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Review Ancient World

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Title: Review Ancient World


1
Review Ancient World
2
Vocabulary
  • 1. Cultural Diffusion Exchange of goods, customs
    and ideas among cultures.
  • 2. Neolithic Revolution Changing in the way man
    got food. From hunting and gathering to
    domesticating of animals.
  • 3. Polytheistic Belief in many gods.

3
Early People Paleolithic Era
4
How did they gather food?
  • Moved from place to place, hunting and gathering
    (nomads)

5
How did they adapt to their environment?
  • Made simple tools and weapons. Used fire for
    warmth and cooking.
  • Developed language.

6
What were their spiritual beliefs?
  • Began burying their dead with care.
  • Showed they believed in the afterlife.

7
Describe the patterns of migration.
  • Belief that earliest people lived in East Africa.
  • Old Stone Age, people migrated North and South
    into Europe and Asia.
  • Eventually some migrated over the land bridge
    into North America.

8
Causes of the Neolithic Revolution
  • 1. Warm weather allowed plants to grow where ice
    was.
  • 2. Learning how to domesticate plants and
    animals.

9
How did the Neolithic Revolution change lives?
  • Lived in permanent settlements as they no longer
    had to move from place to place.

10
Characteristics of Early Civilizations
11
Cities and Government
  • Cities developed in river valleys where crops can
    be grown.
  • Governments set up to avoid chaos, making sure
    food was produced for everyone.

12
Traditional Economy
  • Based on farming.
  • Skilled craftspeople.

13
System of writing
  • Early writing was done with pictures (simple
    drawings).

14
Job Specialization and Social Classes
  • People specialized in 1 job because you couldnt
    master all of them.
  • People became ranked by their job.

15
Art and Architecture
  • Temples and Palaces.

16
Early River Valley Civilizations
17
Egypt
  • Geographic Setting
  • Along the Nile River.

18
  • Religion
  • Polytheistic (many Gods).

19
  • Government
  • Pharaoh was ruler. Usually passed on to a family
    member.
  • Ruling families were called dynasties.

20
  • Social Structure
  • Pharaoh and family highest.
  • Bottom was peasant farmers and slaves.
  • Women had higher status than most in ancient
    times.

21
  • Contributions
  • Learned about human body.
  • Diagnose illnesses and performed surgery.
  • Calendar.
  • System of writing.
  • Temples and Pyramids.

22
Mesopotamia
23
  • Geographic Setting
  • Fertile Crescent by Tigris and Euphrates.

24
  • Religion
  • Many powerful Gods and Goddesses closely tied to
    nature.

25
  • Government
  • Hereditary ruler who was seen as the chief
    servant of Gods.

26
  • Social Structure
  • Distinct social classes.
  • Highest was the ruling classes.

27
Economy
  • Grew rich from trade.
  • Traders traveled along the river and over the
    desert.

28
Contributions
  • 1st wheeled vehicle.
  • Irrigation systems.
  • Cuneiform.
  • Developed algebra and geometry.

29
Significance of Code of Hammurabi
  • 1st major collection of laws in history.
  • Favored higher classes.
  • Eye for an eye

30
Indus River Valley
  • Geography
  • Indian Subcontinent.
  • Surrounded in north by mountains, limiting
    contact.
  • Relied on monsoons to bring rain.

31
Important Cities
  • Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
  • Built with a grid like system with each city
    dominated by a structure on a hill.

32
China
  • Geographic Setting
  • River Valleys of the Huang He (Yellow) and Yangzi)

33
Government
  • Clans controlled land.
  • Set up dynasties.

34
Contributions
  • Written systems (pictographs)

35
  • Classical Civilizations

36
Mandate of Heaven
  • Right to rule by God. China and their dynasties.

37
Asoka
  • Peaceful ruler of the Maurya dynasty. (India)

38
Direct Democracy
  • People actually vote directly for laws.

39
Hellenistic
  • Blending of cultures of Persia, Greece, India and
    Egypt.

40
Republic
  • Officials chosen by the people to represent them
    and make decisions.

41
Senate
  • Most powerful governing body of the Roman
    Republic.

42
Patrician
  • Members of landholding upper class in Rome.

43
Plebian
  • Most of the population in Rome (farmers,
    merchants, artisans, traders).

44
Pax Romana
  • 200 year period of peace in Rome.

45
Laws of 12 tables
  • Written laws demanded by Plebeians in Rome.

46
Silk Road
  • Trade route connecting China and Mesopotamia.

47
Ancient Chinese Civilizations
48
How does a dynasty lose its Mandate of Heaven?
  • When things start happening or the government
    starts doing things that make people angry.
  • Examples include when they treat people unfairly,
    and they stop protecting people, so things like
    floods, earthquakes, peasant revolts happen.

49
Contributions of China
  • Zhou dynasty
  • how to make books, silk, accurate calendar.
  • Han Dynasty
  • Paper out of wood pulp.
  • Wheelbarrow.
  • Rudder.
  • Anesthesia.
  • Texts in zoology, botany and chemistry.

50
Who was Asoka? Why is he important?
  • He followed Buddhism, turning India to Buddhism
    when he was leader.
  • He united the diverse people of the empire.

51
Contributions of the Mauryan Empire
  • United the Empire.
  • Learning was highly advanced.
  • Spreading of the Buddhist religion by means of
    missionary activity.

52
Describe the geography role in economics and
politics in Greece.
  • Politically Separated them into city-states
    rather than a large empire because of the
    mountains, valleys and islands.
  • Economically Used seas to trade/communicate with
    the rest of the world.

53
Compare and Contrast Sparta and Athens
  • Athens Limited Democracy, Laws made by the
    assembly, only male citizens in the assembly,
    Trade with other city-states, education for boys,
    Women inferior.
  • Sparta Monarchy with two kings, military
    society, trade and travel not allowed, military
    training for all boys, girls trained to be
    mothers of soldiers, women obey men, women own
    property.
  • Both Common language, shared heroes, Olympic
    games, same gods and religious beliefs.

54
What effect did Alexander the Greats conquests
have on the world?
  • Created the Hellenistic culture. (4 cultures)

55
Greek and Hellenistic Contributions
  • Philosophy Tried to use observation and reason.
  • Literature Comedies and playwrights.
  • Art and Architecture Columns.
  • Science Levers and pulleys, earth rotates around
    the sun.
  • Math Pythagoras Theorem, Geometry.

56
How does Greek Civilization affect us today?
  • Math
  • Democracy.
  • Columns.

57
How did the geography of Rome contribute to its
development as a power?
  • It had low mountains which allowed people to
    unite because they had few natural barriers.
  • Fertile plains allowed for the growing population
    to be fed.
  • The location of the growing peninsula allowed
    people to move easily through the lands of the
    Mediterranean.

58
The Roman Empire
  • Military Power
  • Strong and well disciplined army.

59
  • Economy
  • Controlled trade routed through Mediterranean.

60
Fall of Roman Empire
  • Political
  • Too big.
  • Government too strict.
  • Corruption of officials.

61
  • Economic Causes
  • High Taxes.
  • Farmers leave land.
  • Middle class disappears.
  • Too much slave labor.

62
  • Military Causes
  • Foreign Invasion.
  • Lack of training and discipline in army.
  • Hired foreign soldiers who didnt have incentive.

63
  • Social Causes
  • Population declines.
  • People become lazy and selfish.

64
Belief Systems
65
Animism
  • Belief everything has a spirit.

66
Brahman
  • Belief of Hindus looking for 1 unifying spirit.

67
Reincarnation
  • Rebirth of the soul in a new body.

68
Karma
  • All the deeds of a persons life that affect
    his/her existence in new life.

69
Dharma
  • Moral and religious duties expected of a person.

70
Nirvana
  • Union with universe and release of the cycle of
    birth and death.

71
Monotheism
  • Belief in 1 God.

72
Torah
  • Jewish holy book.

73
Bible
  • Christian Holy book.

74
Hijra
  • Mohammads journey to Mecca.

75
Quran (Koran)
  • Islamic holy book.

76
Sharia
  • Following the Koran very strictly by Muslims.

77
Diaspora
  • Scattering of Jews.

78
Describe the process by which a Hindu reaches
salvation.
  • People are born into higher levels because they
    do good.

79
Explain how the caste system is an important part
of the Hindu religious experience.
  • You are born into and out of but dont move
    during your life.
  • If you do good, you will move up.

80
Buddhism
  • Founder Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
  • All life is suffering.
  • Four Noble truths
  • All life is suffering.
  • Suffering is caused by desire.
  • Ways to eliminate suffering is eliminated desire.
  • Follow 8 fold path to eliminate desire.

81
How does one achieve salvation?
  • Reach nirvana.

82
Confucianism
  • People need to accept their place in society.
  • These places were expressed in 5 key
    relationships.
  • None of the relationships are equal.
  • Every person had duties and responsibilities that
    depended on his position.
  • To ensure social order, the individual must find
    and accept his proper place in society.

83
Taoism
  • Goal Live in harmony with nature.
  • Salvation By yielding and acceptance.
  • Yin and Yang Brings peace and well-being of the
    universe.
  • Yin stands for earth, darkness and female forces.
  • Yang stands for heaven, light and male forces.

84
Judaism
  • Important aspect of Judaism
  • 1 God.
  • Torah.
  • 10 Commandments (moral code)
  • Strong code of Ethics.

85
Islam
  • Founder Mohammad.
  • Sacred Text Quran
  • 5 Pillars
  • 1 God, Allah.
  • Pray 5 xs a day.
  • Give money to poor.
  • Fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
  • Visit Mecca 1 time in life.
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