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America Becomes A Colonial Power

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Title: America Becomes A Colonial Power


1
America Becomes an Imperial Power
2
Foreign Policy Elite
  • Most Americans do not follow foreign affairs
  • Small, cosmopolitan group shapes foreign policy
    (same people guide economy)
  • Argue that US prosperity and security requires
    expansion overseas and global activity
  • Assert that foreign trade and investments will
    bring profit and relieve factory/farm
    overproduction (depression of 1890s)

3
Why did America join the imperialist club at the
end of the 19th Century?
4
1. Commercial/Business Interests
U. S. Foreign Investments 1869-1908
5
1. Commercial/Business Interests
  • Key factor in post-1865 economic growth
  • GDP increases by 4x from 1870-1900
  • Exports and investments abroad surge US achieves
    favorable balance of trade (1874)
  • Export to England, Europe, Canada (80 of
    exports) trade with Latin America and Asia also
    increases (worth 200M in 1900).
  • Farmers and some manufacturers (Singer) depend on
    exports 1913 factory exports surpass farm
    exports for first time
  • 20 Agricultural output what exported.
  • Producers wanted markets for excess production.

6
1. Commercial/Business Interests
American Foreign Trade1870-1914
7
2. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan - The Influence of Sea Power on
History 1660-1783
8
2. Military/Strategic Interests
  • Key to empire in this timeNaval Power. US began
    developing its Navy. Captain Alfred Mahan and
    Theodore Roosevelt became important advocates of
    naval power.
  • Mahan Oceans are not barriers but a great
    highway over which men pass in all directions.
  • Need a powerful navy to protect the highway.
  • Need military bases at strategic points (in the
    Pacific, and Caribbean) to have a powerful navy.

9
3. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White MansBurden
The Hierarchyof Race
10
3. Social Darwinist Thinking
  • Many intertwined ideas encourage empire
  • Exceptionalism, nationalism, capitalism, social
    Darwinism, paternalism and prejudice
  • Imperialists assert racial hierarchy of
    civilized peoples Anglo-Saxons at top dark
    skinned (Africans, Indians) on bottom
  • Latin Americans and Asians in middle (still
    viewed with derogatory stereotypes)

11
3. Social Darwinist Thinking
  • Strongs Our Country (1885) celebrates divine
    Anglo-Saxon mission to lead world
  • National Geographic (1888) stereotypes foreign
    peoples as uncivilized.
  • Ethnocentrism and paternalism shape imperialism
    (US culture is superior and dark skinned
    foreigners are children)
  • Such ideas rationalize domination of others

12
4. Religious/Missionary Interests
American Missionariesin China, 1905
Motivated by religion, 10,000 missionaries (many
of them women) overseas by 1915
13
5. Closing the American Frontier
14
5. Closing the American Frontier
  • Manifest Destiny- John Fiske The work which
    the English race began when it colonized North
    America is destined to go on until every land on
    the earth shall become English in its language
    religion political habits and to a predominant
    extent in the blood of its people.
  • The Winning of the West- TR Sweep aside
    Natives- backward peoples- for the benefit of
    civilization and in the interests of mankind.

15
Japan
16
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan 1853
The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
17
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854
18
Gentlemans Agreement 1908
  • A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports
    tolaborers entering the U.S.
  • Japan recognized the U.S.right to exclude
    Japaneseimmigrants holding passportsissued by
    other countries.
  • The U.S. government got theschool board of San
    Francisco to rescind their order tosegregate
    Asians in separateschools.
  • 1908 ? Root-Takahira Agreement.

19
Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1912
  • Senator Henry CabotLodge, Sr.
  • Non-European powers,like Japan, would
    beexcluded from owningterritory in the
    WesternHemisphere.

20
Alaska
21
Sewards Folly 1867
7.2 million
22
Sewards Icebox 1867
23
Hawaii "Crossroads of the Pacific"
24
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
25
Annexation of Hawaii
  • US missionaries, businessmen, and navy see Hawaii
    as base for profit and expansion
  • 1875- trade agreement that allowed sugar from
    Hawaii to enter US duty (tax) free.
  • White (American) planters came to dominate the
    island.
  • Native population largely killed by diseases.
  • 1887- Whites forced king to accept political
    reforms. King loses much power to whites.
  • 1890- Hawaii loses trade advantages. Domestic
    (US) growers get a subsidy, and tariff dropped
    for all foreign growers.
  • Economic crisis in Hawaii

26
Annexation of Hawaii
  • By 1890s, white American elite dominates economy
    and undermines native government
  • 1890 tariff hurts sugar exports to US elite
    wants US to annex Hawaii
  • 1891- Queen Lili assumes throne. Tries to take
    power back. Whites revolt. American Minister
    calls in Marines to support coup. New government
    asks for annexation to US.
  • McKinley maneuvers annexation in 1898

27
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii
Imiola Church first built in the late 1820s
28
U. S. View of Hawaiians
Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849
by virtue of economic treaties.
29
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
  • 1875 Reciprocity Treaty
  • 1890 McKinley Tariff
  • 1893 Americanbusinessmen backed anuprising
    against Queen Liliuokalani.
  • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of
    Hawaii in 1894.

30
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
31
Cuba
32
The Imperialist Taylor
33
Cuba
  • Cubans (Marti) want freedom from Spain
  • US investments dominate Cuba (sugar), and most
    Cuban trade with US, esp. Florida
  • 1894 US tariff creates economic crisis
  • Marti launches guerrilla war many Cubans killed
    and US property destroyed, but Spain weakened
    Americans sympathize with rebels
  • Rebels recognized they could tip the balance by
    drawing America into the conflict.

34
Cuba
  • US public support generally for the rebels
  • Reflects our revolution of 1776
  • Rebels were damaging economic life of island with
    sabotage. American investors want war over.
  • Spanish Gen. Weyler began to put population into
    concentration camps. Conditions led to many
    deaths. Butcher Weyler.
  • Yellow journalismStirred up emotions in US.
    Stirred up excessive Patriotism. Jingoism.
  • Imperialist attitudes- US drawn towards idea of
    helping the rebels.

35
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
36
Valeriano Weylers Reconcentration Policy
37
Yellow Journalism Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer
Hearst to Frederick Remington You furnish
the pictures, and Ill furnish the war!
William Randolph Hearst
38
McKinleys Ultimatum and War Decision
  • Sept. 1897 US Minister insists that conflict in
    Cuba be brought to an end.
  • Make peace or the US will step in.
  • A new Spanish govt. recalled Gen. Weyler and
    harsh treatment of Cubans.
  • Offered Cubans a degree of self-rule, but not
    independence.
  • Cubans encouraged by US involvement- held out for
    independence.
  • McKinley orders Maine to Havana to show US
    interest in end to war

39
McKinleys Ultimatum and War Decision
  • Feb. 9, 1898- William Randolph Hearsts New York
    Journal released a copy of Spanish Minister de
    Lomes letter criticizing Pres. McKinley as weak.
  • Feb. 15- Maine explodes266 men killed.
  • Unclear the cause, but in public mind de Lome
    letter and explosion linked. Spain responsible.
  • Remember the Maine

40
De Lôme Letter
  • Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S.
  • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and
    abidder for the admirationof the crowd,
    besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to
    leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on
    good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.

41
McKinleys Ultimatum and War Decision
  • March 27, 1898, McKinley sends ultimatum
  • Immediate armistice
  • Abandon reconcentration
  • Have US as mediator
  • End of mediation would result in Cuban
    independence.
  • Spain made concessions, but resisted
    independence.
  • April 11 McKinley says continued negotiations
    will not work, asks Congress for authorization
    for war.
  • Motives humanitarian, secure US property/trade,
    opportunity for US expansion/empire

42
USS Maine
43
USS Maine Post-Explosion
44
Maine Post-Explosion
45
Artists Rendering of Maine Explosion
46
(No Transcript)
47
Remember the Maineand to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
48
(No Transcript)
49
(No Transcript)
50
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley
    administration.
  • Imperialist and American nationalist.
  • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the
    backbone of a chocolate éclair!
  • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

51
The Rough Riders
52
(No Transcript)
53
Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War
  • Only 379 of 5462 US deaths from combat most die
    from yellow fever/typhoid in US
  • First US victory in war in Philippines via new
    navy imperialists see islands as key to US
    expansion in Pacific/Asia
  • Spanish, already weakened, lose quickly

54
Treaty of Paris (1898)
  • Cuba gains independence
  • US gets Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines from
    Spain
  • Pay 20M for Philippines
  • Teller Amendment (in war declaration) blocks US
    annexation of Cuba, but McKinley assumes Cuba
    needs US tutelage
  • McKinley annexes Hawaii and Wake Island, gaining
    more colonies/bases in Pacific
  • Senate debates treaty and empire (1899)

55
Treaty of Paris (1898)
56
The Philippines
57
The Spanish-American War (1898)That Splendid
Little War
58
Dewey Captures Manila!
59
Is He To Be a Despot?
60
What to do w/ the Philippines?
  • Grant the Philippines independence?
  • Sen. Lodge We hold the other side of the
    Pacific and the value to this country is almost
    beyond imagination.
  • Naval strategists coveted a base in Asia.
  • Could be key to maintaining influence in China-
    competition w/ European powers for China market.

61
What to do w/ the Philippines?
  • McKinley to a group of ministers (p. 313 Zinn)
  • I sought counsel from all sides but got little
    help. I went down on my knees and prayed
    Almighty God for guidance. It came
  • We could not give them back to Spain
  • We could not turn them over to our rivals
  • We could not leave them to themselves- they were
    unfit for self-government
  • There was nothing left for us to do but to take
    them all and to educate uplift civilize and
    Christianize them.
  • And then I went to bed and slept soundly.

62
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Leader of the FilipinoUprising.
  • July 4, 1946Philippine independence

63
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Had been brought back to the Philippines by the
    US from China to help in the fight against Spain.
  • Now fought against the Americans. Leader of the
    insurrectos.
  • It took the US 3 years and 70,000 troops to crush
    the rebellion.
  • War ended in the Philippines, with more than
    4,200 U.S. soldiers, 20,000 Filipino soldiers,
    and 200,000 Filipino civilians dead.

Use quotes, p. 315, Zinn
64
William H. Taft, 1stGov.-General of the
Philippines
65
Our Sphere of Influence
66
The American Anti-Imperialist
League
  • Founded in 1899.
  • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, WilliamJames, and
    WilliamJennings Bryan amongthe leaders.
  • Campaigned against the annexation of
    thePhilippines and otheracts of imperialism.

67
Cuban Independence?
Senator Orville Platt
Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter
into any agreements with foreign powers that
would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S.
could intervene in Cuban affairs if
necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the
U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba
must not build up an excessive public debt.
68
DILEMMA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
69
Puerto Rico
70
Puerto Rico
  • 1900 - Foraker Act civil law that established a
    civilian government in Puerto Rico.
  • 1901-1903-the Insular Cases Essentially, the
    Supreme Court said that full constitutional
    rights did not automatically extend to all areas
    under American control.
  • 1917 Jones Act This law gave Puerto Ricans
    U.S. citizenship. However, the Governor and the
    President of the United States had the power to
    veto any law passed by the legislature. Also, the
    United States Congress had the power to stop any
    action taken by the legislature in Puerto Rico.
    The U.S. maintained control over fiscal and
    economic matters and exercised authority over
    mail services, immigration, defense and other
    basic governmental matters.

71
Panama
72
Panama The Kings Crown
  • 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. Signed in 1850 by the
    United States and the United Kingdom, the
    Clayton-Bulwer Treaty was an agreement that both
    nations were not to colonize or control any
    Central American republic. The purpose was to
    prevent one country from building a canal across
    Central America that the other would not be able
    to use

73
Panama Canal
TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)
74
Panama
  • US wanted a canal across Central America to avoid
    shipping goods and naval vessels around tip of
    South America
  • Nicaragua a logical place. Panama too.
  • French had started a canal in Panama, which was
    then under control of Colombia. US bought French
    interest, then Colombia wanted more money.

75
Panama
  • US supported a revolt by a pro-US group willing
    to allow the canal to be built by Americans. US
    ships blocked Colombia from putting down the
    rebellion. US quickly recognized the independent
    Panama. Bought rights to canal for 10M.

76
Panama
  • 1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty. the United States
    was to receive rights to a canal zone which was
    to extend ten miles on either side of the canal
    route in perpetuity Panama was to receive a
    payment from US up to 10 million and an annual
    rental payments of 250,000.

77
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine 1905
Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as elsewhere,
ultimately require intervention by some civilized
nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
adherence of the United States to the Monroe
Doctrine may force the United States, however
reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing
or impotence, to the exercise of an international
police power .
78
Speak Softly,But Carry a Big Stick!
79
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine 1905
  • Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe DoctrineNot only
    would US act if European powers intervened in the
    Americas (Monroe Doctrine), but the US could
    intervene first in order to prevent that
    possibility.

80
China
81
Stereotypes of the Chinese
Immigrant
Oriental Chinese Exclusion Act, 1887
82
The Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
  • 55 Days at Peking.

83
The Open Door Policy
  • Secretary John Hay.
  • Give all nations equalaccess to trade in China.
  • Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by
    any one foreign power.

84
TheOpen Door Policy
85
America as a Pacific Power
86
America's New Role
87
The Cares of a Growing Family
88
Constable of the World
89
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Nobel Peace Prize for TR
90
The Great White Fleet 1907
91
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
  • Improve financialopportunities for American
    businesses.
  • Use private capital tofurther U. S.
    interestsoverseas.
  • Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and
    order abroad that would best promote Americas
    commercial interests.

92
Mexico
93
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and
    puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano
    Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against
    Huerta.
  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz
    and Huerta fled the country.
  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.

94
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
Emiliano Zapata
Pancho Villa
Venustiano Carranza
Porfirio Diaz
Francisco I Madero
95
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • The U. S. shouldbe the conscienceof the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Promote peace.
  • Condemn colonialism.

96
Searching for Banditos
General John J. Pershing with PanchoVilla in
1914.
97
U. S. Global Investments Investments in Latin
America, 1914
98
U. S. Interventions in Latin America 1898-1920s
99
Uncle Sam One of the Boys?
100
What the U. S. Has Fought For
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