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WEEK 5 DESCRIPTIVE ASSUMPTIONS

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Title: WEEK 5 DESCRIPTIVE ASSUMPTIONS


1
WEEK 5 DESCRIPTIVE ASSUMPTIONS
  • READ 142
  • Fall 2010

2
On the quarter sheet of paper, identify the value
assumption.
  • Claim We should enforce limits on the number of
    children a couple should be allowed to conceive.
  • The world is overpopulated.
  • Too many children in one family will result in
    some of them being deprived of attention.

3
Todays Agenda
  • Vocabulary from Change of Heart about Animals
  • Lab Activity E Critical Thinking Exercise
  • Review homework
  • Next week Midterm
  • Identifying Hidden Assumptions
  • Vocab words from this weeks reading
  • Go over content of midterm
  • Work on group project

4
Vocabulary Words from Rifkins Change of Heart
about Animals
5
esoteric
  • Though much of big science has centered on
    breakthroughs in biotechnology, nanotechnology
    and more esoteric questions like the age of the
    universe, a quieter story has been unfolding
  • known and understood by only a few people who
    have special knowledge about something
  • What are some subjects that appear esoteric to
    you?

6
purveyor
  • Strangely enough, some of the research sponsors
    are fast food purveyors, such as Mc Donalds,
    Burger King and KFC.
  • a business that supplies goods, services, or
    information
  • Why is it important that purveyors of farmyard
    fresh poultry keep their products free of
    contaminants?

7
attribute
  • Tool-making and the development of sophisticated
    language skills are just two of the many
    attributes we thought were exclusive to our
    species.
  • a quality or feature, especially one that is
    considered to be good or useful
  • What attributes should a good manager possess?

8
sheer
  • Until very recently, scientists were still
    advancing the idea that most creatures behaved by
    sheer instinct and that what appeared to be
    learned behavior was merely genetically wired
    activity.
  • Sheer instinct, sheer luck, sheer joy pure,
    with no other feeling or quality mixed with it
  • Which politician would you describe as acting out
    of sheer hypocrisy?

9
domain
  • The human journey is, at its core, about the
    extension of empathy to broader and more
    inclusive domains.
  • an area of activity, interest, or knowledge,
    especially one that a particular person,
    organization etc deals with
  • What issues fall outside the domain of medical
    science?

10
Lets go over your assignment.
  • Lets count off in groups from 1 through 6.
  • Share your answers with your group.
  • Choose one person to be the spokesperson to
    identify the claim, reason(s), and value
    assumption.
  • GROUP 6 You will do Passage 6

11
Passage 1
  • Graffiti should be considered art. It seems that
    a lot of people associate graffiti with
    gang-related activities, but that linkage is not
    always true. Graffiti is an expression of art,
    just as any other work by recognized artists the
    canvas is just different. When graffiti damages
    property there is a problem, but if there were
    designated places for this art, then the people
    who are creating it would be less likely to
    deface the property of others.

12
Passage 2
  • Public libraries should not ban certain books.
    Some books are not considered to be politically
    correct or are considered offensive and therefore
    not supported by the public library system here.
    But their policy is hampering peoples access to
    certain types of literature from significant
    public source.

13
Passage 3
  • Todays youth need to spend a lot less time with
    their computers, cell phones and iPods. Long,
    sedentary hours at a computer is one of the major
    causes of early obesity in our children, and all
    that time spent instant messaging and e-mailing
    keeps them from learning important face-to-face
    social skills. Also parents are having to
    struggle to find any time to spend with their
    children.

14
Passage 3 (continued)
  • How much time our children are wasting is
    revealed by a recent survey that found that the
    total amount of media content our children get
    exposed to has increased to eight and a half
    hours per day! Parents need to set limits on the
    time their children spend in front of the
    computer screen.

15
Passage 4
  • Each year in the United States, hundreds of
    thousands of animals are slaughtered each year to
    please the palates of Americans. Before their
    death usually by electrocution or blunt force
    head trauma most of these livestock are kept in
    deplorable conditions. Cattle feed lots are
    packed so tightly that animals can scarcely move
    chickens are held in cages too small for them to
    turn around in veal calves are denied any motion
    at all to keep their flesh tender. For what? So
    that people who can afford the privilege can
    enjoy tasty meat products.

16
Passage 4 (continued)
  • These methods are not necessarily bound to eating
    meat. People can raise animals the old-fashioned
    way on farms with ample pasture and
    free-ranging animals and still produce enough
    meat for America. Mass production methods of
    raising animals, like those described above, must
    change if we are to think of ourselves as ethical
    people as long as we tolerate such tremendous
    and pointless suffering, we cannot.

17
Passage 5
  • Hospitals shun the poor and suffering. John
    Andrews, who was found lying in front of his
    house, was brought by a friend to a private
    hospital. He had been beaten and was suffering
    from a collapsed lung, concussion, and broken
    rib. Because he couldnt prove he had insurance,
    he was turned away and dumped on a county
    hospital.

18
What are the parts of an argument?
CLAIM WHAT DO YOU THINK?
REASONS WHY DO YOU THINK SO?
EVIDENCE HOW DO YOU KNOW YOURE RIGHT?
WARRANT WHAT ARE YOU ASSUMING?
REFUTATION IT MAY BE ARGUED THAT ____. IM STILL RIGHT BECAUSE ______.
19
A warrant or assumption
  • a seemingly self-evident belief underlying an
    argument
  • is taken for granted
  • is implicit, not explicit
  • the link between the reason/evidence and the
    claim. If the warrant isn't valid, the argument
    collapses.
  • a guarantee that the evidence supports the claim

20
Two Kinds
  1. Value Assumption
  2. Descriptive Assumption

21
Last Week We Talked about Value Assumptions
  • Value assumptions are basic unexamined beliefs
    that unconsciously influence a writers thinking.
    It is based on a persons values or beliefs on
    how the world SHOULD be.

22
DESCRIPTIVE ASSUMPTIONS
  • Descriptive assumptions are beliefs about the way
    the world IS. They are also called REALITY
    assumptions.

23
Example
  • Claim This particular car is dependable.
  • Reason This model car has functioned well on
    multiple occasions.
  • What are you assuming?

24
This model car has performed well often.
Car models have consistent quality from year to
year.
The driving habits of the person is identical to
yours.
This car is dependable.
25
Why is it important to identify the warrant or
assumption?
  • If you accept the assumption, then you can accept
    the argument.
  • If the assumptions are invalid or they do not
    accord with your thinking, then you do not have
    to accept the argument.

26
Lets do a few together.
  1. Politicians who commit marital infidelity deserve
    to be fired.
  2. Poverty is the reason crimes are committed in
    Southern California.

27
Work with a partner.
  • Choose a statement in the next slide with which
    you agree. Give your partner one reason why you
    believe this.
  • Your partner identifies a value and a descriptive
    assumption upon which your view depends.

28
Choose a statement with which you agree.
  1. Boxing is a barbaric activity.
  2. Schools should be required to give sex education.
  3. The law against using a cell phone while driving
    ought to be abolished.

29
Lets practice identifying more assumptions.
  • This will be a class assignment that is done
    individually.
  • On a piece of paper, write your name and label
    this Practice Exercise 5 Assumptions.
  • Do the even-numbered questions on page 307-309.
    Identify either the value or the descriptive
    assumption. It does not matter which. Feel free
    to consult your group.

30
Lets apply what weve been learning to an
article.
  • We are going to read The Myth of Doomed Kids.
  • Break up into pairs.
  • With your partner, map the claim and the
    reasons/evidence on your paper. Do not fill the
    entire paper. Leave some space to add more
    items.
  • Make sure your name is on the paper.
  • I will call on several pair groups to explain
    their map.
  • This will be collected at the end of our session.

31
claim
Reason 3
Reason 1
Reason 2
Subpoint
32
Look at the evidence the author uses, and
identify an assumption or two from the way she
connects her claim and the evidence. Consider
value or descriptive assumptions, whichever
appears applicable.
33
Apocryphal
  • I thought that swallowing gum stays in your
    system for seven years. I learned recently that
    this was apocryphal.
  • an apocryphal story is well-known but probably
    not true
  • What are some apocryphal tales that you were told
    when you were young?

34
seethe
  • I was seething after the store clerk yelled at
    me for not having my money.
  • to feel an emotion, especially anger, so strongly
    that you are almost shaking fuming
  • Why would someone be seething at the airport?

35
prognostication
  • Do not believe the gloomy prognostications that
    our planet will be doomed by overpopulation in
    five years.
  • A statement about what you think will happen in
    the future a forecast
  • What are some common prognostications people make
    about the future?

36
blather
  • Just ignore his blather about aliens and
    ghostshe believes in paranormal activities.
  • Talk that lasts for a long time about unimportant
    things
  • What type of tv content do you consider to be
    blather?

37
recrimination
  • Criticism or blame for something that has
    happened
  • Bitter accusations and recriminations followed
    the disaster.
  • Why would recriminations be exchanged between two
    feuding neighbors?

38
strife
  • Somalia does not have a central government
    because it is filled with strife among various
    tribal groups.
  • trouble between two or more people or groups
    conflict
  • What causes internal strife in a company?

39
Next week
CLAIM WHAT DO YOU THINK?
REASONS WHY DO YOU THINK SO?
EVIDENCE HOW DO YOU KNOW YOURE RIGHT?
WARRANT WHAT ARE YOU ASSUMING?
REFUTATION IT MAY BE ARGUED THAT ____. IM STILL RIGHT BECAUSE ______.
40
Lets go over your midterm.
41
Midterm
  • Materials notes on ½ sheet of paper, blue book
  • Notes Feel free to write any notes on a ½ sheet
    of paper as long as they are handwritten AND they
    do not contain any vocabulary notes

42
Content of Midterm
  • Part 1 Parts of an Argument
  • Identify the claim, assumptions,
    reasons/evidence, refutation and response, and
    the larger issues of an editorial.
  • Part 2 Ethos, Pathos, Logos
  • Explain how the author appeals to ethos, pathos,
    and logos. You will need to give examples and
    explain how the author makes a particular appeal.

43
Content of Midterm
  • Part 3 Assumptions
  • You will be given several passages, and you will
    be asked to find the claim, reasons, value
    assumptions, and or hidden assumptions.
  • Part 4 Vocabulary
  • You will be asked a question and you will need to
    respond using the vocabulary word. Your response
    needs to demonstrate your knowledge of the word.

44
Content of Midterm
  • Example
  • Would you rather have meticulous boss or
    meticulous doctor?
  • I would rather have a meticulous doctor because
    he or she would be careful about getting my
    diagnosis correct, while a meticulous boss would
    be too detail-oriented and picky.
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