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Native and Colonial America

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Title: Native and Colonial America


1
Native and Colonial America
  • Unit I
  • AP U.S. History

2
Bering Sea Land Bridge Migration
3
Natives
  • Nomads
  • Agriculturally-based (maize/corn)
  • Hopewells/Mississippian
  • Moundbuilders
  • Iroquois
  • Iroquois Confederacy

4
Native Map of North America
5
Europe
  • Renaissance (rebirth)
  • Growth of Nation-States (England, France, Spain,
    Portugal)
  • Protestant Reformation and Religious Wars
  • Lutheranism
  • Calvinism - predestination
  • Church of England aka Anglican Church
  • Catholic Counter-Reformation

6
European Colonization
  • Columbus in 1492 spearheads European intervention
    into America
  • Relations with natives
  • Spain
  • Encomienda system and asiento system
  • England
  • France

7
Smallpox
8
Columbian Exchange
9
Treaty of Tordesillas
10
European Colonies
11
England
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a
    superior naval power
  • Population increases
  • Joint-stock companies develop
  • Religious conflicts divide the nation
  • Weak monarchs, civil wars, and revolutions

12
English Colonies
  • Charters
  • Corporate Colony
  • Granted a charter to stockholders
  • Ex. Virginia
  • Proprietary Colony
  • Granted a charter to individual or group
  • Ex. Maryland, Pennsylvania
  • Royal Colony
  • Under direct control of the monarch
  • Ex. New Hampshire
  • Eventually, 8 of the 13 colonies became royal
    colonies, including Virginia and Massachusetts

13
The First English Colonies
  • First Attempt Roanoke in 1585
  • First Permanent Jamestown, Virginia in 1607
  • John Smith he that will not work shall not
    eat
  • John Rolfe - tobacco

14
Who is this?
15
Oh yeahPocahontas
16
Disneys John Smith
17
Hollywoods John Smith
18
This is John Smith.
19
Pilgrims
  • Separatists to Holland then head for Virginia
  • Mayflower takes Separatists and others to
    Jamestown but weather complicates matters
  • Settlers decide to remain and establish Plymouth
    - 1620

20
Mayflower Compact
21
The Mayflower (II)
22
Look, a big rock.
23
Wampanoag Dwelling
24
Plymouth Colony
25
Pulpit/Religion
26
Thirteen Colonies
27
New England
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony and Puritans (1630)
  • John Winthrop and city upon a hill
  • Providence, Rhode Island, and Roger Williams
    (1636)
  • Wall of separation
  • Portsmouth and Anne Hutchinson (1638)
  • Antinomianism
  • Hartford, New Haven, Connecticut, and Thomas
    Hooker (1636-1637)
  • New Hampshire (1679)

28
New England Culture
  • Massachusetts under strict Puritanical lifestyle
  • Religious toleration and dissent lead to Rhode
    Island
  • Halfway Covenant attempt to increase members
  • Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693)
  • Cotton Mather
  • Spectral evidence
  • Education by mothers
  • Towns with over 50 families required primary
    schools 100, grammar schools

29
New England Politics
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
  • First written constitution in America
  • New England Confederation (1643-1684)
  • Defense alliance among Plymouth, Massachusetts,
    Connecticut, New Haven
  • King Philips (Metacom) War (1675-1676)
  • New England Confederation defeats Wampanoag
    alliance

30
Middle Colonies
  • New Amsterdam transferred to Duke of York in 1664
    to become New York
  • Lands taken from New York to establish New Jersey
    by 1702
  • Develop wheat and corn farms and eventually into
    manufacturing and trade
  • Delaware created by Pennsylvania (1702)
  • Education by private or churches

31
Pennsylvania
  • William Penn establishes Quaker-based colony in
    Pennsylvania (1681)
  • Religious Society of Friends aka Quakers
  • Holy Experiment
  • Religious refuge
  • Liberal political ideals
  • Economic success
  • Frame of Government and Charter of Liberties

32
Southern Colonies
  • Maryland (1634)
  • Virginia (1607)
  • Carolinas (1663)
  • North Carolina (1729)
  • South Carolina (1729)
  • Georgia (1732)
  • Limited education due to agricultural base

33
Virginia
  • House of Burgesses in 1619
  • First legislative assembly in the colonies
  • Becomes royal colony in 1624
  • Bacons Rebellion (1676)
  • Inequities between large landowners and western
    farmers
  • Nathanial Bacon vs. William Berkeley
  • Headright System
  • 50 acres to each paying immigrant or plantation
    owner who paid for immigrant

34
Maryland
  • Lord Baltimore establishes colony for Catholics
  • Act of Toleration (1649)
  • Toleration of all Christian sects
  • Death to those who denied Jesus
  • Religious civil war brought control to Protestants

35
Carolinas
  • North Carolina
  • Tobacco plantations
  • Well-established autonomy
  • South Carolina
  • Rice plantations
  • Became heavily dependent on slavery

36
Georgia
  • James Oglethorpe establishes in 1732
  • Social experiment
  • Defensive buffer to Spanish Florida
  • Debtors colony

37
Colonial Religion
  • Diverse among colonies regarding strict adherence
    and religious toleration
  • Domination by Protestants little influence of
    Anglican Church other sects and denominations
    viewed as bizarre
  • The Great Awakening (1730s-1740s)
  • Over time, economics became prominent over
    religious conviction
  • Jonathan Edwards and Sinners in the Hands of an
    Angry God
  • George Whitefield
  • Development of evangelism and individual faith

38
Colonial Religion
39
Colonial Politics
  • Limited Self-Government
  • Elected legislative assemblies
  • Governors
  • Voting
  • Limited to adult male educated and/or property
    owners

40
Colonial Culture/Society
Rural
Urban
41
Colonial Society
  • American Social Structure
  • Wealthy landowners
  • Merchants
  • Small farmers
  • Craftspeople
  • Opportunity
  • Less dependent on heredity
  • Gender Roles
  • Men
  • Patriarchal society, landowners, workers
  • Women
  • Submissive to men but respected, domestic
    responsibilities, limited to no political rights

42
Colonial American Culture
  • Becoming American
  • Pragmatism
  • Dominance of English culture
  • Folkways
  • Differed by coast/frontier, New
    England/Middle/Southern colonies

43
Colonial Culture - The Arts
  • Architecture
  • Early colonies centered around a church
  • Urban structures typical of English structures
  • Frontier log cabins
  • Painting
  • Portrait painters and landscapes
  • Literature
  • Religious sermons, political essays, non-fiction
    books
  • Poor Richards Almanac - Benjamin Franklin

44
Typical Colony Layout
45
Colonial Culture - Education and Information
  • Learning
  • Prominent in New England colonies
  • Education limited to wealthy males females
    learned domestic chores
  • Newspapers
  • Limited content on weekly basis
  • John Peter Zenger case (1735)

46
Immigration
  • 250,000 in 1701 to 2.5 million in 1775
  • Europeans and Africans along with a high birth
    rate
  • Reasons religion economics political turmoil
  • English, Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch), Scottish,
    Irish, Dutch, Swedish ? OLD IMMIGRANTS
  • Africans forced to America suffered
    discrimination and slave labor

47
Slavery
  • Indentured servitude
  • Labor shortages lead to importing slaves
  • Cheap labor
  • Dependable work force
  • Stono Rebellion/Cato Rebellion 1739 in South
    Carolina
  • New York Conspiracy - 1741
  • Slave laws

48
Slave Demographics
49
Mercantilism and Triangle Trade
  • Colonies for the Mother Country
  • Acts of Navigation
  • Trade on English ships
  • Imports pass English ports
  • Exports to England
  • Triangular Trade
  • Middle Passage

50
Dominion of New England (1686-1689)
  • Established by King James II to consolidate
    colonies
  • Administrative union of Massachusetts, New
    Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York,
    New Jersey
  • Governor Edmund Andros
  • Dissolution

51
Colonial Economics
  • Land was gold
  • No established monetary system (gold and silver)
  • Transportation
  • Rivers and coasts
  • Horse and carriage led to taverns and postal
    services
  • New England
  • Limited land led to shipbuilding, fishing,
    trading
  • Middle Colonies
  • Wheat and corn fields manufacturing and trade
  • Southern Colonies
  • Tobacco, rice, indigo plantations based on forced
    labor

52
(No Transcript)
53
PUROPOSE DATE FOUNDER MAJOR EXPORT
VIRGINIA commercial 1607 Virginia Company John Smith Tobacco
PLYMOUTH/ MASSACHUSETTS Religious refuge/ commercial 1620/ 1628 William Bradford/ Massachusetts Bay Company John Winthrop Grain, timber
NEW YORK commercial 1613 (1664) Peter Stuveysant (Duke of York) Furs, grain
NEW HAMPSHIRE commercial 1623 John Mason Timber, naval stores
RHODE ISLAND Religious refuge 1636 Roger Williams Grain
CONNECTICUT expansion 1635 Thomas Hooker Grain
PENNSYLVANIA Religious refuge 1681 William Penn - Quakers Grain
DELAWARE commercial 1638 (1681) Peter Minuit/ William Penn Grain
MARYLAND Religious refuge 1634 Lord Baltimore - Catholics Tobacco
NORTH CAROLINA commercial 1663 Anthony Cooper Tobacco, timber, naval stores
SOUTH CAROLINA commercial 1663 Anthony Cooper Rice, indigo, naval stores
GEORGIA Buffer, experiment 1733 James Oglethorpe Rice, timber, naval stores
() - Becomes an English colony
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