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War and Animal Welfare ???????

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Title: Concepts in Animal Welfare Last modified by: Valued Acer Customer Created Date: 8/4/1999 10:12:28 AM Document presentation format: (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: War and Animal Welfare ???????


1
War and Animal Welfare???????
  • Module 34
  • ??34

2
Learning objectives????
  • To illustrate some impacts of war on animals
    ?????????????
  • To identify why legislative and social
    protection for animals break down during war
    ??????????????????????

3
Animals in war??????
4
Current usage of animals in war???????????
  • Transport and pack animals ???????
  • For food, often killed locally as
    bushmeat??????????????
  • Tracking, guard and search animals?????????
  • For messaging (carrier pigeons, dog cable
    layers)????(???????)
  • Drugs detection ????
  • For (unintentional and intentional) mine and
    unexploded munitions clearance(??????)???????????
  • As marine agents cetaceans and sea
    lions???? ?????
  • For testing of weapons and chemical
    agents?????????

5
Transport and pack animals???????
6
Killed for food bushmeat?????-??
  • Many farmed and wild animals are killed by
    soldiers for food
  • ???????????????????
  • There may be a collapse of the social and
    legislative infrastructures which protect these
    animals during peacetime????????????????????

7
Food, finances and famine an example from
Angola????????-??????
  • Nearly 100,000 elephants were killed in Angola
    during 25 years of civil war, many by landmines
  • ?10????????25???????,??????
  • Ivory was sold to finance the war
  • ?????????
  • Cape buffalo were killed for food and almost
    eliminated ???????????????

8
Tracking, guard and search animals??,?????
  • Issues ??
  • Longevity ??
  • Training regimes
  • ????
  • Housing conditions ????
  • Injury ??

9
Mines and unexploded munitions clearance??????????
?
  • There are believed to be about 70 million
    untraced mines throughout the world
  • ????7??????????
  • It is estimated that 600,000 animals and 25,000
    people are killed or injured by mines each year
  • ??????60?????2?5???????
  • The United Nations Development Programme and the
    US Department of State formed the K-9 De-mining
    Corps which uses dogs to sniff out mines
  • ?????????????????????????K-9 De-mining Corps

10
Marine military agents??????
US Navy Marine Mammal Programme?????????????
11
For testing of weapons and chemical agents
?????????
  • Burns and blasts ?????
  • Radiation ??
  • Diseases ??
  • Wounding??
  • Weapons testing for safety (killing animals,
    usually pigs)
  • ???????(???,????)

12
Utilitarian ethics in relation to military
testing?????????????
  • Humans wish to be protected from some of the
    potential hazards of war by testing these hazards
    on animals ????????????????????????
  • Animals have some basic needs
  • ?????????
  • Principles ??
  • The wishes of the humans should not ignore the
    basic needs of the animals
  • ????????????????
  • The benefit to the people should justify the
    cost to the animals
  • ????????????????

13
Animals as victims of war??????????-??
  • Death and injury during military action by
    shooting, bombing, mines, fire, poisoning
  • ????????,??,??,?????????

14
Animal losses during conflict Kuwait
1990-1991??????????????????
  • In Kuwait, during the Iraqi occupation between
    August 1990 and March 1991 ?1990?8??1991?3?,?????
    ???????
  • The dairy population of 15,000 cows was reduced
    to 2,500 1?5???????2?5??
  • The normal population of 800,000 sheep was
    reduced to 10,000 ????????80?????1??
  • Of 8,000 camels, only 2,000 survived the conflict
  • 8????,??2????????
  • Of 3,000 horses, fewer than 500 survived
  • 3???,???5????

15
Animal losses during conflict wild animals in
Kuwait??????????????????
16
War - collapsing infrastructures??-???????
If the veterinary support and infrastructure
which supports both the animals and the local
people is damaged, animals are likely suffer in
competition for resources ??????????????????,?????
????????
17
Zoos collapsing infrastructures???-???????
  • Exotic animals cannot be released to fend for
    themselves
  • ??????????????

18
Rescue, feed and support??,??,???
  • Several international organisations rescue, feed
    and support animals displaced or threatened by
    war
  • ????????????????????????????????

19
Animals may require rescue from war?????????
20
Transport and logistics?????
21
Geneva conventions protect people (not animals)
during war?????????????(?????)
  • Four conventions (Geneva, August 12, 1949) ????
  • I and II For the amelioration of the condition
    of the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked in armed
    forces on land and sea.
  • ??1?2????????????????????????
  • III Treatment of prisoners of war.
  • ??3???????
  • IV Protection of civilians in Time of War.
  • ??4?????????

22
Conventions continued??-???
  • Some conventions could protect animals and
    habitats. E.g. 1976 Convention on the
    Prohibition of Military or Other Hostile Use of
    Environmental Modification Techniques
  • ???????????????????????1976??
    ?????????????????????????
  • Care shall be taken in warfare to protect the
    natural environment against widespread, long-term
    and severe damage damage
  • ?????????????????????????
  • Prohibits the use of methods or means of warfare
    which are intended or may be expected to cause
    such damage to the natural environment
  • ??????????????????????????

23
Animals in war memorial monument????????
  • Animals and wall with inscription
  • ????????

24
Conclusions ??
  • Chaos, and the breakdown in control that comes
    with war, make enforcement of many of the ideals
    of these conventions difficult ???????????????,???
    ??????????
  • The outcome of this chaos is that animal
    protection usually fails during war
  • ?????????,??????????????
  • Animals caught up in war experience poor welfare,
    including starvation, neglect, injury and often
    experience an inhumane death ????????????????-????
    ????????????????

25
Further Reading
  • ARKIN, W., 1991 Modern warfare and the
    environment, a case study of the Gulf war.
    Greenpeace, May 1991
  • BURNAM, J.C., 2003 A Soldier's Best Friend
    Scout Dogs and Their Handlers in the Vietnam War.
    Carroll Graf Publishers
  • GARDINER J 2007. The Animals War. Animals in
    Wartime from the First World War to the Present
    Day. London Imperial Museum.
  • GENEVA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMANITARIAN
    DEMINING. Mine Detection Dogs. Available on
    http//www.gichd.org/links-information-database/te
    chnologies/?tx_gichd_pi1technology_subject_id3

26
Further Reading
  • STOCKHOLM INTERNATIONAL PEACE RESEARCH INSTITUTE,
    1976 Ecological consequences of the second
    Indochina war. Stockholm Alquist- Wiksell
  • WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTRE, 1991 Gulf
    war impact on marine environment and species.
    Cambridge, UK.
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