco.

More Crises
  • 1908 Balkan Crisis (Bosnian Crisis)Both Austria
    Serbia wanted to expand in the Balkans. When
    Serbia protested the Austrian annexation of
    Bosnia, Russia sided with Serbia. Russia
    threatened to declare war, but Germany sided with
    Austria and Russia backed down.

More Crises
  • 1911 Second Moroccan Crisis The Germans sent
    the gunboat, Panther, to Agadir (Morocco) to
    protest French occupation of the region.
  • This caused England and France to join together
    to draw up war plans against the Germans.
  • Germany withdrew after gaining a piece of the
    French Congo.

More Crises
  • Balkan War of 1912 Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia
    joined together defeat Turkey.
  • They divided up Turkish possessions in the
  • Balkan War of 1913 The territory that Bulgaria
    had taken in the previous year was taken from her
    by an alliance of Russia, Turkey, Serbia, and

The Assassination War
  • June 28, 1914 Sarajevo The Austrian Archduke
    was assassinated by Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian
    member of the Black Hand.
  • Austrian Ultimatum Austria blamed Serbian
    nationalists for the shooting and demanded a free
    hand in their own investigation of the crime.

The Crisis Leads to War
  • Serbias Reply Serbia accepted most of the
    ultimatum, but rejected parts that would destroy
    her sovereignty.
  • German Actions On one hand, Germany offered
    Austria a blank check of support. On the other
    hand, the Kaiser tried to negotiate a settlement
    between Serbia Austria.
  • July 28, 1914 Germany invaded Belgium and
    Austria declared war on Serbia.

War Begins
  • Russia had been the 1st to mobilize, but Germany
    was the 1st to go to war.
  • Germany swept through Belgium, causing England
    and France to declare war.
  • Germany then declared war on Russia, who declared
    war on the central powers.

The War
  • The central powers had better armies, but the
    allies had more men and resources.
  • Germany used the Schlieffen plan to begin the
    war, but after the Battle of the Marne, the war
    turned into a long struggle with the advent of
    trench warfare. (remember Vauban)

The War in the East
  • Russia initially held off the limited number of
    German troops on the eastern front, but when
    German strength increased and Austria and Turkey
    became involved, the war was a complete disaster
    for Russia.
  • Russian losses were enormous and led to the
    collapse of the Russian govt by 1917.
  • Treaty of Brest Litovsk 1917 Russia out of the

The War at Sea
  • The war at sea was almost more important than the
    land aspect of the war.
  • British naval strength was superior to that of
    the Germans, but German U-boats inflicted great
    damage and were one factor in the entrance of the
    US in the war.

The War Ends
  • Despite temporary German victories, largely
    caused by the use of poison gas, the allied
    victory over Germany at the Battle of Verdun
    turned the tide of war.
  • Eventually, British, French, Italian, and
    American armies, led by French Marshall Foch
    broke German lines and led to the armistice on
    Nov. 11, 1918.

Changes Created by the War
  • New Weapons tanks, poison gas, subs, airplanes,
    machine guns, etc.
  • Russian Revolution
  • Recreated the map of Europe
  • Brought about the mandate system in the middle
    east and led to nationalist revolts in the area
    following the war.
  • 10 million dead, 20 million wounded, 150
    billion worth of property damage.

Changes in the Allied Nations
  • Within the allied countries, the war brought
    great changes
  • compulsory military training
  • forced employment of men women in war-industry
  • restrictions on labor management for the war
  • war planning, regulations, price controls,
    massive propaganda campaigns
  • womens suffrage after the war

Versailles Conference
  • 1919 Versailles conference Big 4 made all
    important decisions Lloyd George, Clemenceau,
    Orlando, and Wilson.
  • Wilson tried to base a lasting peace on his 14
    points, but they were largely rejected as being
    too idealistic by European leaders.
  • Wilson sacrificed most of his program to
    establish a league of nations.

The Treaty of Versailles
  • League of Nations created (US didnt join)
  • Alsace Lorraine restored to France
  • French exploitation of the Saar valley for 15
  • Huge reparations to be paid by Germany
  • Confiscation of German military supplies, and
    Germany allowed to have only a 100,000 man

The Treaty of Versailles
  • Demilitarization of the Rhineland
  • War guilt clause blamed Germany for the war and
    justified reparations
  • German and Turkish colonies taken over by the
    League of Nations who gave overseas colonies to
    the allies and created mandates in the middle
  • Restoration of Belgium Poland
  • Creation of Yugoslavia

Problems in Russia
  • Although the czar had not followed through on his
    promises made after the revolution of 1905,
    dissatisfied parties in Russia tried to cooperate
    with the govt in the defense of Russia in 1914.
  • After the armies began to lose, the czar fired
    competent generals and replaced them himself, at
    the front.
  • opposition grew more discontented, as a result.

More Russian Problems
  • As war losses mounted, food shortages at home led
    to rioting in Russian cities.
  • On the front, Russian soldiers were finally
    limited to 2 bullets per day, and many mutinied.
  • Rasputins influence on Czarina Alexandra further
    alienated the public, and soon, revolution was
    nearly inevitable.

The Revolution of March, 1917
  • The March revolution began with a general strike
    in St. Petersburg (Petrograd, Leningrad).
  • The strike was followed by a mutiny among the
    troops and the dissolving of the duma.
  • The new govt that took over was known as the
    Provisional Govt it was run by Kerensky and
    Prince Lvov.

The Provisional Government
  • On March 17, 1917, Czar Nicholas abdicated.
    Shortly afterward, the royal family was arrested.
  • They were eventually executed by the Bolsheviks.
  • The new govt declared full civil liberties for
    all Russians, freed Poland and Finland, and
    called for a constituent assembly to pass needed

Problems for the New Govt
  • Russians wanted to get out of WWI, because they
    were losing so badly, and because supplies were
    so short on the homefront.
  • Kerensky accepted a bribe and kept Russia in the
  • Hunger was a problem all over Russia.
  • Most Russians wanted land reform.
  • The Prov. Govt did nothing to help the
    distressed population.

The Soviets
  • Soviets were small workers councils which had
    been established following the revolution of
  • The Petrograd Soviet was under the control of
    Trotsky and was the most radical group calling
    for further action.
  • The Soviets called for an immediate end to the
    war, for peace with Germany, and for the seizure
    of land by the peasants workers.

  • Lenin had been active in the Social Democratic
    Party (Marxists) since its inception in Russia.
  • 1902 He wrote What is to be done? in which he
    laid out his plans for revolution.
  • The same year, he took control of the more
    radical wing of the party, the Bolsheviks.

The Road to Revolution
  • April 16, 1917 Germany ships Lenin back to
    Russia from his exile in Switzerland in a sealed
    rail car.
  • Germany did this, believing that Lenin would sue
    for peace after leading the revolution in Russia.
  • Lenins motto Peace, Land, Bread.
  • This was exactly what the people wanted to hear.

The Road to Revolution
  • Lenin called for the resignation of the
    provisional government and the transfer of power
    to the soviets, but this demand was premature.
  • July, 1917 The provisional govt armed the
    Bolsheviks so they could help the govt fight off
    a military coup (The Kornilov Affair).
  • These arms were later turned on the govt.

The October Revolution
  • Nov. 6, 1917 Led by Lenin Trotsky, Bolshevik
    leaders, soldiers, and workers quickly took over
    Petrograd, stormed the winter palace, arrested
    the remaining members of the provisional
  • Alexander Kerensky escaped and lived in exile.

The Revolution Continues
  • Nov. 7, 1917 Lenin declares the revolution a
    success and renames the country the Union of
    Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • Lenin head of state
  • Trotsky foreign minister head of the red army
  • Stalin commissar for national minorities

Soviet Russia 1917-1828
  • Between 1917 and 1928, the new Bolshevik
    government established Soviet power in Russia and
    enacted Soviet policies.
  • There are three major themes of this period in
    Soviet history
  • Military internal problems
  • Development of economic policies
  • Power struggle between Stalin Trotsky

Internal Problems Begin
  • The Bolsheviks expected worldwide revolution to
    follow their successful revolution in Russia and
    so they immediately began to prepare.
  • In preparation, the Soviets nationalized and
    communized sugar, petroleum, and textile
    production and all mining, and by 1920, all
    industries employing more than 10 people were
  • The govt requisitioned all farm produce, and
    only govt officials cold buy sell goods.

Military Internal Problems
  • March 3, 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk took
    Russia out of the war and ceded large amounts of
    territory to Germany.
  • Russia gave up most of the area in the vicinity
    of the Ukraine and lost about 1/3 of its
  • Civil War was raging between the Reds
    (bolsheviks) and the Whites (everyone who opposed
    the reds).
  • By 1921, the reds won the civil war.

Economic Problems
  • Though the whites were put down, the Soviet
    internal situation remained critical in 1921,
    with the economy being below pre-war levels.
  • The anarchists and peasants began to revolt in
    the countryside in an attempt to do something
    about the starvation suffering of the masses.

The New Economic Policy (NEP)
  • This was Lenins stop-gap measure to retain
    control and provide temporary relief.
  • Under the NEP, peasants were allowed to keep part
    of their produce, which they were allowed to sell
    for cash profit on newly-recreated local markets.
  • The govt kept control of heavy industry
    internatl trade, but light manufacturing and
    internal trade was returned to private hands.

NEP, continued
  • The Kulaks and other entrepreneurs made large
    profits by taking advantage of this
  • As a result, some bolsheviks, such as Trotsky,
    wanted to kill them
  • Some other people wanted to extend the NEP to
    include even more private business
  • Lenin believed both groups were wrong, and that
    the NEP was necessary until a full communist
    society could be realized in the future.

The Power Struggle Stalin vs. Trotsky
  • Lenin had a series of strokes between 1922
    1924. He finally died in 1924.
  • Trotsky Stalin both wanted to be Lenins
  • Trotsky was a theorist who had organized the red
    army and the Petrograd Soviet.
  • Stalin was an activist who had been instrumental
    in forcing the minority republics to unite into
    the USSR. He also had control of the machinery
    of govt.

Stalin vs. Trotsky
  • Trotsky wanted to promote world revolution ASAP,
    while Stalin was willing to wait instead
    concentrate on rebuilding the USSR, 1st.
  • When Trotsky publicly criticized Stalins foreign
    policy in 1927, Stalin had him exiled to Siberia.
  • Trotsky eventually escaped to the west was
    assassinated by Stalins men in 1941.

Lenins Testament
  • In his will, Lenin stated that Stalin was too
    power-hungry and too brutal and uncouth to become
    his successor.
  • Lenin believed Trotsky should be the next head of
    the USSR.
  • Stalin, however, gained full control of the USSR,
    after the exile of Trotsky.

Stalinist Russia
  • With Stalins rise to power, the NEP was ended.
  • Stalin was typified by the following
  • Purges to insure personal loyalty to Stalin
    his communist system.
  • Collectivization of Agriculture and Industry
  • Identification of the State the Communist
    Party all in his own person.
  • Five Year Plans to meet emergency needs for
    industrialization and mechanization.

Five Year Plans
  • Emergency programs to industrialize the USSR so
    it could protect itself compete with the West.
  • Heavy industry, steel mills, electrical power,
    cement, railroads, tractor building.
  • The bureaucracy necessary to carry out the plans
    became a highly paid class of communist party

Purges (1934-1938)
  • From 1934-1938, Stalin directed a series of
    wholesale purges consisting of trumped-up or
    false accusations, mock trials, and then suicide
    or execution.
  • He did away with most of the old Bolshevik
    leaders and others who could challenge his power.
  • He tried to eliminate the kulaks.
  • Stalins cult of personality He eliminated
    people not personally loyal.

1936 Constitution
  • Although the constitution called for universal
    suffrage and appeared to be very liberal, it
    actually was circumvented by the fact that the
    party and the govt were controlled by the same
    few persons.
  • For example, even though the nation had a
    premier, in practice, the premier was always the
    comm. party secretary.

Soviet Foreign Policy
  • Initially,Stalin favored Socialism in one
    State. (building it in the USSR, 1st, and then
    later exporting the revolution).
  • During the late 1930s, Stalin favored the
    Popular Front strategy of trying to stop fascism
    before Hitler could get any more power in his
  • Finally, after WWII, Stalin began to actively
    seek to spread Communism in to other parts of
    the world.

  • Leftist Communism
  • Right wing Fascism
  • While Communism had become the dominant style of
    dictatorship in the USSR, Fascism appealed to
    radicals in Italy Germany.

  • After switching sides to end the war fighting
    with the allies in WWI, Italy was disappointed in
    the lack of territorial gain she achieved at
  • The Italian economy was in shambles after WWI,
    and unemployment was high.
  • Italian political parties were unable to gain a
    majority and so very little reform was happening.

The Rise of Mussolini
  • Following the war, the king, Victor Emmanuel III
    was a figurehead with virtually no power.
  • Mussolini, originally a socialist, organized the
    1st fasces group in 1919.
  • He had few followers, at 1st, but due to the bad
    conditions, people began to listen to his ideas.

Mussolini, continued
  • In 1920, he founded a para-military group called
    the Black Shirts which consisted of ex-soldiers,
    shopkeepers, workers, and intellectuals.
  • He used the Black Shirts in a campaign of terror
    to promote fascist ideas.
  • His numbers grew from 30,000 in 1920 to 300,000
    in 1922.

  • What is fascism?
  • Fascism is a political philosophy which is
    anti-democratic, anti-communist, and
  • Fascism uses terror, dictatorial practices, and
    any available means to force compliance with
    fascist demands.
  • Fascists are often confused with communists, but
    even though they use similar tactics to keep
    control, their beliefs are diametrically opposed.

  • 1921 Fascists were for the 1st time elected to
    the parliament.
  • Oct. 1922 March on Rome Mussolinis Blackshirts
    and thousands of discontented Italians marched on
    Rome demanding a new government.
  • The king yielded and gave Mussolini
    constitutional authority to form a new
    government, thus giving the fascists political

Italian Fascism
  • Soon after taking power, constitutionally,
    Mussolini created a fascist dictatorship.
  • He created a fascist militia (out of the
  • He made the army swear personal allegiance to him
  • He passed emergency power decrees
  • He revised the electoral system to assure him
    absolute control.

Italian Fascism, continued
  • By 1924, Mussolini terrorized his opposition out
    of existence.
  • Political opponents who voiced resentment were
    found dead.
  • By 1926, Mussolini ruled entirely by decree and
    the only legal political party was the fascist
  • Dictatorship was secure in the person of
    Mussolini his Grand Council of Fascists.

Fascist Beliefs Actions
  • Mussolini controlled the economy by a planning
    system (syndicalism) and by creating what he
    called the corporate state.
  • The state represented labor in negotiations, in
    industrial planning, expansion, etc.
  • Both capital labor were controlled by the
    fascists from local units throughout the whole
  • Supposedly, the state represented the collective
    will of all of its citizens.

More Fascist Policies
  • The chief economic and social problems remained
    unsolved by the Fascists.
  • Mussolini believed in the inviolability of
    private property and thus received support from
    land and factory owners.
  • In foreign policy, Mussolini aligned himself with
    Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis.

The Lateran Accords
  • Mussolini neutralized the Catholic Church with
    this agreement of 1929.
  • Mussolini granted independent status to the
    Vatican in exchange for promises of
    non-interference from the church in all
    political, social, economic, and military
  • As a result, Mussolini gained complete control of
    the Italian educational system.

Foreign Policy
  • Mussolini sent his fascist troops to intervene in
    the Spanish Civil War to help Franco take over
  • Mussolinis troops also took over the nation of
  • Mussolini, hoping to take over more territory and
    avenge the 1896 defeat at Adowa, invaded Ethiopia
    and quickly took it over.

Germany After WWI
  • Nov. 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm was ousted and the
    Weimar Republic was created.
  • Nov. 11, 1918 Germany surrendered, ending WWI.
  • Since the Weimar Republic signed the Treaty of
    Versailles, it was blamed for the territorial
    losses and the reparations, and ruled only with
    the support of the military.

The Weimar Republic
  • Dominated by the Social Democrats
  • Ebert was the 1st President
  • democratic Constitution included
  • President
  • Reichstag (universal suffrage, proportional
    representation--led to govt by coalition)
  • Chancellor Cabinet (responsible to the
  • Chancellor could rule by emergency decree

Political Crisis in the Weimar Republic
  • Opposition came from the far left
    (Communists/Sparticists) and the far right
  • Sparticist Uprising Jan. 1919 led by Rosa
    Luxemberg and Karl Liebknecht. Put down by the
    Freikorps (a right-wing army group)
  • Kapp Putsch March 1920 the far right, mostly
    monarchists, staged a coup, but it failed due to
    a general strike in Berlin.

More Problems in Germany
  • Right-wing radicals rebelled, mostly by secret
    terrorist means, killing off many moderate
    political leaders.
  • Germany faced horrible inflation and economic
    crisis after the French occupied the Ruhr in Jan.
    1923, in response to the Germans defaulting on
    their reparation payments.
  • Coalition govts failed, one after the other in
    Germany in the early 1920s.

Weimar in Transition
  • Stab-in-the-back theory Ludendorff claimed that
    the govt had surrendered even though the army
    could have won.
  • This untrue theory made people dissatisfied with
    the government, because they believed Ludendorff.
  • Treaty of Rapallo 1922 secret treaty in which
    the USSR allowed Germany to have an army in the
    USSR in return for the Germans training the Red

More Problems
  • 1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch Hitler
    Ludendorff led a coup in a Munich Beer Hall and
    were arrested imprisoned.
  • While in jail, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf and began
    to plan how he would later take over Germany, so
    as to not fail, as he did in 1923.

The Stresemann Years
  • Under Stresemann, the Weimar government achieved
    some degree of solvency and stability.
  • The Locarno Pacts These agreements were signed
    by most of the European nations, but the USSR was
    not invited to participate.
  • Allowed Germany to join the League of Nations
  • Guaranteed Western, but not E. borders.

The Rise of Hitler
  • Although it seemed that Hitlers chances of
    gaining power were slim in the 1920s, the great
    depression changed the political climate of
    Germany and caused people to have a reason to
    listen to his promises.
  • The Nazi party promised to regain German
    greatness, provide prosperity, and rise above the
    disgrace of Versailles.

Hitlers Rise, continued
  • Hitler formed the SA (Stormtroopers) and offered
    a meal and a shirt to any man who would join the
    Nazi cause.
  • This attracted unemployed men of all classes,
    especially unemployed veterans.
  • 1930 Reichstag Election The Nazi party began to
    gain a significant of seats, but did not get a

Hitlers Rise, continued
  • As the depression grew worse and the radicals on
    both ends of the spectrum grew more active,
    President Hindenberg was helpless to deal with
    the situation.
  • Cabinets under Bruning,von Papen, and Schleicher
    failed to deal with the growing power of the
    Nazis, and Hitler used this chance to become

Hitlers Rise, continued
  • The Nazis began to march in large rallies and
    began to exercise public terror campaigns.
  • The conservatives and industrialists thought
    Hitler was a better alternative than a communist
    and cautiously supported his rise.
  • The lower middle classes supported him because he
    offered a way out of the depression.

Hitler Becomes Chancellor
  • Election of 1932
  • Hindenberg won the Presidency, but Hitler had a
    lot of support.
  • The Nazi party gained more seats in the
    Reichstag, but still did not have a majority.
  • Jan. 30, 1933 Hindenberg appointed Hitler
    Chancellor in a coalition cabinet.
  • Hitler immediately began to consolidate his power.

Hitlers Consolidation of Power
  • Feb. 1933 Hitler arranged for a Dutchman to burn
    the Reichstag building.
  • The fire was blamed on the communists and was
    used as justification for kicking all of the
    communists out of the government.
  • Eventually, Germany became a one-party state.

Consolidation, continued
  • After the Reichstag fire, Hitler invoked the
    emergency clause of the constitution and ruled by
  • After this, the rest of Hitlers powers were
    taken by seizure, terror, and dictatorship.
  • Hitler purged Roehm and other SA leaders in the
    Night of the Long Knives, thus ensuring his
    control of the Nazi party.

Hitlers Bureaucracy
  • Ministry of Propaganda led by Goebbels to spread
    Nazi doctrines
  • Goering Hitler hired him to build up a military
    air force.
  • Rosenberg hired by Hitler to further expand his
    anti-Semitic and Aryan supremacy theories.
  • Hess Hitlers Chief Secretary who helped carry
    out Nazi policies

Hitlers Policies
  • 1934 Hindenberg died Hitler became President.
    Later he took on the title Fuehrer.
  • Gestapo (secret police) established
  • Hitler pulled Germany out of the League of
    Nations and began to ignore international law.
  • The Nuremberg Laws marked the beginning of
    Hitlers attempt to enforce his anti-Semitic

Hitlers Policies, continued
  • Hitler began to build up all branches of the
    military and instituted 4 year plans to step up
    production and building of war materials, food,
    and the Autobahn.
  • To further promote his plans, Hitler instituted
    forced labor conscription, the abolition of
    unions, and the Nazi Youth.
  • Churches were persecuted by extremist Nazis and
    clergy often went along with Nazi teaching out of
    fear of reprisals.

Hitlers Policies, continued
  • Constitutional Dictatorship under the Fuehrer
    regional politics governed by local party
    organizations (Gaue).
  • Administrative All non-Aryans barred from office
  • Political one-party state all affairs handled
    by the Nazi bureaucracy (called coordination or

More Policies
  • Judicial The state Nazi ideals were placed
    above traditional judicial precedents punishment
    arrest, as well as court procedures, were
  • Racial believed in the supremacy of the Aryan
    race persecution and extermination of Jews,
    gypsies, and other non-Aryans. Culminated in the
    killing of 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.

More Policies
  • Religious Protestant Catholic churches
    persecuted when they spoke out against Nazi
    theories Hitler tried to substitute Nazi party
    events youth groups for religious gatherings.
  • Military build up of the military universal
    military service required govt funded research
    to develop new weapons highly disciplined army.

More Policies
  • Cultural The Kulturkampf was Hitlers struggle
    for domination of every aspect of thought
    action by the Nazi ideals.
  • Controlled art, music, drama, etc.--usually of
    low quality used for propaganda.
  • Supported writers and musicians who expressed the
    greatness of the Germanic peoples (ex. Wagner)
  • Glorified the image of the Nazi mother who
    stayed at home and took care of her family.

More Policies
  • Economic
  • All labor unions were outlawed.
  • The Nazi Labor Front organized labor and served
    the interests of the Nazi party
  • All unemployment ended by labor military
  • Attempted to make Germany self-sufficient through
    the 4 year plans.

Hitlers Foreign Policy
  • Hitler wanted to control Europe and followed the
    policy of Lebensraum which was originally set out
    in Mein Kampf.
  • Lebensraum means living space and referred to
    Hitlers attempts to expand eastward to create
    more living space for the German Aryans while
    eliminating the Slavs, who Hitler believed to be
    very inferior.
  • Hitlers foreign policy led to WWII.

The Spanish Civil War
  • Spanish Republic 1931-36 very unstable.
  • The republic was not supported by the Catholic
    church, the army, the conservative landowners,
    nor the leftist anarchists.
  • 1936 the Rightist Falange, led by General
    Franco, began a military coup to seize the govt.
  • Franco was aided by Hitler Mussolini.
  • This war was a dress-rehearsal for WWII.

The Spanish Civil War, cont.
  • The democratic nations of Europe did nothing.
  • The USSR tried to lead a Popular Front effort
    against the fascists and wanted to stop them
    before they got any stronger.
  • Eventually, the republic fell to Franco, assuring
    that Spain would not stand in the way of Fascist
    actions in WWII.

Mid-war England
  • England was one of the joyless victors of WWI
    and faced a wide variety of problems between the
  • These problems included economic crises,
    political instability, disputes over the future
    of Ireland, and colonial difficulties.

Economic Problems in England
  • Had a difficult time making the transition from a
    war economy to a peace-time one.
  • 1920s high unemployment inflation
  • Hurt badly by the Am. Stock market crash the
    resulting great depression
  • Tariff barriers all over the world created
    problems for British trade, as did new rivals for
  • To solve these problems, Br. adopted unemployment
    insurance, and old-age pensions.

British Political Developments
  • 1919-1923 Conservative cabinet with strong labor
  • 1923 Liberals Labor unite to form a cabinet
    under Mac Donald, pushing the conservatives out
    of office.
  • 1924 Conservatives return, due to poor policies
    on the part of the labor party.
  • Conservatives did try to intervene industry with
    subsidies, securing wages, attempts to control

Political Instability
  • 1928 Trades Disputes Act gave more rights to
    owners in labor disputes
  • 1929 Conservatives ousted, but the labor party
    was then faced with the onset of the great
  • Mac Donald, Baldwin, and Chamberlain each had to
    deal with the rising fascist tide, economic
    crises, and the need for rearmament.

The Problem of Ireland
  • 1914 Government of Ireland Bill (to allow home
    rule) suspended by WWI
  • Hatred between Ulster (N, Protestant,
    Pro-British) and the rest of Ireland (Catholic
    pro-independence) grew intense during the war.
  • Sinn Fein became more active actively
    revolutionary (1916 Easter Rebellion), but
    England crushed the Irish Patriots.

Ireland, continued
  • Throughout the war, Irish terrorism was a
    problem, and Germany subtly helped the Irish.
  • 1921 Irish Free State created with its own
    parliament and with allegiance to the British
    king and government.
  • N. Irish guaranteed their choice of govt, as
  • Ireland totally broke away from England in the
    1930s under De Valera. the N. stayed with

British Mandates/Protectorates
  • Egypt gained its independence from Britain in
    1922, but Britain still dominated Egyptian
    economics, because it controlled the Suez Canal
    until its nationalization in 1956.
  • Iraq Britain was given Mesopotamia after WWI
    as a protectorate, but Iraq gained its
    independence in 1921.
  • Britain dominated Iraqi oil fields until the

  • During the war, the British promised this area to
    the Arabs in the McMahon Pledge, and to the Jews
    in the Balfour Declaration.
  • This was the legal basis for the conflict over
    the Palestinian/Israeli territory which still
    exists, today.
  • Jordan was created as an independent state in
    1928, as was Saudi Arabia.

British Dominions
  • The British Dominions of Canada, Australia, New
    Zealand, and South Africa had all fought with
    Britain during WWI.
  • 1931 The Statute of Westminster
  • gave the dominions commonwealth status, meaning
    that they were free, but had the advantages of
    free trade economic preference with Britain.
  • They still recognized the Br. Monarchy were
    dependent upon Br for protection leadership.

Midwar France
  • France lost more property, wealth, and population
    than any other nation in WWI.
  • After the war, they had a wide variety of
    economic, political, and international problems
    caused by the war.

French Economic Problems
  • France hoped to pay for the rebuilding of their
    destroyed lands cities with German reparations,
    but it was obvious by the mid-1920s that Germany
    could not pay.
  • 1923 France retaliated against the German
    default by invading the Ruhr (a German industrial
  • This invasion destroyed the German economy also
    hurt France.

French Economic Problems
  • 1924 Dawes Plan
  • reduced the German reparation payments, making
    them dependent upon the German GNP
  • France was required to leave the Ruhr.
  • 1929 Young Plan
  • Eased German payments even more, after the
    depression began to set in.
  • 1932 Hoover Moratorium
  • Suspended reparations payments (became permanent)

More Problems
  • These plans all caused great resentment, because
    France was deprived of the it needed to
  • Germany appeared to be getting off easy, not
    having to pay for the damages she caused.
  • When the great depression hit in France, it was
    extremely severe, because the French economic
    base was so weak.

French Foreign Policy
  • French foreign policy was dominated by the search
    for security, between the wars.
  • President Poincare did the following to secure
    France from German attack
  • Secret pact with Belgium 1920
  • Secret pact with Poland 1921
  • Secret pacts with Czech, Yugoslavia, and
    Romania 1921-27.

French Foreign Policy
  • Maginot Line built under Poincares
    administration on the French-German border to
    protect from German invasion.
  • Failure because it did not cover the Belgian
    border, and because all the guns were fixed
    facing Germany.
  • President Briand signed the Locarno Pacts which
    secured the Fr-Ger borders (1925) the
    Kellogg-Briand Pact which outlawed war (1928)

French Political Problems
  • Unstable government (Political Turnstile) with
    continually changing ruling party/President.
  • Many political scandals (ex. Stravinsky affair
    1933) discredited the govt.
  • Many radical parties began to grow in the face of
    political and economic crisis.
  • Major disagreement over whether to appease Hitler
    or join the Popular Front with the USSR.

Political Problems
  • Leon Blum French socialist who promoted a
    popular front government.
  • Wanted to intervene in the Spanish civil war but
    had no support to do so.
  • Wanted to nationalize some French industries
    businesses but this was unpopular among the
    middle upper classes.
  • Fell to Daladiers govt due to his inability to
    deal with political economic problems (Better
    Hitler than Blum)

  • Many factors during the mid-war years led to war.
    These included
  • Economic Rivalry high protective tariffs cut
    down on free trade (esp. hurt nations w/o
    colonial markets), great depression hurt markets,
    resurgence of economic nationalism.

More Problems
  • Failure of the League of Nations
  • Didnt have the power to enforce its decisions
    and was powerless to prevent war.
  • Economic sanctions could be imposed by the
    League, but it could only recommend that member
    nations abide by these.
  • Member nations only abided by League decisions if
    they furthered their own interests
  • US did not join the League of Nations..

The League of Nations
  • The LON was discredited by its failure in the
    following places
  • 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria (LON did
    nothing to prevent Japans action)
  • 1935 Italian invasion of Ethiopia The LON
    applied economic sanctions but member nations
    refused to abide by them.
  • 1935 German rearmament Ignored by the LON
  • 1936 German militarization of the Rhineland the
    allies protested, but the LON did nothing.

The Failure of Versailles
  • Many historians believe that German resentment of
    Versailles helped start WWII.
  • Many Germans believed
  • The war guilt clause was unfair
  • It was unfair that terms were dictated to them
    without any negotiation
  • The treaty was primarily responsible for their
    economic distress
  • The treaty prevented them from having adequate
    protection from neighbors.

Hitlers Road to War
  • 1935 German rearmament
  • 1936 German occupation of the Rhineland
  • 1938 Austrian anschluss (Germany took over
    Austria with the help of Dollfuss).
  • 1936-39 German Italian participation in the
    Spanish Civil War.

More Steps Toward War
  • March 1938 Munich Conference Hitler was given
    the Sudetenland in return for a promise that he
    would not annex the rest of Czechoslovakia.
  • Hitler threatened to declare war if he didnt get
    the Sudetenland
  • Sept. 1938 Hitler invaded Prague annexed the
    rest of Czechoslovakia.
  • The allies responded by agreeing to protect
    Poland, Romania, Greece.

  • August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact 10
    year non-aggression pact between the USSR
    Hitler which secretly split Poland between the
    two nations and gave the Baltic states to the
    USSR (Cleared the way for Hitlers invasion of
  • Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland, quickly
    conquering it.
  • In response, the allies declared war.

  • Very little happened in the fall of 1939.
  • Winter War 1940 USSR vs. Finland
  • US still remained neutral, but began to follow
    cash carry policies for allies.
  • June 1940 France fell to the Nazis Vichy France
    created under Marshall Petain.
  • US started Lend-Lease
  • Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor bombed
  • US enters WWII

  • By early 1942, both Japanese German conquests
    were astounding it appeared that the axis
    powers might win the war.
  • Allied powers, esp. with the help of the US, had
    greater resources eventually wore down the
  • By 1943, 47 nations were fighting against the
    axis powers.

The Russian Front
  • June 1941 Germany invaded the USSR and headed
    for Moscow.
  • This action was eventually halted due to the
    terrible winter conditions and the scorched earth
    policy of the Russians.
  • June 1942 German offensive aimed at capturing S.
  • Very successful, at first.
  • Finally stopped at the Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad
  • The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in
    the Eastern front of the war.
  • After this battle, the Russians were on the
    offensive and never lost another major battle to
    the Germans.
  • Russia captured over 300,000 German soldiers who
    became Russian prisoners of war.
  • The Russians entered Berlin in April, 1945.

The Mediterranean Front
  • After Italian armies in N. Africa were defeated
    by the British, Germany greatly strengthened its
    Afrika Korps which was led by General Rommel.
  • Rommel was the desert fox
  • June 1942 German troops tried to capture the
    Suez Canal.
  • After losing many battles, the British finally
    defeated Rommel at the Battle of El Alamein and
    saved the Suez Canal.

North Africa
  • General Montgomery (Br) counter-attacked in Oct
    1942 and forced the axis troops to retreat
    westward toward French Africa.
  • American forces under Eisenhower landed in French
    N. Africa in Nov. 1942 and the two armies trapped
    the axis powers, forcing a surrender in May, 1943.

  • July 1943 Allied armies under Eisenhowers
    command invaded Sicily and won it, despite
    determined German resistance.
  • The fall of Sicily resulted in Mussolinis fall
    in Italy, but he was reestablished by Hitler in
    N. Italy.
  • As soon as Sicily was secured, the allies invaded
    S. Italy and Italy surrendered.

Italy, continued
  • Despite the surrender of Italy, fighting was
    brutal and progress was slow for the allies,
    because German troops in Italy fought to the
  • The Battle of Anzio was a major turning point in
    the Italian campaign, and with Anzios fall, Rome
    soon was in allied hands. (June, 1944)
  • Mussolini was executed by the Italian population.

The Sea War
  • The allies relied on resources from the US, but
    military other supplies were in danger of never
    reaching Europe since travel at sea was imperiled
    by German subs.
  • Allied innovations, such as radar, traveling in
    convoys, and the use of anti-submarine planes cut
    down on the numbers of allied ships sunk.

The Air War
  • Britain was subject to continuous bombings early
    in the war (Battle of Britain--1940), but Germany
    suffered great destruction after 1942 when allied
    bombing of Germany increased.
  • Allied targets in Germany were usually factories,
    railroads, military naval bases.
  • Allies also targeted major German cities.

  • June 6, 1944 D-Day
  • a huge allied army under the command of General
    Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy and
    established a beachhead.
  • Throughout the following months, the Germans were
    gradually pushed east and France began to be
  • Spring 1945 the allies crossed the Siegfried
    Line entered the Rhineland.

  • May 8, 1945 Victory Europe Day
  • The allied armies were advancing from the western
    front and the Russian armies had entered Berlin.
  • Germany surrendered unconditionally, after Hitler
    committed suicide in his bunker.
  • Allied governments around the world celebrated
    the victory.

War in the Pacific
  • June 1942 Battle of Midway Japanese fleet
    suffered a major loss to the US.
  • August 1942 US took the offensive began the
    strategy of island hopping.
  • Fall 1944 under the command of General
    MacArthur, the US invaded the Philippines
    routed the Japanese fleet at the Battle of Leyte

US Victory in the Pacific
  • By late 1944, the US secured both control of the
    air and of the sea.
  • Battle of Okinawa After its seizure, Okinawa was
    used to bomb the home islands of Japan.
  • The dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima
    Nagasaki brought the surrender of Japan on August
    14, 1945.
  • VJ Day (Victory Japan Day)

The Atlantic Charter
  • Atlantic Charter August 1940
  • FDR Churchill met in the Atlantic and issued a
    statement by which peace would eventually be
  • It called for self-determination of liberated
    areas after the war
  • It stated that neither the US nor Britain were
    interested in territorial gain, as a result of
    the war.

The Teheran Conference
  • The Teheran Conference Dec. 1943
  • The Big Three FDR, Churchill, Stalin met to
    coordinate war plans in Europe.
  • The W. allies agreed to open a 2nd front in
    Europe, but did not do so until June, 1944.
  • This caused great animosity on the part of Stalin
    who was valiantly fighting off the Germans in the
    Southern USSR.

The Yalta Conference
  • Yalta Conference Feb. 1945
  • Big three Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
  • Final decisions were made by the Allies
    concerning the impending defeat of Germany.
  • Agreed to allow the USSR to liberate Berlin.
  • Agreed on the division of Germany after the war.
  • Agreed that liberated areas would be allowed to
    hold free elections to choose a new govt after
    the war.
  • Agreed to hold the post-war Nuremberg trials.

The Potsdam Conference
  • Potsdam Conference July-August 1945
  • Big Three Stalin, Truman, Churchill/Atlee
  • Agreed to carry out the Yalta provisions
  • Agreed to the actual terms of the division of
  • Agreed to adjust the borders of Germany Poland
    to the USSRs favor
  • Agreed to de-Nazify demilitarize Germany
  • Agreed to reparations
  • The USSR agreed to enter the Pacific war.
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