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Chapter 3 Software

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Title: Chapter 3 Software


1
Chapter 3Software
  • Two major types of software
  • 1. Application Software - Programs designed for a
    specific purpose
  • 2. System Software - Programs that manage the
    resources and operations of the computer system

2
Software Trends
  • The trend in software is moving away from
    customized software designed for a specific
    company or organization
  • Getting away from symbolic code
  • Moving away from procedural programming languages

3
Software Trends
  • Trend is towards the use of pre-written
    off-the-shelf software
  • Use of natural style languages
  • Visual interface, Object Oriented

4
Reasons for Current Trends
  • Software developers have assembled software
    suites that bundle several applications
    together
  • Designed for ease of use and multiple functions
  • Most recent trend is towards the offering of
    application software packages over the Internet

5
Application Software
  • Two types of application software
  • 1. General purpose - word processors,
    spreadsheets, database management programs,
    graphics, web browsers, email packages, groupware
  • 2. Software suites combine several general
    purpose applications

6
The Suite Advantage
  • Often called productivity suites
  • Less expensive than separate purchases
  • Most suites use a common graphical interface
    (same look , feel)
  • Work together (import, export data)

7
Disadvantages of Suites
  • Experts argue that most users never use the
    additional features
  • Suites take up a lot of hard disk space and
    usually need high amounts of RAM
  • Suites generally work slower than a stand alone
    application (because of integration)

8
Integrated Packages
  • Integrated packages like Microsoft Works are a
    multifunction single application
  • Disadvantage is the lack of features available in
    suites

9
Web Browsers
  • Latest and greatest piece of application software
  • Offer the ability to connect to the Internet and
    use Internet technology for additional purposes
  • Fast becoming the universal piece of application
    software

10
Email Software
  • Has changed the way people communicate
  • Allows for messages to be sent to individual
    recipients or many at one time
  • Can be secure message (password or encrypting)
  • Allows for file attachment to message
  • Can allow for remote access

11
Word Processors and Desktop Publishing
  • Packages that allow for the creation, editing,
    revision, and printing of text based documents
  • Can be converted easily to HTML format for web
    application
  • Incorporate utilities such as grammar checkers,
    spelling checks, word usage, etc

12
Desktop Publishing
  • Application software that allows for production
    of newsletters, books, manuals
  • Allows for designing of page layout to work
    around non traditional page forms
  • Allows for importing and formatting of images,
    graphics

13
Electronic Spreadsheets
  • Program used for numerical analysis, planning,
    and modeling
  • Can be used as database
  • Very powerful business tool that can be easily
    customized by the end user

14
Database Management
  • A database management application allows for the
    organized storage of data
  • Allows for
  • database development
  • database interrogation (queries)
  • database updates (acid functions)
  • protection of data
  • application development

15
Presentation Graphics
  • Used to develop multimedia presentations
  • Allow for the use of images, pictures, etc
  • Easy to use
  • Very effective teaching tool
  • Can be used for web sites (must be transformed
    into HTML)

16
Hypermedia Technology
  • Electronic documents that contain multiple forms
    of media
  • Require use of specialized programming languages
    such as JAVA for development
  • Creates links within HTML pages

17
Personal Information Managers
  • Popular for end users
  • Require no difficult programming
  • Electronic calendar, appointment manager,
    schedule book
  • Good for scheduling meetings within an
    organization
  • May have an email link

18
Groupware
  • Collaborative work software
  • Central theme is to make group work possible and
    to remove barriers
  • Allow for work folders where project documents
    are stored for access by project workers

19
System Software
  • Manages the operation of the computer
  • Link between hardware and application software
  • Two main types of System Software
  • System management
  • System development

20
System ManagementSoftware
  • Programs that manage hardware, software, and data
    resources of a system
  • Four main types
  • Operating systems
  • Network management programs
  • DBMS
  • System Utilities

21
System DevelopmentSoftware
  • Programs that aid in the development of custom
    software application
  • Three basic forms
  • Translators and compilers
  • Programming tools
  • CASE (computer assisted software engineering)

22
Operating System
  • Single most important software package in a
    system
  • Manages CPU
  • Controls inputs, outputs, and system operation
  • Directs system resources to maximize
  • Allows for use of peripheral devices

23
Five Functions of Operating System
  • Provides user interface
  • Manages resources
  • Manages tasks
  • Manages files
  • Provides for support (help screens) and utilities

24
User Interface
  • Allows for communication and direction by the
    user to load programs, access and manage files
  • Three main types
  • Command driven
  • Menu driven
  • Graphical User Interface

25
User Interface
  • The trend is towards graphical interfaces that
    make system commands appear simple

26
Resource Management
  • The operating system controls programs that
    manage many system functions including
  • CPU
  • Memory
  • Secondary storage
  • I/O devices

27
File Management
  • The operating system controls the creation,
    storage, accessing of and management of files in
    the system
  • Keeps track of the physical location of files on
    disks and other secondary storage devices

28
Task Management
  • The operating system allows the computer to
    accomplish multiple tasks seemingly at the same
    time
  • Multitasking
  • Time sharing

29
Popular Operating Systems
  • MS-DOS
  • Windows 95/98/2000
  • Windows NT
  • OS/2
  • UNIX
  • LINUX
  • Macintosh 7

30
System Development Software
  • Programs are instruction sets
  • Programs are written in many different
    programming languages
  • There has been a definite evolution in
    programming languages
  • There are five main categories of programming
    languages

31
Machine Language
  • Basic level of programming language
  • Written using binary code
  • Very complicated and time consuming
  • Very error prone

32
Assembler Languages
  • Second generation of programming languages
  • Usually called Symbolic languages
  • Simpler to write than machine code
  • Had to be used with a particular machine

33
High-Level Languages
  • Third generation language
  • COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN
  • Easier to learn because of orientation towards
    natural language
  • Machine independent
  • Must be compiled or translated into machine code
    by the software

34
4GL
  • More conversational than others
  • Simplifies programming tasks
  • Use nonprocedural language
  • Natural language
  • Somewhat less flexible than some languages

35
Object Oriented Languages
  • Links data elements and procedures together
  • Languages include Visual Basic, C, C, Java
  • Easier to use
  • Can use same object in multiple programs

36
HTML and Java
  • HTML is a page defining language used for
    internet technology systems
  • Java is an object oriented language
  • Java was designed for real time uses
  • Java code can contain small application programs
    within large programs called applets and/or
    JavaBeans

37
Language Translators
  • Necessary to convert programming languages into
    machine code
  • Assemblers - translate symbolic code
  • Compilers - translate high level languages
  • Interpreters - Execute instructions one level at
    a time
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