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Foundations 8,000 BCE

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Foundations 8,000 BCE 600 CE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Foundations 8,000 BCE


1
  • Foundations 8,000 BCE 600 CE

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  • Trade evident even at the hunter-gatherer level
  • Evidence of boats used for river/sea trade
  • Catal Huyuk prospered from obsidian trade
  • Trade based on barter

Catal Huyuk
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  • Mesopotamia
  • Had to import timber, metals, and stone from as
    far away as India
  • Downriver traffic only- boats dismantled and wood
    sold
  • Boats used for heavy loads such as grain
  • Land routes used for lighter and more precious
    loads
  • Invention of wheel allowed greater loads

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  • Trade initially under control of royalty/priests
    but devolved to merchant class over time
  • Cuneiform developed to record business
    transactions
  • Barter or silver used as means of exchange until
    introduction of coins after sixth century BCE
  • Conquest used as a means to secure resources

Scribes record the amount of goods
7
  • Hittites
  • semi-control of metals including iron due to
    ownership of mineral deposits

Kingdom of the Hittites
8
  • Phoenicians
  • Major maritime trade state
  • Established trade colonies throughout
    Mediterranean and Black seas
  • First to use polar star for navigation
  • Acted as trucking company for major states

Phoenicians trading with Egyptians
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  • Egypt
  • Extensive trade with Mesopotamia, the Minoans,
    and indirectly with India
  • Strong interest in Nubia and trade with south and
    central Africa
  • Imported raw resources, slaves, gold, and
    aromatic resins for mummification

Egyptian trade routes
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  • Nubia (Kush)
  • Acted as intermediary between Egypt and Africa in
    trade
  • Possessed natural resources (gold)
  • Slave trade

Kushite pharaoh
12
  • Geographic shift towards Meroe
  • Meroe culture moved away from Egyptian influences
    towards sub-Saharan
  • Economy collapsed after Rome shifted trade to Red
    Sea and Axum (Ethiopia)

Iron-making in Meroe
13
  • The Indus (Harappa)
  • Widespread trade contacts in east and west
    Mesopotamia and possibly China
  • Access to rich metal ores more metal tools than
    Mesopotamia and Egypt
  • Seals may be the names of merchants

Harappan Seal
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  • Shang China
  • Despite isolation, trade contacts with India and
    Central Asia
  • Some evidence of contact with Mesopotamia
  • Large use of bronze emphasis on trade routes
    for copper and tin

Shang bronze vessel
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  • Greece
  • Natural harbors and islands made sea travel
    fastest and cheapest mode of trade
  • Lack of natural resources such as metals and
    timber and lack of arable lands made trade vital
  • Success or failure in trade impacted the rise and
    fall of civilizations

The coastline of Greece
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  • Minoans
  • Major maritime trade state
  • Trade contacts with all of Mediterranean and
    Middle East
  • Spread Egyptian and Persian ideas to Mycenaeans
    and later Greek societies
  • Linear A possibly used to record lists of goods
    and other business transactions

The Minoans
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  • Mycenaeans
  • Linear B used to record lists of goods and
    business transactions
  • State control of key industries including wool
    production
  • Supplanted Minoans as regional transporters
  • Metals in great demand gold for rulers and
    copper/tin for bronze

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  • Mycenaeans both traders and pirates preyed on
    weak states
  • Conflict with Troy and Hittites over control of
    trade in the Aegean and Back Seas

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  • Carthage
  • Established as a colony by Phoenicians
  • Maritime trade power dominated the western
    Mediterranean
  • Economic policies focused on protection of sea
    lanes and securing natural resources
  • Some evidence of trade w/sub-Saharan Africa and
    British Isles

City of Carthage
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  • Greek City-States
  • Colonies established to
  • Act as bases for trade
  • Relieve population pressures
  • Provide food for mother city-state
  • Sparta
  • To emphasize equality Spartans banned precious
    metals and coins
  • Spartans forbidden to engage in commerce

Spartan hoplites
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  • Athens
  • Size of Athenian navy allowed Athens to project
    power to enhance commercial interests
  • Transformation of Delian League into trade
    association
  • Commercial estates wine and oil exports

An Athenian Trireme
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  • Hellenistic Civilizations
  • Greek culture widespread based on empire of
    Alexander the Great
  • Alexandria nexus of Mediterranean and Indian
    Ocean trade (via Red Sea)

Hellenic Trade Routes
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  • Rome
  • Central location positive impact on trade
  • Territorial expansion brought in revenue and
    surplus goods from new provinces
  • Roman provincial towns drew in artisans and
    merchants from all over

Busy Roman port
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  • The Roman military spurred trade in the provinces
  • Pax Romana era of peace and prosperity
  • Major import was gain to feed poor

Poor Romans crowd the busy streets
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Roman grain trade
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Roman Mediterranean trade
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Roman eastern trade
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  • China
  • Encouraged technological innovation
  • Construction of roads and canals stimulated trade
  • Development of the Silk Road
  • Silk exports
  • Merchant class held in low esteem

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  • India
  • Due to absence of strong rule (political
    fragmentation), merchant guilds became very
    powerful
  • Trade contacts with China and Roman Empire
  • Decline of Rome resulted in increased trade with
    SE Asia and China export of Indian culture

Hindu temples Angkor Wat, Cambodia
35
  • Changes
  • Move from barter to coins as system of exchange
  • Greater interaction between civilizations
    direct links between Rome and China
  • Cultural diffusion through trade spread of
    religion, architecture, disease
  • Decline in trade in Europe after fall of Rome

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  • Continuities
  • Dominance of India and China in trade
  • Chinas demand for silver
  • The Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade routes
  • Constantinople as western trade hub
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