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Secondary or Targeted Interventions

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Title: Secondary or Targeted Interventions


1
Secondary or Targeted Interventions
  • George Sugai
  • Center on PBIS
  • University of Connecticut
  • George.sugai_at_uconn.edu
  • www.pbis.org

2
Example
  • Ms. Taken believes that 8 of her 29 students
    need individualized behavior intervention plans.
    After your observations, you note (a) managing 8
    individualized behavior intervention plans will
    be difficult (b) effective classroom management
    practices are not being used. What would you
    recommend?

3
Example 2
  • Special educator school counselor at AE Neuman
    School report that 11 of students are at risk of
    school failure because of problem behavior. Since
    they are halftime staff members, they are worried
    about being able to support those students with
    more intensive interventions. What would you
    recommend?

4
Question
  • How do we provide efficient individualized
    behavior support when behaviors of number of
    students are unresponsive to school/classroom-wide
    approaches?

5
Possible Solution
  • Standardized, function-based intervention
    package that is applied to relatively small
    number of students

WARNING Successful Implementation
requires school-wide PBS specialized
behavioral capacity
6
Social Competence Academic Achievement
Positive Behavior Support
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
DATA
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
PRACTICES
Supporting Student Behavior
7
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
80 of Students
8
Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., Lynn, N. (2006).
School-based mental health An empirical guide
for decision makers. Tampa, FL University of
South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental
Health Institute, Department of Child Family
Studies, Research Training Center for
Childrens Mental Health. http//rtckids.fmhi.usf.
eduCrone, D. A., Horner, R. H. (2003).
Building positive behavior support systems in
schools Functional behavioral assessment. New
York Guildford Press.Crone, D. A., Horner, R.
H., Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem
behavior in schools The behavior education
program. New York Guilford Press.
9
What prerequisites are needed?
  • Effective school-wide or primary system of
    positive behavior support
  • Local behavioral competence
  • Function-based approach
  • Faculty agreement to support all students
  • Regular leadership team-based review problem
    solving
  • Discipline/behavior incident data management
    system
  • District start-up resources

10
What is function based support?
  • Foundations in behavioral theory, applied
    behavior analysis, pbs
  • Attention to environmental context
  • Emphasis on purpose or function of behavior
  • Focus on teaching behaviors
  • Attention to implementers (adult behaviors)
    redesign of teaching learning environments.

11
Functions
Pos Reinf
Neg Reinf
12
Behavior Support Elements
Response class Routine analysis Hypothesis
statement Function
Alternative behaviors Competing behavior
analysis Contextual fit Strengths,
preferences, lifestyle outcomes Evidence-based
interventions
Problem Behavior
Functional Assessment
Implementation support Data plan
  • Team-based
  • Behavior competence

Intervention Support Plan
Continuous improvement Sustainability plan
Fidelity of Implementation
Impact on Behavior Lifestyle
13
Common Secondary Intervention Features
  • Regular function-based screening
  • Direct student orientation, training, practice,
    review
  • Link to SW expectations, routines, etc.
  • Link to academic programming expectations

14
Secondary cont.
  • Daily-weekly monitoring, review, evaluations
    with adult
  • Regular, overt, frequent opportunities for
    positive reinforcement
  • Individualized academic behavioral targets,
    accommodations

15
Secondary cont.
  • Daily-weekly home-school communications
  • Behavioral contracting
  • Self-management strategies

16
Examples
  • Behavior Education Program
  • Fern Ridge Middle School, OR
  • Check-in Check-out
  • Bethel School District, OR
  • H.U.G.
  • Tualatin Elementary School, OR
  • Social Skills Club
  • Missouri
  • Think Time
  • University of Nebraska

17
Example FRMS Behavior Education Plan (BEP)
  • SW system of behavior support in place
  • Relatively small (10-20) students not
    responding to SW
  • Need for efficient specialized support system

18
Basic BEP Cycle
  • Morning check-in
  • Prior to each period, give BEP to teacher
  • End of day check-out
  • Points tallied reward
  • Copy of BEP form taken home signed
  • Return signed copy next morning

19
FRMS Behavior Education Plan (BEP)(Hawkin,
Horner, March, 2002)
Referral, Assessment, Orientation
20
Behavior Education PlanDaily Progress Report
21
Identification Referral
  • Multiple office referrals
  • Recommendations by
  • Teacher
  • Parent
  • Time to action 30 min to 7 days

22
Contract
  • Agreement to succeed
  • Student
  • Parent
  • BEP coordinator
  • Teachers
  • Written (pref.) or verbal contract

23
Organization Structure
  • BEP Coordinator
  • Chair BEP meetings, faculty contact, evaluation
  • BEP Specialist
  • Check-in, check-out, meeting, data entry, graphs
  • Coordinator Specialist 10 hrs/wk

24
  • BEP meeting 40 min/wk
  • Coordinator, specialist, sped faculty, related
    Services
  • All staff commitment training
  • Simple data collection reporting system.

25
Data Collection for Decision-Making
  • Monitor BEP points earned each day
  • Office discipline referrals
  • Regular data use by BEP team

26
Daily Data Used for Decision Making
27
Daily Data Used for Decision Making
28
Functional Assessment
  • Pre-functional assessment interview
  • Defines
  • Problem behaviors
  • Routines where problems most likely
  • Hypothesis statement
  • Triggers, behaviors, consequences
  • Function

29
Functions
30
Importance of Functional Assessment in BEP
31
Importance of Functional Assessment in BEP
32
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33
(No Transcript)
34
HUG Hello, Update, Goodbye
  • Pam Hallvik, Nancy Ferguson, Sally Helton
  • Tigard-Tualatin Schools

35
H.U.G. (Hello, Update, Goodbye)
Name ____________________________ Date
________________ Please indicate whether the
student has met the goal during the time period
indicated Meets 2 pts So, so 1
point Doesnt meet 0 pts HUG Daily
Goal _____/_____ HUG Daily Score
_____/_____ Teacher Comments Please state
briefly any specific behaviors or achievements
that demonstrate the students progress.
Goals AM to Recess AM Recess AM Recess to Lunch Lunch Recess PM
Be Safe J K L J K L J K L J K L J K L
Be Kind J K L J K L J K L J K L J K L
Be Responsible J K L J K L J K L J K L J K L
Total Points          
Teacher Initials          
Parents Signature _______________________________
____ Parents Comments ___________________________
______________________________ ___________________
__________________________________________________
_____
36
H.U.G. Program
  • WHAT AND WHY?
  • The H.U.G. Program is a means to respond
    positively to students who need extra support
    with their behavior. On a daily basis, staff can
    teach them appropriate behaviors and provide them
    with opportunities to practice as they move from
    activity to activity. Additionally, the H.U.G.
    Program provides for reinforcement and positive
    attention from adults. The H.U.G. Program also
    provides for daily communication between a
    student and his/her teacher and between the
    school and parents. Additionally, data is
    collected to determine whether the program is
    successful or whether changes need to be made.
  • The H.U.G. Program was designed to facilitate
    positive interactions between at-risk students
    and significant adults, teach good behavior
    skills, and provide a means for home-school
    communication. The H.U.G. check-in creates a
    safe space for these students they come to trust
    and respect the adults who are consistently there
    for them. The program does not include negative
    consequences or punishment, just encouragement
    and positive attention. Parents are asked to
    provide reinforcement at home when the H.U.G.
    goal is met and consistently offer feedback and
    encouragement to their sons or daughters.
  • HOW?
  • The H.U.G. Program consists of a plan and process
    that allow students to
  • Check-in with a significant adult before school
  • Carry a tracking form
  • Ask their teacher to rate their behavior
  • Check-out at the end of each day
  • Take the form home to parents
  • Return the H.U.G. form the next morning

37
Hello - Morning
  • All H.U.G. students will check in at counselors
    office between 800 830 each morning. At that
    time they will receive following
  • Positive, sincere greeting
  • Check to see if they are prepared for day (lunch
    ticket, materials, etc.)
  • Check to learn how they are feeling (any morning
    conflicts?)
  • Collection of returned H.U.G. form signed by
    parents
  • Verbal reinforcement for returning signed form
    possibly accompanied by sticker or small reward
  • New H.U.G. form

38
Update - During Day
  • Student give H.U.G. form to his or her teacher
    on arrival to class
  • Teacher will rate students behavior at times
    indicated on form offer brief, positive comment
    to student about rating.
  • Adults in other setting, such as PE, Music,
    recess, etc., will complete ratings for time
    period they have students.

39
Goodbye - End of Day
  • Students will return with their H.U.G. forms to
    counselors room at 225 each day
  • Students will again receive positive, sincere
    greeting
  • Counselor or H.U.G. assistant will check to see
    whether student met his/her goal.
  • If so, student will receive small reward.
  • If not, student will receive encouragement to try
    again tomorrow along with problem-solving
    discussion of what they might do differently.
  • Students will put their H.U.G. forms into their
    backpacks to take home to share with their
    parents.
  • Parents are asked to also give positive feedback
    to their children. Parents then sign form put
    it in students backpack for return to school.

40
H.U.G. Participant Responsibilities
H.U.G. Coordinator Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Facilitate the check-in and check-out process. Provide H.U.G. participants with positive, constructive feedback and small tangible rewards. Instruct involved staff members on the use of the HUG form. Collect, summarize, and report H.U.G. data each week. Teachers Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Accept H.U.G. Report Form daily from students. Evaluate student behaviors and complete the form. Offer constructive and positive feedback to students.
Parents of H.U.G. Participants Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Review H.U.G. Progress Report with child daily. Provide positive and constructive feedback. Communicate with the school when there are concerns or celebrations regarding the students behavior. H.U.G. Student Participants Follow all H.U.G. Program Guidelines. Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. GIVE IT YOUR BEST!!!!
41
H.U.G Program Contract Agreement
  • I have read the H.U.G. Team Members
    Responsibilities Form. I understand that my
    signature indicates that I am willing to
    participate in the H.U.G. Program and fulfill all
    my responsibilities.
  • Student signature ___________________ Date
    ______
  • Parent(s) signature(s) _________________ Date
    ______
  • Teacher signature ____________________ Date
    ______
  • Administrator signature ________________ Date
    ______
  • H.U.G. Coordinator signature _____________Date
    ______
  • Copies will be given to all H.U.G. participants.
    Thank you for your participation and support!!!

42
RTI Secondary Intervention in classroom
  • Fairbanks, Sugai, Guardino, Lathrop
  • (2007, EC)

43
RTI
  • Increasing intervention intensity based on
    responsiveness to effective interventions
  • Check In/Out at classroom level

44
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
80 of Students
45
Check In/Out Pt Card
Name____________________ Date ____________
GOALS 830 930 1030 1130 1230 130
1. RESPECT OTHERS 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
2. MANAGE SELF 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3. SOLVE PROBLEMS RESPONSIBLY 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
Rating Scale 2 Great 1 Ok 0 Goal Not Met
Goal _____ Pts Possible _____ Pts Received_____
of Pts _____ Goal Met? Y N
46
Class B Results
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

School Days
47
Class B Results Composite Peers
Peer
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
Peer
Peer
School Days
48
Study 2 Results
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
School Days
49
Summary Statement of Problem Behavior
Contingencies across Students
Setting Events Antecedents Behavior(s) of Interest Consequences
Marcellus N/A (a) Easy unstructured activities (b) Difficult math and writing tasks (a) Out of seat making faces (b) Talk outs, out of seat, work not completed (a) Peer attention (b) Escape work
Blair N/A Independent work time Out of seat talking to peers Peer adult attention
Ben N/A Teacher-led instruction When given direction. Non-compliance, talk outs, making jokes Peer adult attention
Olivia Thinking about the loss of her sibling During teacher- led instruction Playing with things, not looking at teacher, not following directions Teacher attention
50
Study 2 Results Composite Peer
Peer
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
Peer
Peer
Peer
School Days
51
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52
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54
Secondary-Targeted Interventions Checklist(draft)
55
Targeted InterventionsSelf-Assessment
  • Foundations
  • Leadership
  • Implementation Processes
  • Intervention Features

56
Foundations
  • SW discipline (practices systems) approach is
    positive preventive, especially, expectations
    taught acknowledged directly regularly
  • Funding sources to cover activities for at least
    3 years can be identified
  • Majority of staff support efforts to assist
    students w/ problem behaviors

57
Foundations
  • Policy procedural handbook developed
    endorsed.
  • Administrative staff are active participants
    supporters.
  • Intervention is linked directly to SW
    expectations academic goals

58
Leadership Team
  • Team is in place to develop, manage, support
    implementation
  • Team meets weekly to monitor implementation
  • Team has knowledge fluency with function-based
    approach to behavior support
  • Team collects uses student data to guide
    decision making provides report to school
    quarterly

59
Implementation
  • General grade level screening data review occur
    on quarterly basis to identify possible
    participants
  • Intervention is available continuously daily
  • Intervention is accessible within 24 hours
  • Implementation by teachers is efficient low
    effort

60
Implementation
  • All staff are involved in implementation of
    intervention
  • Features of intervention are based on data from
    functional behavioral assessment
  • Monitoring is continuous to guide decision making
  • More specialized interventions are available for
    students who do not benefit

61
Intervention Features
  • Initial participation agreements (behavioral
    contract) are made by school, student, parents
  • Students receive direct regular orientation,
    training, practice, review of operating
    procedures expectations
  • Self-recording tool is used by students to
    monitor progress provide feedback

62
Intervention Features
  • Student has morning afternoon contact with
    adults for precorrections, review, feedback
  • Daily-weekly progress reports are given to
    parents
  • Student has opportunity for positive
    reinforcement that is at least hourly
  • Relevant effective acknowledgements (positive
    reinforcers) are available

63
Example
  • Ms. Taken believes that 8 of her 29 students
    need individualized behavior intervention plans.
    After your observations, you note (a) managing 8
    individualized behavior intervention plans will
    be difficult (b) effective classroom management
    practices are not being used. What would you
    recommend?

64
Example 2
  • Special educator school counselor at AE Neuman
    School report that 11 of students are at risk of
    school failure because of problem behavior. Since
    they are halftime, they are worried about being
    able to support those students with more
    intensive interventions. What would you recommend?
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