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Roots of American Democracy

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Roots of American Democracy Types of Government (Democracy/Republic, Monarchy/Dictatorship Communism/Socialism, Additional Notes) Enlightenment Enlightenment Philosophers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Roots of American Democracy


1
Roots of American Democracy
  • Types of Government
  • (Democracy/Republic, Monarchy/Dictatorship
  • Communism/Socialism, Additional Notes)
  • Enlightenment
  • Enlightenment Philosophers
  • (Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu, Rousseau)
  • Magna Carta
  • Foundations of our Rights
  • English Bill of Rights
  • Parliament
  • Common Law
  • Colonial Period Mercantilism
  • Jamestown Colony Plymouth Colony
  • The 13 Colonies
  • Colonial Governments
  • French Indian War
  • Map of the Americas
  • French Indian War Maps
  • Revolutionary Period

2
Democracy - Republic
  • This system is based on the philosophies of John
    Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. Later, the
    founding fathers of the United States extended
    these principles. Men such as Thomas Jefferson
    and Thomas Payne.
  • (Problem) For these philosophers, the problem
    could be explained by a government, in many cases
    a monarch having too much power. Most of these
    men agreed that individuals had natural rights,
    and that if any person had too much power, these
    rights would not be protected. The answer was to
    have elected government, with a system of checks
    and balances.
  • Many nations are experimenting with these ideas
    of government. US Representative Democracy.

3
Monarchy - Dictatorship
  • These systems have been and are used by nations
    throughout the world. In these systems, one
    person has control of government. In a monarchy,
    it is held by a king, queen, or ruling family
    (Sultan). This power is passed on through family
    succession.
  • In a dictatorship, power is often seized by
    force by a military force or group. Power is
    usually passed on to the next in line of people
    who share this philosophy.
  • (Monarchy) England, Spain, France Until 18th
    and 19th centuries. Today many of these are
    constitutional monarchs. Saudi Arabia today.
  • Dictatorship Nazi Germany under Hitler Fidel
    Castro (Cuba)

4
Communism - Socialism
  • Both of these systems are based on the economic
    philosophies of Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels.
    These two outlined their philosophy in a book
    called the Communist Manifesto.
  • (Problem) Large difference between the rich and
    the poor. They felt that history could be seen
    as a struggle between these classes, and that
    eventually the working class would revolt against
    those who controlled the means of production and
    create a classless society. In this society,
    people would work according to their talents, and
    everyone would share the benefits.
  • Communist States such as China, Cuba, and North
    Korea are not true examples of this philosophy,
    much like the US is not a pure democracy.

5
Additional Types of Government Notes
  • Most nations have a combination of two or more of
    these systems. Communism and Socialism are
    economic systems, which can be combined with
    another government type. For example, many
    Western European nations have a monarch, who has
    little power, they have a representative
    democracy, and they have a socialist economic
    system.
  • Anarchy This is a philosophy that government
    serves to do nothing more than limit freedom and
    place restrictions on the individual. Anarchy
    typically only exists for short periods of time
    groups usually seize control.

6
ENLIGHTENMENT
  • During the Enlightenment Period many ideas that
    influenced the Framers of the United States
    Government developed. These ideas are seen in
    the Declaration of Independence and the
    Constitution.
  • Enlightenment Philosophers
  • John Locke natural rights, purpose of
    government
  • Montesquieu separation of power, checks
    balances
  • Rousseau consent of the governed

7
John Locke
  • Locke was an English philosopher who lived during
    the English Civil War. He believed that God
    granted man 3 natural rights (life, liberty,
    property).
  • Locke said that people entered into a social
    contact with their government. People agreed to
    pay taxes and follow reasonable laws. The
    government in exchange must protect these natural
    rights.
  • Locke believed if government did not protect
    these natural rights, the government had broken
    the contract. In this case, the people had the
    right to overthrow the government.

8
Thomas Hobbes
  • Hobbes was an English philosopher. He was older
    than Locke, but they lived at the same time.
    Hobbes described life in a state of nature as
    nasty, brutish, and short.
  • He felt that people entered into a social
    contract for fear of a violent death. Hobbes
    unlike Locke believed in the divine right of
    kings. This meant that the ruler obtained
    absolute power, and the people had no right to
    question his/her rule or revolt.

9
Montesquieu
  • Montesquieu was an important philosopher in the
    development of the American democracy.
    Montesquieu came up with the idea of a separation
    of power.
  • He felt that if one person obtained all power,
    there could be no liberty. He felt that there
    should be a separation between the legislative,
    executive, and judicial. Power should be a check
    on power. Power corrupts, absolute power
    corrupts absolutely.

10
Rousseau
  • He was a Swiss-French philosopher. One of his
    most famous quotes was man is born free, yet
    everywhere he is in chains.
  • He felt that the strongest among men forced
    others to obey unjust laws. The only legitimate
    government was one that ruled with the consent of
    its people.

11
Magna Carta The Magna Carta is important
because it represents the beginning of a
republican form of government in England. Prior
to the Magna Carta, England had an absolute
monarch.
  • Before the Magna Carta
  • The Monarch (King or Queen) had absolute
    authority.
  • Decisions of taxing, use of the military, making
    and enforcing laws all were made by the monarch.
  • After the Magna Carta
  • A Common Counsel was created made up of Nobles
    (large landowners and church officials)
  • Changes After the Magna Carta
  • Taxes (consult common counsel)
  • Must have witness to crime.
  • Trial by Jury
  • English Church free of Monarch Control

12
Foundations of Our Rights
Bill of Rights (1791) 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 8th
Magna Carta (1215) yes yes yes yes yes
Petition of Right (1621) yes yes yes yes
Mass. Body of Liberties (1641) yes yes yes yes
Declaration of Rights Toleration Acts (1689) yes yes yes yes yes yes
Rights violated in the colonies? yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
13
ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS (1689)Between 1215 the
1600s the Common Counsel became a much more
formal Parliament. The English Bill of Rights
followed the English Civil War. This document
transformed English Government even further than
the Magna Carta.
  • Parliament has following powers in English
    Government
  • Power to Tax
  • Make Laws
  • Control of the Nations Army

14
PARLIAMENTEnglish Legislative Branch
(BICAMERAL)House of Lords House of Commons
  • HOUSE OF LORDS
  • Made up of Nobles
  • Seat is Inherited
  • HOUSE OF COMMONS
  • Members are Elected
  • Come from Towns Cities throughout England
  • Representative Democracy

15
COMMON LAW
  • A system of law based on precedents.
  • A precedent is an earlier decision made by a
    judge that serves as a model for future cases.
  • Over time common law creates a system of
    consistent rulings.
  • English Common Law has been used in the
    development of contracts, marriages, etc in the
    United States.

16
Mercantilism Colonial Period
  • Mercantilism
  • Economic Policy that a country should sell more
    goods to other countries than it buys.
  • EXPORT gt IMPORT
  • Colonial Period
  • Colony A group of people in one place ruled by
    a government in another.
  • European Nations began to colonize the Americas.
  • Colonies provided mother country with a cheap
    source of raw materials, could then produce
    finished products to export to colonies, and
    other parts of the world.

17
Early English Colonies
  • JAMESTOWN COLONY
  • Representative Democracy
  • House of Burgesses
  • 22 Members - House of Burgesses were elected by
    colonists
  • PLYMOUTH COLONY
  • Colonists on the Mayflower signed a document
    called the Mayflower Compact.
  • The Mayflower Compact created a direct democracy.
  • Members of the colony would come together
    periodically, and vote on the direction the
    colony would take.

18
The 13 Colonies
Colonies Motivations Economy
New England Colonies Massachusetts New Hampshire Connecticut Rhode Island Mainly religious dissenters Puritans did not believe in toleration Small scale farming small business shipbuilding
Middle Colonies New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Mainly religious dissenters Quakers (Penn) Farming wheat other cash crops industry mines, etc
Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia NC, SC Georgia Economic Reasons indentured servants slavery Agriculture large scale plantation farming
19
COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS
20
FRENCH INDIAN WAR
  • The French Indian War resulted from a land
    dispute between the French the English. Fought
    in the mid 1750s, the British came out of the
    war having gained territory in the Americas.
  • This war however had disastrous effects on the
    relationship between the British and the
    colonies.
  • Due to fighting with the French in the Americas
    and in Europe, England was in debt. The English
    felt that the colonies should pay for the French
    Indian War.
  • The Colonists felt that protection was a part of
    the relationship between the British The
    Colonies.

21
Map of the Americas
  • The following map shows
  • European Countries and
  • where each set up colonies
  • in the New World.

22
FRENCH INDIAN WAR MAPS
  • BEFORE AFTER

23
REVOLUTIONARY PERIODPeriod in the Americas
between the late 1750s and the mid 1770s. This
period led to the Declaration of Independence and
the Revolutionary War.
  • CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • Navigation Acts English monopolize trade with
    colonies.
  • Writs of Assistance search warrants to search
    for smuggled goods.
  • Sugar Act (1764)
  • Stamp Act (1765)
  • Townshend Acts (1767)
  • Proclomation Act (1767)
  • Quartering Act (1765)
  • Intolerable Acts (1774)
  • COLONIAL OPPOSITION
  • Stamp Act Congress began boycott of British
    goods.
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • intercolonial communication network to
    communicate issues with British.
  • COLONIAL SOLUTUIONS
  • 1st Continental Congress drafted letter to King
    and Parliament demanding rights be restored.
  • 2nd Continental Congress DECLARATION OF
    INDEPENDENCE
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