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Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations

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Title: Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations


1
Unit 1 From Pre-History to Early Civilizations
  • Chapter 3 Ancient India

A
2
Section I Indus Valley Civilization(Pages
48-55)
  • This section is about
  • The development and the decline of the Indus
    Valley civilization.
  • The archeological evidence of the economic and
    cultural life of the people of Harappa and
    Mohenjo Daro.

A
3
  • Some questions for our class
  • Who am I? (you - not this guy)
  • What am I to do?
  • How should I see things?
  • Read the text on page 48 in our books.
  • And, look at the picture on page 49
  • What else should we do before we move on?

A
4
Lets be active readers (top right of page 50)
  • What else should we do?
  • Look at vocabulary words
  • Look at the Main Ideas
  • Check out the pictures
  • Check out the headings (in red in our book)

A
5
What we often call the India sub-continent is
really 3 places today India / Pakistan /
Bangladesh
The South-Central section of Asia
2
The Himalaya Mountains (biggest mountains on
earth)
1
Indo-Gangetic Plain (Farming Indus and Ganges
Rivers)
The Western Ghats
The Eastern Ghats
Desert
3
Deccan Plateau (raised area of level land)
A
6
The weather in this region
  • Has a lot of monsoons heavy winds with very
    heavy rainfall.
  • Last from early June to early October
  • Some places (East side) get as much as 450 inches
    of rain a year.
  • The people depend on the rain for water for their
    farms, but too much rain is a problem.
  • The rest of the year has cooler, dryer weather
  • India can also get very hot up to the 120s in
    the desert

A
7
A
8
Indias first great civilization (3500 B.C.) is
called
  • The Indus Valley Civilization they were around
    for about 1000 years and then vanished.
  • Traders wove cotton, made jewelry and
    furniture, cooking utensils, writing sticks, back
    scratchers, dice, and game pieces.
  • Famers grew wheat, barley, cotton, and fruit
  • Both used stone, copper, and bronze tools.
  • It seems they also traded with other cultures at
    times.

A
9
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro(archeologists started
digging at the oldest Indian settlements we know
of about 1921)
  • Both about 1 square mile, similar layouts, and
    careful planning.
  • In the center a huge fortress on a hill
    called a citadel
  • Inside a bath house, grain storage area, and a
    residential building
  • Why are these inside?
  • Streets ran parallel to each other - to do all
    this must have taken great planning.

A
10
  • Brick homes
  • Some small (one room) others large (even with
    court-yards and private wells for drinking and
    bath water).
  • People lived in areas according to their jobs.
  • The most advance plumbing in the world water
    and sewer pipes running under the streets

A
11
These people must have also been traders
5
  • Indus Valley goods have also been found in other
    areas and goods from other areas have been found
    there.
  • They must have used the oceans and the many
    rivers in the area.
  • Indian pottery even has been found in
    Mesopotamia.
  • Archeologists have also found games, toys (clay
    monkey that would slide down a string and a clay
    bull that wiggled its head), marbles, and dice
    (the same kind we use today)

4
A
12
  • Writing / Language
  • They had some writing, but we dont know what
    language they spoke.
  • When we do find writing, we dont know how to
    read it.
  • Religion
  • Were not sure what role religion played in their
    lives.
  • Some figurines (mostly female) look like
    gods/goddesses.
  • The bodies of the dead were buried with heads to
    the north, so ?
  • Decline /Disappearance
  • Change in climate and people moved?
  • River changed and not enough water?
  • Earthquake / flood / disease?
  • Invaded and conquered?
  • Some remains have been found that werent buried
    so what might that mean?

6
7
8
A
13
Lets finish being active readers (top right of
page 50)
A
14
Stop here for now
Finish the bottom of page "A"
A
15
Section II Aryan Civilization(Pages 56-60)
  • This section is about
  • Who the Aryan people were.
  • How Aryan culture was preserved through oral
    traditions and sacred writings (the Vedas).
  • The changes to Aryan society and religion that
    happened at this time.

C
16
1
  • What happened to the Indus civilization?
  • Some people think they were invaded by the
    Aryans. They were from southern Russia and may
    have been looking for land for their sheep, goats
    and cows.
  • The Aryans were fierce, skillful fighters who
    eventually conquered northern India.
  • Their descendants built many civilizations in the
    area.
  • We dont know much about the Aryans because they
    seem to be nomads, and wouldnt live in one place
    long enough to leave a lot of artifacts.

2
3
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17
The Aryans did leave The Vedas
  • Most of what we know about them comes from this
    collection of hymns, prayers, and religious
    teachings.
  • Memorized by priests and orally told for about
    100 year before they were written down.
  • The message of the Vedas is one of peace and
    harmony.
  • Another sacred writing the Upanishads (complex
    explanations of the Vedas) hard to understand
    though so people usually just use the Vedas.

http//www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm
C
18
The Aryan Caste System
  • The Aryans divided people up into groups called
    the Caste System. This divided people up into
    groups based on their place in society.
  • There were 4 main groups (and actually a 5th).
  • You were born into your caste for life.
  • It determined your job, who you could marry,
    where you could worship, who you could eat
    with..
  • It shaped every part of your life

4
C
19
The varnas
5
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The Aryans worshipped many gods and goddesses
  • Many of their beliefs influence Asia even today.
  • Nature Gods are some of the earliest divinities
    (gods/goddess) mentioned in the Vedas.
  • They combined human characteristics with nature.
  • Brahmin Priests had a lot of power (they
    interpreted the Vedas, performed rituals and made
    sacrifices (food and drink) to the gods.
  • They were thought to be able to get help from the
    gods if it was needed, so you needed to keep the
    Priests happy.

6
C
21
Indra the God of War
  • His weapon the thunderbolt.
  • He used it to destroy demons and announce the
    arrival of needed rain.
  • Varuna God of order and creation
  • Agni the God of Fire and communicator between
    humans and Gods

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22
Poems about the Vedas
  • Some of the stories appear in two long poems
    called epics called the Ramayana and the
    Mahabharata.
  • Their stories are still popular today in
    Southeast Asia

C
23
The Ramayana
  • About a hero Rama and his bride Sita.
  • Right after their wedding, Sita is kidnapped by a
    demon king (Ravana).
  • Rama is helped by a monkey-general named Hanuman.
    Ravana tries to trick Rama (kills a copy of Sita
    in front of Rama), but hes not fooled.
  • Rama continues to fight and eventually wins back
    his wife.
  • This today symbolizes the ideals of husband and
    wife and their duty and devotion to each other
    through many hardships.

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The Mahabharata
7
8
  • One of the worlds longest poems - about 100,000
    verses (and Indias greatest poem even today)
  • Describes a war between Aryan cousins for control
    of the kingdom.
  • Problems increase when the Pandavas lose their
    kingdom to the Kauravas (in a dice game) and they
    have to fight to get it back.
  • Just before the battle, Arjuna (a Pandava)
    confesses to his charioteer that he doesnt want
    to fight his cousins, even though he has a just
    cause. But hes told its his duty to fight.
  • After 18 days, he and his brothers are
    victorious.

C
25
During the time the Aryans controlled India
9
  • Many cultures were blended together.
  • Aryans eventually gave up nomadic life and
    settled down as farmers.
  • Villages began trading and bartering with each
    other.
  • They then learned things from each other.
  • But the Aryans also continued to expand their
    territory.

C
26
The Aryan influence
  • shapes India and Asia even today.
  • The Caste System still is an influence in India.
  • Aryan beliefs also end up evolving into Hinduism
    and Buddhism.

10
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Stop here for now
Make sure page "C" is completed
C
28
Section III Hinduism and Buddhism(Pages 61-64)
  • This section is about
  • How Hinduism became the dominant religion in
    India.
  • The religion of Jainism (founded on the Hindu
    tradition of non-violence).
  • The religion of Buddhism and how it arose as an
    alternative to the formal religion of Buddhism.

E
29
  • On page 61 Compare and Contrast well do this
    at the end.
  • The Main Ideas
  • And In India Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism
    are have some similarities, but some differences
    in beliefs and practices.

H
B
J
Meanings of all the above symbols
E
30
Hinduism
  • One of the most complex religions in the world.
  • Has no single father
  • No sacred text.
  • No identifiable beginning.
  • No authority or organization.
  • Came from the many cultures who settled in India.
  • Its a religion, a history, and a way of life.

E
31
Hinduism accepts many gods and goddesses
  • but are all part of one universal spirit
    called Brahman.
  • The most important
  • Brahma the creator of the universe
  • Vishnu The preserver
  • Shiva the destroyer
  • All of these are part of Brahman who is
    everlasting and endless.
  • Brahman is the cause, source, and reason for all
    existence.

E
32
Hindu Beliefs
1
  • Reincarnation you have a spirit that is
    re-born into another life form after you die.
  • Karma are the actions of your life and
    determines where your spirit will be re-born.
  • Dharma is your religious and moral duties.
  • And dont forget the caste system (which is a big
    part of this) you cant move your standing in
    this life, but your spirit can move after you
    die.
  • Ahimsa non-violence to all living creatures
    the absence of desire to harm any living thing
    (even yourself)

E
33
E
34
Jainism (another religion from India)
  • A religion that comes from ahimsa.
  • Its a religion of non-violence.
  • This includes EVERY living thing even insects
    and worms.
  • So that kind of limited their lives (cant be a
    farmer).
  • Some people are still living parts of their lives
    based on Jainism.

E
35
  • The internal austerities are
  • Atonement of sinful acts
  • Practice politeness and humility - in spite of
    having comparatively more wealth, wisdom, social
    status, power, etc.
  • Service to others, especially monks, nuns, elders
    and the weaker souls without any expectations in
    return
  • Scriptural study, questioning and expanding the
    spiritual knowledge
  • Abandonment of passions  especially anger, ego,
    deceit and greed
  • Meditation
  • The external austerities are meant to discipline
    the sensual cravings.
  • Fasting
  • Eating less than one's normal diet
  • Abstention from tasty and stimulating food
  • Practicing humility and thankfulness  by seeking
    help and offering assistance without egoistic
    tendencies
  • Practicing solitude and introspection
  • Mastering demands of the body

E
36
The Rise of Buddhism
  • Began about 500 B.C. (a time of great social
    change and religious activity).
  • Many people wanted a simpler way of life than
    Hinduism and all their rituals.

E
37
  • Buddhism accepted some (but not all Hindu ideas).
  • Karma and Reincarnation were kept.
  • The caste system was rejected by Buddhists they
    said all people had great potential.
  • Buddhism is founded by Siddhartha Gautama
    (known as the Buddha which means awakened
    one or enlightened one)

E
38
Buddhist tradition
  • Says the Buddha lived many lives before his birth
    as Siddhartha Gautama.
  • Before he was born, his mother had a dream about
    a white elephant descending from heaven.
  • Brahman priests told her it meant her son would
    either be a ruler or a wandering holy man.

E
39
So his father raised him well and hoped he
would be happy living a rich life at home.
  • But, when he was 29, Siddhartha left home to see
    how others lived.
  • He saw a very old man, a sick man, and a dead
    man. He was so unhappy that others were
    suffering that he decided to leave home and go
    look for the way of truth.
  • He wandered for 6 years giving up all comforts
    and pleasures.
  • One day he decided he was going to sit under a
    tree until he understood the mystery of life.

E
40
All of a sudden, one day he figured it out and
became the Buddha
  • For the rest of his life he taught the four
    noble truths
  • All human existence is full of pain and
    suffering.
  • The cause of suffering is selfish desire.
  • The only freedom from suffering is to overcome
    desire.
  • The only way to overcome desire is to follow the
    eightfold path.
  • and not worry about worldly cares any more.

2-5
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8
9
6
7
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Stop here for now
Finish the bottom of page "E"
E
43
Section IV Ancient Indian Dynasties(Pages
65-69)
  • This section is about
  • The rise and fall of Chandragupta and his Mauryan
    Empire.
  • The Gupta Empire.
  • The great advances in arts and sciences at this
    time.

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  • Two of the best known of the ancient Indian
    cultures are the Mauryan and the Gupta Empires.
  • The first great empire of India was formed by
    Chandragupta Maurya.
  • He took control and united many kingdoms in the
    Indus River valley about 321 B.C.

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45
The Mauryan empire worked well because it was a
bureaucracy.
  • Appointed officials were in charge of different
    responsibilities (building roads, running towns,
    collecting taxes).
  • There were even spies keeping track that
    everything was done correctly.
  • Chandragupta had a huge army 700,000 men, 9,000
    elephants, and 10,000 chariots.
  • He also improved business and trade for the
    empire, built canals, created jobs, built roads
    to link everything, and traded everywhere they
    knew of.
  • (a government system of departments run by
    appointed officials)

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Chandraguptas grandson (Asoka)
  • was the most admired of the empires rulers.
  • After losing more than 100,000 men in a battle,
    Asoka changed his mind about violence and became
    a Buddhist.
  • He won the support of Indias people through
    kindness and now saw himself as the protector of
    his people.
  • He tried to lead his people by example (and not
    by force).
  • He began placing edicts (orders) around places
    people would gather- promoting goodness,
    compassion, truthfulness, purity, tolerance, and
    gentleness.

1
2
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Mauryan society was greatly improved by Asokas
changes. He
  • Dug wells along major roads for travelers.
  • Grew herbs and provided medical care.
  • Prohibited the slaughter of animals for food
    (Buddhism).
  • Tried to get ministers to help him make a more
    caring, tolerant society -even among different
    castes.
  • Promoted religious tolerance.
  • Gave assistance to the elderly.
  • Personally donated large sums of money.
  • All this helped spread Buddhism
  • to other parts of Asia

3
4
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The empire failed when it couldnt unite the
entire sub-continent into one group.
  • Fifty years after Asoka died, the empire was
    pretty much gone.
  • Were not sure why, but
  • May have been too spread out to be united
  • The economy may have weakened.
  • Agriculture may not have been able to keep up
    with the population.
  • But about 500 years later, a new empire would
    rise up in India.

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The Gupta Empire (about 320 A.D.)
  • Was not as large as the Mauryan Empire.
  • Because it had good military leaders, no one
    bothered them for about 300 years.
  • Because it was peaceful, the people could
    concentrate more on developing art, music,
    writing, literature, and architecture.

5
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The empire was set up different than the Mauryan
Empire
  • Divided into territories each governed by a
    member of the royal family,
  • The people in these individual territories worked
    together pretty well they all had mostly common
    interests.
  • Chandragupta I and his son Chandragupta II (not
    related to the Mauryan ruler) helped build up the
    Gupta empire.
  • The empire lasted until about 650 A.D. (when the
    Huns invaded from the north). There were many
    kingdoms at that time who wanted to control India

6
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Gupta Art and Architecture
7
  • Art, architecture, math, and science were huge in
    the Gupta Empire.
  • They also supported both Buddhism and Hinduism.
  • Mural paintings and sculpture from the time show
    details of how the people lived.
  • They also built magnificent stone temples
    usually simple buildings with heavy walls that
    had an image of a deity (god).
  • Some also had elaborate carvings that told the
    story of the Buddha.

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8
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Literature
  • The Gupta wrote in Sanskrit their official
    language.
  • Indias greatest Sanskrit poet was Kalidasa who
    wrote The Cloud Messenger about a man who
    misses his wife and shares his sadness with a
    passing cloud.
  • There was another set of stories called the
    Panchatantra a collection of animal fables.

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Science, medicine, and education also flourished
in the Gupta Empire
9
  • They even had centers of learning or
    universities probably the first of their kind
    in the world.
  • Students were taught medicine, physics,
    languages, mathematics, and literature.
  • In mathematics, they came up with the idea of
    using a number system with a decimal point and a
    zero. Aryabhata also probably came up with the
    ideas for Algebra and a decimal system that
    counted in tens.
  • They also studied astronomy and knew the earth
    had a round shape and rotated on an axis.

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Stop here for now
Make sure page "G" is completed
G
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