AP Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – AP Review PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6bb336-ZGY4Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

AP Review


AP Review ... AP Review – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:12
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 89
Provided by: Admin90
Learn more at: http://bobcat-psychologyap.wikispaces.com


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: AP Review

AP Review
Percentage Devoted to Concepts
  • 2-4history
  • 6-8methods and approaches
  • 8-10biological bases of behavior
  • 7-9sensation and perception
  • 2-4states of consciousness
  • 7-9learning
  • 8-10cognition
  • 7-9motivation and emotion
  • 7-9developmental psychology
  • 6-8personality
  • 5-7testing and individual differences
  • 7-9abnormal psychology
  • 5-7treatment of psychological disorders
  • 7-9social psychology

Free Response
  • The free-response questions evaluate students'
    mastery of scientific research principles and
    their ability to make connections among
    constructs from different psychological domains.
    Students may be asked to analyze a general
    problem in psychology (e.g., depression,
    adaptation) using concepts from different
    theoretical frameworks or subdomains in the
    field, or they may be asked to design, analyze,
    or critique a research study.

Improve Your Memory
  • Study repeatedly to boost recall
  • Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking
    about the material
  • Make material personally meaningful
  • Use mnemonic devices
  • associate with peg words--something already
  • make up story
  • chunk--acronyms

Improve Your Memory
  • Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate
    situation and mood
  • Recall events while they are fresh-- before you
    encounter misinformation
  • Minimize interference
  • Test your own knowledge
  • rehearse
  • determine what you do not yet know

(No Transcript)
Multiple Memory Systems
  • Weiten Text

Implicit vs. Explicit
  • Implicit memory
  • does not require intentional remembering.
  • part of the procedural memory system.
  • Unconscious, accessed indirectly
  • Unaffected by amnesia, age, drugs, length of
    retention, interference
  • Cerebellum
  • Explicit memory
  • does require intentional memory.
  • Part of the declarative memory system.
  • Conscious, accessed directly
  • Best assessed with recall or recognition measures
    of retention
  • Hippocampus

Implicit vs. Explicit why are they different?
  • Some theorists believe it is because they rely on
    different cognitive processes in encoding and
  • Others because they are handled by independent
    memory systems (declarative and procedural)

Declarative vs. Procedural
  • Declarative
  • Factual information (words, definitions, faces,
  • Hippocampus
  • Procedural
  • Actions, skills, operations, conditioned
    responses (riding bike, tying shoes)
  • Cerebellum

Semantic vs. Episodic Memory
  • Episodic
  • Chronological recollections of personal
  • Like an autobiography
  • Semantic
  • General knowledge, not tied to time when learned
  • Like an encyclopedia

Semantic vs. Episodic Memory
  • Due to amnesiac studies theorists believe that
    they are separate systems.
  • They are both divisions of declarative memory

Storage Long-Term Memory
  • Amnesia--the loss of memory
  • Explicit Memory
  • memory of facts and experiences that one can
    consciously know and declare
  • also called declarative memory
  • hippocampus--neural center in limbic system that
    helps process explicit memories for storage
  • Implicit Memory
  • retention independent of conscious recollection
  • also called procedural memory
  • cerebellum

Retrieval Cues
  • Deja Vu (French)--already seen
  • cues from the current situation may
    subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier
    similar experience
  • "I've experienced this before."
  • Mood-congruent Memory
  • tendency to recall experiences that are
    consistent with ones current mood
  • memory, emotions, or moods serve as retrieval
  • State-dependent Memory
  • what is learned in one state (while one is high,
    drunk, or depressed) can more easily be
    remembered when in same state

Forgetting as Interference
  • Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of
    other information
  • Proactive (forward acting) Interference
  • disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of
    new information
  • Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference
  • disruptive effect of new learning on recall of
    old information

Memory Construction
  • We filter information and fill in missing pieces
  • Misinformation Effect
  • incorporating misleading information into one's
    memory of an event
  • Source Amnesia
  • attributing to the wrong source an event that we
    experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

  • People Skinner, Pavlov, Watson
  • Operant conditioning, classical conditioning,
    observational learning
  • Reinforcement, CR, CS, shaping, modeling
  • Treatments systematic desensitization,
    extinction, modeling, counter conditioning,
    aversion therapy, biofeedback training, stress

  • Freud, Jung, Adler,
  • Repression, suppression, unconscious motives,
  • Freud Stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency,
    genital) personality structure-- id, ego,
    superego dreams wish fulfillment
  • Treatments free association, dream analysis,
    hypnosis, insight therapy, interpretation of

Personality Structure
  • Freuds idea of the minds structure

Personality Development
  • Chemical endocrine imbalances, genetic
    hereditary, brain damage,
  • Drug treatments, exercise, nutrition

  • Study the way a person thinks is it negative,
    irrational, faulty, distorted, self-defeating,
  • Treatment rational-emotive therapy, Becks
    cognitive therapy, changing ways of thinking

(No Transcript)
The Cerebral Cortex
  • Aphasia
  • impairment of language, usually caused by left
    hemisphere damage either to Brocas area
    (impairing speaking) or to Wernickes area
    (impairing understanding)
  • Brocas Area
  • an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the
    muscle movements involved in speech
  • Wernickes Area
  • an area of the left temporal lobe involved in
    language comprehension and expression

  • Representativeness Heuristic
  • judging the likelihood of things in terms of how
    well they seem to represent, or match, particular
  • may lead one to ignore other relevant information
  • Availability Heuristic
  • estimating the likelihood of events based on
    their availability in memory
  • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps
    because of their vividness), we presume such
    events are common
  • Example airplane crash

Creativity and Problem Solving
  • Convergent Thinking thought is limited to
    available facts, and one tries to narrow ones
    thinking to find the single best solution
  • Divergent Thinking one associates more freely
    to the various elements of a problem. One
    follows leads that run in various directions
    perhaps one of them will lead to the solution
    unexpectedly. Thinking outside the box

Paul Ekman
  • Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally
    determined, but universal across human cultures
    and thus biological in origin
  • He developed the Facial Action Coding System
    (FACS) to taxonomize every human facial
  • Display rules-- Socialization establishes when it
    is appropriate to display a given facial
    expression in a given society and when it is not,
    thus causing individuals to actively modulate the
    display of emotions and other states. Ekman and
    Friesen coined the term display rules to describe
    such socially engendered forces that alter facial

Contemporary Research-- The Trait Perspective
  • Trait
  • a characteristic pattern of behavior
  • a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by
    self-report inventories and peer reports
  • Personality Inventory
  • a questionnaire (often with true-false or
    agree-disagree items) on which people respond to
    items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings
    and behaviors
  • used to assess selected personality traits

The Trait Perspective
  • Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary
    personality factors as axes for describing
    personality variation

The Trait Perspective
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  • the most widely researched and clinically used of
    all personality tests
  • originally developed to identify emotional
    disorders (still considered its most appropriate
  • now used for many other screening purposes

The Trait Perspective
  • Empirically Derived Test
  • a test developed by testing a pool of items and
    then selecting those that discriminate between
  • such as the MMPI

The Trait Perspective
Social Psychology
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
  • tendency for observers, when analyzing anothers
    behavior, to underestimate the impact of the
    situation and to overestimate the impact of
    personal disposition
  • Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
  • tendency for people who have first agreed to a
    small request to comply later with a larger

Social Thinking
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we
    feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are
  • example- when we become aware that our attitudes
    and our actions clash, we can reduce the
    resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

Social Influence
  • Social Facilitation
  • improved performance of tasks in the presence of
  • occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not
    with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
  • Social Inhibition
  • Decreased performance in front of a crowd
  • Occurs with more complex tasks that were

Social Influence
  • Social Loafing
  • tendency for people in a group to exert less
    effort when pooling their efforts toward
    attaining a common goal than when individually
  • Deindividuation
  • loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in
    group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

Social Influence
  • Group Polarization
  • enhancement of a groups prevailing attitudes
    through discussion within the group
  • Can increase prejudice, internet new medium
  • Good for self-help group situations
  • Groupthink
  • mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for
    harmony in a decision-making group overrides
    realistic appraisal of alternatives
  • Fed by overconfidence, conformity,
    self-justification, group polarization.

Social Relations
  • Prejudice
  • an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude
    toward a group and its members
  • involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings,
    and a predisposition to discriminatory action
  • Stereotype
  • a generalized (sometimes accurate, but often
    overgeneralized) belief about a group of people

Social Relations
  • Ingroup
  • Us- people with whom one shares a common
  • Outgroup
  • Them- those perceived as different or apart
    from ones ingroup

Social Relations
  • Ingroup Bias
  • tendency to favor ones own group
  • Scapegoat Theory
  • theory that prejudice provides an outlet for
    anger by providing someone to blame
  • Just-World Phenomenon
  • tendency of people to believe the world is just
  • people get what they deserve and deserve what
    they get

Social Relations
  • Hindsight Bias blaming the victim because there
    is a feeling they should have known better.
  • Date rape
  • Abused spouses
  • AIDS victims
  • Blaming the victim reassures people that it
    couldnt happen to them.

Social Relations
  • Aggression
  • any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt
    or destroy
  • Genetic, neural, biochemical influences
  • Frustration-Aggression Principle
  • principle that frustration the blocking of an
    attempt to achieve some goal creates anger,
    which can generate aggression

Social Relations
  • Conflict
  • perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or
  • Social Trap
  • a situation in which the conflicting parties, by
    each rationally pursuing their self-interest,
    become caught in mutually destructive behavior
  • How to get people to cooperate?
  • Regulation, communication, awareness

Social Relations
  • Mirror image perceptions how we see them they
    see us
  • Self-serving bias a readiness to perceive
    oneself favorably. Accept credit for good deeds
    and shuck blame for bad deeds.

Triangular Theory of Love Robert Sternberg (1986)
Social Relations
  • Social Exchange Theory
  • the theory that our social behavior is an
    exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize
    benefits and minimize costs
  • Superordinate Goals
  • shared goals that override differences among
    people and require their cooperation

Social Relations
  • Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in
    Tension-reduction (GRIT)
  • a strategy designed to decrease international
  • one side announces recognition of mutual
    interests and initiates a small conciliatory act
  • opens door for reciprocation by other party

Anxiety Disorders
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder-- always
    anticipating disaster, often worrying excessively
    about health, money, family, or work.
  • Phobia-- an intense and irrational fear of a
    particular object or situation
  • panic disorder-- manifests itself in the form of
    panic attacks

Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder-- uncontrollable
    pattern of thoughts is called obsession
    repeatedly performing irrational actions, which
    is called a compulsion.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder-- victims of
    traumatic events experience the original event in
    the form of dreams or flashbacks

  • somatoform disorder physical symptoms for which
    there is no apparent physical cause
  • conversion disorder
  • changing emotional difficulties into a loss
    of a specific voluntary body function
  • hypochondriasis, in which a person who is in good
    health becomes preoccupied with imaginary

  • Dissociative disorder--a disorder in which a
    person experiences alterations in memory,
    identity, or consciousness
  • Dissociative amnesia--the inability to recall
    important personal events or information usually
    associated with stressful events
  • Dissociative fugue--a dissociative disorder in
    which a person suddenly and unexpectedly travels
    away from home or work and is unable to recall
    the past
  • Dissociative identity disorder--a person exhibits
    two or more personality states, each with its own
    patterns of thinking and behaving

  • a group of disorders characterized by confused
    and disconnected thoughts, emotions, and
  • Paranoid
  • Catatonic
  • disorganized

Mood Disorders
  • Major depressive disorder--severe form of
    depression that interferes with function,
    concentration, and mental and physical
  • Bipolar disorder--disorder in which an individual
    alternates between feelings of mania (euphoria)
    and depression
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder-- There are people
    who develop a deep depression in the midst of

Personality Disorders
  • Psychologists consider people with personality
    disorders abnormal because they seem unable to
    establish meaningful relationships with other
    people, to assume social responsibilities, or to
    adapt to their social environment.

Other Disorders
  • Alcoholism
  • Drug Addiction
  • ADHD
  • Autism
  • Mental Retardation
  • Alzheimer's
  • Tourettes

  • Dementia is a word for a group of symptoms caused
    by disorders that affect the brain. It is not a
    specific disease. People with dementia may not be
    able to think well enough to do normal
    activities, such as getting dressed or eating.
    They may lose their ability to solve problems or
    control their emotions. Their personalities may
    change. They may become agitated or see things
    that are not there. Memory loss is a common
    symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by
    itself does not mean you have dementia. People
    with dementia have serious problems with two or
    more brain functions, such as memory and
  • Delirium is sudden severe confusion and rapid
    changes in brain function that occur with
    physical or mental illness. (for example, from
    lethargy to agitation and back to lethargy).

Normal Distribution Curve
Measures of Variance
  • Provide an index of how spread out scores of a
    distribution are.
  • Range subtract the lowest score from the highest
  • Standard Deviation is a measure of distance. The
    larger the standard deviation, the more spread
    out the scores are.

(No Transcript)
Correlation Coefficients
  • Describes the direction and strength of the
    relationship between two sets of observations.
  • Coefficients can have positive and negative
  • A scatterplot is a graph of participants scores
    on the two variables.
  • http//www2.cmp.uea.ac.uk/jrk/distribution/correl

Stress Appraisal
  • Richard Lazarus (1993) believes that how a person
    perceives and evaluates an event makes a
  • This is called the cognitive model of stress.
  • The level of stress you feel depends on how you
    appraise the situation.
  • Primary appraisal refers to our immediate
    evaluation of a situation.
  • There are three ways you can appraise a
    situationas irrelevant, positive, or negative.
  • A secondary appraisal involves deciding how to
    deal with a potentially stressful situation.

(No Transcript)
Stress and Illness
  • General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Selyes concept of the bodys adaptive response
    to stress in three stages

Stress and Disease
  • Lymphocytes
  • two types of white blood cells that are part of
    the bodys immune system
  • B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release
    antibodies that fight bacterial infections
  • T lymphocytes form in the thymus and, among other
    duties, attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign

Stress and Disease
  • Negative emotions and health-related consequences

Promoting Health
  • Aerobic Exercise
  • sustained exercise that increases heart and lung
  • Also best way to increase production of serotonin

Promoting Health
  • Biofeedback
  • system for electronically recording, amplifying,
    and feeding back information regarding a subtle
    physiological state
  • blood pressure
  • muscle tension


The Physiological Effects of Nicotine
Obesity and weight control
  • When people lose weight their metabolism slows
    and fat cells cry out, Feed me! much like that
    of a semi starved body.
  • Being obese can also affect self esteem
  • stereotyped
  • Ridiculed
  • Job discrimination
  • Dating

Physiology of obesity
  • Fat cells increase to 2-3 times their normal size
    and then divide. Once the number increases, due
    to genetic disposition, early childhood eating
    patterns, or adult overeating it never decreases
  • Fat tissue has low metabolic rate takes less
    food to maintain

Physiology of hunger p. 428-430
  • Body chemistry affects hunger
  • Glucose- when low we feel hungry
  • insulin- hormone that diminishes glucose by
    storing it as fat
  • Brain monitors blood chemistry (hypothalamus)
  • Lateral hypothalamus initiates hunger
  • Ventromedial hypothalamus depresses hunger

Physiology of hunger p. 428-430
  • Hypothalamus monitors leptin levels. Increases
    in leptin curbs eating and increases activity.
  • Set point bodys weight thermostat
  • To maintain set point body adjusts food intake as
    well as basal metabolic rate.
  • Basal metabolic rate bodys resting rate of
    energy expenditure

Physical and Motor Development
  • Linguistic Determinism
  • Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the
    way we think

What Are Phonemes?
  • PHONEME - shortest segment of speech, which, if
    changed, would change the meaning of a spoken

Only 60 phonemes necessary to account for all
worlds languages! English requires 48
phonemes. Hawaiian requires only 11!
What Are Morphemes?
Morpheme - the shortest unit of spoken or
written language that carries meaning
Some morphemes are phonemes (e.g., I and a)
Most are combos of 2 or more phonemes
Some morphemes are words (e.g., bat)
What Is A Grammar?
Grammar - a system of rules (called semantics and
syntax) that enables us to communicate and
understand others
Rules we use to derive meaning from
morphemes, words sentences (-ed past tense)
Rules used to order words into sentences
Theories of Language Development
Nature vs Nurture
Language develops due to association, imitation
and reinforcement (Operant Conditioning)
B.F. Skinner
Rate of learning cannot be explained solely by
learning principles Brains are prewired with
a Universal Grammar suitable for all languages
and dialects
Noam Chomsky
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Renee Baillargeon
  • Found 4 month old infants will look longer at a
    ball if it appears to roll through a solid
    barrier, demonstrating that babies seem to grasp
    basic physical laws intuitively.
  • This challenged Piagets theory of object
    permanence in Sensorimotor Stage (cognitive

Kohlbergs Moral Ladder
  • As moral development progresses, the focus of
    concern moves from the self to the wider social

Morality of abstract principles to
affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical
Postconventional level
Conventional level
Morality of law and social rules to
gain approval or avoid disapproval
Preconventional level
Morality of self-interest to avoid punishment or
gain concrete rewards
Carol Gilligans Critique of Kohlberg
  • Gilligan argues that Kohlbergs rule-oriented
    conception of morality has an orientation toward
    justice, which she implies is due to
    stereotypical male thinking, whereas girls and
    women are more likely to approach moral dilemmas
    with a care orientation (Matthews, 1994).
  • Gilligan argues that moral reasoning of males is
    primarily based on rational abstract principles,
    whereas the moral reasoning of females is based
    on relationships and the social context.
  • She bases her criticism on two things. First,
    that Kohlberg only studied privileged white boys
    and men causing, in her opinion, a biased opinion
    against women. Second, in his stage theory of
    moral development, the male view of individual
    rights and rules was considered a higher stage
    than womens point of view of development in
    terms of its caring effect on human

Eriksons Stages of Psychological Development
  • The stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and
    Genital) represent patterns of gratifying our
    basic needs and satisfying our drive for physical
  • Insufficient or excess gratification during any
    stage could cause a person to reflect the stage
    throughout life.

Oral (0-18 mo.) Pleasure center is mouth sucking, chewing, biting.
Anal (18 mo-36 mo) focus on gaining control, bowel and bladder elimination retention as form of control.
Phallic (3-6 yr) Pleasure zone is in the genitals, focus on coping with incestuous sexual feelings (Oedipus complex, Electra complex)
Latency (6-puberty) Repressed sexual feelings (Identify with same sex parent if you cant beat them, join them)
Genital (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests
Stage Issues
  • During the Phallic Stage, The Oedipus complex
    occurs due to boys feelings of guilt for love of
    mother and fear of castration.
  • During Oral Stage, deprivation or overindulgence
    may result in adult oral fixations or have
    dependence issues (being either passive and
    clingy or by acting tough and using biting
    sarcasm may also have need to fulfill oral
    fixations by excessively eating or smoking.)

  • If Anal Stage is not resolved, may result in an
    anal expulsive (messy, unorganized) or anal
    retentive (controlled compulsively neat)
About PowerShow.com