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KERNEX MICROSYSTEMS

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KERNEX MICROSYSTEMS A Presentation on Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: KERNEX MICROSYSTEMS


1
  • KERNEX MICROSYSTEMS
  • A Presentation on
  • Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

2
TCAS Project
  • TCAS Development project was awarded to 3
    Companies, as below
  • Package A- 140 KM awarded to Medha
  • Package B- 70 KM awarded to Kernex
  • Package C- 40 Km awarded to HBL

3
TCAS Project - location map
4
Package B (Kernex Scope) - location map
5
Main Objectives of TCAS
  • Safety
  • Prevention of SPAD
  • Control of Speed at PSR/TSR
  • Facility of SOS
  • Prevention of Collision during NI Working
  • Operational
  • Simple Operation by Loco Pilot
  • Continuous Update to ensure no Loss of Line
    Capacity
  • Limited Trackside Equipment

6
Major Sub-Units of TCAS
  • Station Units located in stations
  • Loco Units located in locomotives
  • IBS/LC Units located in block sections
  • Centralized monitoring system
  • Test benches at Loco Sheds

7
TCAS Block Diagram
8
  • TCAS
  • Architecture Components

9
Typical Deployment Plan
(GPS)
Radio Communication
Station TCAS
Station TCAS
Loco 1
Loco 3
Loco 2
RFID
10
Loco TCAS - Schematic
11
Loco TCAS major Sub-systems
  • Dual Microprocessor based control system, along
    with dual redundant radio modems, RF Tag Readers
    and GPS Receivers
  • Interface to the existing speedometer
  • Event Logging sub-system along with blue-tooth
    data uploading/down loading facility and
    redundant GSM I/F.
  • Two Loco pilot Operation cum indication panel
    (LPOCIP) for Loco pilot and Asst. Loco pilot
  • Braking interface unit (BIU)
  • Dual Isolated Power Supply unit

12
Loco TCAS Architecture
13
Loco TCAS Architectural Features
  • Two redundant Microcontrollers (MIE 1 MIE 2)
    working in 2 out of 2 mode to achieve high
    level of safety.
  • All modules are connected through redundant
    CANBUS.
  • Two redundant Microcontrollers (MIE 3 MIE 4) as
    communication processors.
  • Two redundant Microcontrollers for peripheral
    interface.
  • Separate Event logger for major events logging
    and storing for 90 days.
  • Two UHF full-duplex Radio Communication Equipment
    with hot standby and associated antennae
  • Frequency for Transmission by Loco 441.8 MHz
  • Frequency for Reception by Loco 466.8 MHz
  • Transmission by Loco for emergency (SOS)
    Communication 466.8MHz

14
Loco TCAS Architectural Features ( Contd..)
  • Dual Redundant GPS units are interfaced with Loco
    TCAS to get synchronization for TDMA as well as
    to act as standby when speedometer fails.
  • Radio Antennae GPS receiver antennae are
    permanently fixed on the rooftop of the
    locomotive and connected to the Loco Unit through
    RF cables.
  • Dual Redundant RF-ID readers for finding Track
    Identification Number (TIN) and Absolute
    location.
  • Dual Redundant GSM/GPRS modems for health check
    and transfer of failures to CMS.
  • Bluetooth device for data up-loading and down
    loading.
  • USB port for Event down loading.
  • Loco Unit interfaced externally with Braking
    Interface Unit (BIU).
  • Multi level Braking system, with the help of a
    proportional valve.

15
Loco Pilot Operation cum Indication Panel
  • Two LP-OCIPs (Operation cum Indication Panel)
    provided for Loco pilot and Asst. pilot
    interaction with TCAS.
  • Functions performed
  • Speed indication in analog and digital forms
  • Display of immediate signal aspect
  • Target distance and movement authority in meters
  • Generation of SOS
  • Selection of Leading/ Non leading of loco
  • Light engine/ Formation selection
  • Display of system health

16
Loco Pilot Operation cum Indication Panel
17
Breaking Interface Unit (BIU )
  • Based on Proportionate Valve Brake pipe
    pressure will be proportional to the input
    voltage
  • Separate Light engine brake
  • Separate Dedicated valve for emergency brake
  • Does not interfere with the brake action of the
    Loco Pilot
  • No continuous leakage of air after achieving the
    required pressure.

18
RF Tag placement in Station
To be provided by Ajaiah
19
Station TCAS major Sub-systems
  • Dual Microprocessor based control system, along
    with dual redundant radio modems and GPS
    Receivers
  • Event Logging System along with blue-tooth data
    uploading /down loading facility and redundant
    GSM Interface and OFC Interface.
  • Station Master operation cum indication panel
  • Station yard layout and status panel (21)
  • Dual Redundant Power Supply unit
  • Battery and Battery charger
  • 30 meter Tower for radio modem.

20
Station TCAS Architecture
21
Station TCAS Architectural Features
  • Two Microcontrollers (MIE 1 MIE 2) working in
    2 out of 2 mode to achieve safety of desired
    functionality.
  • All modules are connected through redundant
    CANBUS.
  • Two redundant Microcontroller (MIE 3 MIE 4)
    working on for radio communication and display.
  • Event logger for major event logging and storage
    for 30 days
  • Two UHF full-duplex Radio Communication Equipment
    with hot standby and associated antennae
  • Frequency of Transmission by Station 466.8 MHz
  • Frequency of Reception by Station 441.8 MHz
  • Two GPS units are interfaced with Station TCAS
  • Radio Antennae GPS receiver antennae are
    permanently fixed on the preinstalled 30 mtr
    towers.
  • Two GSM/GPRS modems for transfer of failures to
    CMS.

22
Station TCAS Architectural Features ( Contd..)
  • Station-OCIP (Operation cum Indication
    Panel) provided for
  • station master.
  • Existing fail safe signal, point status
    relay interface contact
  • input reading.
  • 21 LCD monitor for yard display.
  • Bluetooth device for data Transfer.
  • Battery with battery charger cum power
    supply to provide
  • up to 24 hrs.

23
IBS/LC TCAS
  • Intermittent block Station/ Level crossing gate
    TCAS is similar to Station TCAS Unit, but with
    less no. of Inputs / outputs.
  • No user interface
  • Acts like a base station

24
Centralized Management System
GSM Network
Railnet
Web Reports
Central Management System
Web Reports
LAN Network
Station A
Station B
Station C
Station N
25
Station/IBS/LC TCAS - Schematic
26
Trackside RFID Tags
  • RFID Tags Provided at
  • Start/End of TCAS Territory
  • One Kilometer on Straight Track
  • At Turnouts to detect diversions and
    Infringements
  • Block Entry foot of Last Stop Signal
  • Station Entry at the end of the Block Overlap
    at the Station
  • Foot of Signal
  • Each Location with Pair of Tags for Redundancy
  • Rigid Fixture with Clamps on Sleepers

27
  • TCAS
  • System Functions

28
ATP Functions
  • In-Cab Signaling
  • Detection and Prevention of SPAD
  • Display of Distance of Signal and Movement
    Authority
  • Loop Line Speed Control
  • Speed Control at PSR/TSR

29
Collision Prevention Scenarios
  • Prevention of Head-On Collision
  • Prevention of Rear-End Collision
  • Prevention of Collision due to Unusual Stoppage
    in Block Section
  • Detection of Train Parting with External Input
  • Manual SOS Generation Feature in Station TCAS
  • Manual SOS Generation Feature in Loco TCAS
  • Detection of Roll back

30
Supporting Functions
  • Full Duplex Radio Communication
  • Location with RFID and Existing Tachometer
  • Automatic and Manual Brake Test
  • No Database in Locomotive TCAS Unit
  • Automatic Train Length Measurement Feature
  • Station to Station Communication for Additional
    Layer Block Protection

31
Modes of Operations
  • Normal Mode
  • Controlled Mode (when any vital system fails)
  • Restricted Mode (15 Kmph operation)
  • Staff Responsible mode (Manual mode)
  • Coupled / banking operation
  • Trip and Post Trip Modes
  • On-Sight Mode
  • Reverse Mode (to move in reverse direction)
  • Shunting mode

32
Features of TCAS
  • Full Duplex Radio Communication
  • Location determination with RFID and existing
    Tachometer
  • Automatic and Manual Brake Test
  • No Database in Locomotive TCAS Unit hence
    operation, handling of yard layout changes will
    be easy.
  • Automatic Train Length Measurement Feature
  • Station to Station Communication for Block
    Protection (as additional layer)
  • Time synchronization of complete network through
    GPS

33
Features of TCAS ( Contd..)
  • Handling of New Train Formation
  • RFID based Track Id Location Determination
  • Multi Level Braking Interface
  • Provision of Controlled Mode (Manual mode)
    Operation
  • TDMA based Communication protocol
  • Startup/Online Diagnostics
  • Event Logging
  • Central Monitoring through GSM / GPRS network for
    maintenance
  • Data up-loading down loading through
    Bluetooth.

34
Environmental Specifications
  • Operating Temperature -10 to 70 deg. C
  • Relative Humidity 95 (non-condensing)
  • Vibration 3 g for Loco 2 g for Station LC
  • Mechanical Shock 20 g peak for 11 msec.
    (non-operating)
  • Bump 40 g peak in packed conditions
  • MTBF (Planned)
  • - Loco unit 20,000 hrs
  • - Station Unit 60,000 hrs

35
Present Status
  • Installed Station TCAS in Nawandgi and Kurukunta
    stations
  • Installed Loco TCAS in one electric and one
    diesel loco
  • KMIL participated in several field trials to
    study / verify
  • Radio communication
  • RFID readers and tags
  • Inter-operability with other vendors equipment
    between stations Tandur, Mantatti, Nawandgi and
    Kurukunta.
  • Various control logics including SPAD
  • Prototype testing completed. (Same was used for
    site trials since Jan 14.)
  • Independent Safety assessor (ISA) clearance for
    Hardware design completed.

36
Present Status ( Contd..)
  • System documents under review by ISA.
  • Soil test for Tower erection completed.
  • Approval for Tower locations in stations and
    LCs from SCR
  • obtained.
  • Tower design with CPRI approval completed.
  • Relay room wiring in Station- approval from
    SCR obtained.
  • Unit level manufacturing in progress.
  • Software documents under review by ISA.
  • Software Functional logics developed and
    tested during site
  • trials.

37
  • TCAS
  • Scenarios

38
Detection Prevention of SPAD
  • Approaching Signal Aspect is Transmitted by
    Station TCAS to Loco TCAS
  • Loco TCAS Displays Signal Aspect on LP-OCIP
  • In case Driver fails to apply brakes to reduce
    the speed/stop the train, TCAS Applies brakes to
    stop the train.
  • On Change of Signal Aspect to green, brakes will
    be released

39
In Cab Signaling
  • Station TCAS gets inputs from Signaling and
    transmits the same to the approaching Loco TCAS
  • The Signal Aspect of the next approaching signal
    is displayed on the LP-OCIP
  • Movement authority is also displayed along with
    the signal aspect on the LP-OCIP
  • On Crossing the Signal, Next Signal Aspect and
    Movement authority is automatically updated on
    the LP-OCIP

40
Display of Signal Movement Authority
41
Loop Line Speed Control
  • Station TCAS gets inputs from Signaling and
    transmits the route Information to the
    approaching Loco TCAS
  • In case the route is set to Loop Line and the
    Loco Pilot does not apply brakes to achieve speed
    limit, Loco TCAS applies brakes to regulate to
    the Loop Line speed Limit
  • If Loco Pilot applies brakes, then Loco TCAS will
    not apply brakes as speed is monitored
    dynamically

42
Prevention of Head-On Collision
  • Two trains approach each other in Block section
    on the same Track is sensed.
  • Station TCAS Transmits the HOC Condition to both
    Locos
  • Both Locos individually deduce HOC Condition
    based on Emergency Broadcast
  • Brakes are applied to both the Locos and brought
    to a stop

43
Prevention of Rear-End Collision
  • Two trains approach each other in Block section
    on the same Track is sensed.
  • Station TCAS Transmits the REC Condition to both
    Locos
  • Both Locos individually deduce REC Condition
    based on Emergency Broadcast
  • Brakes are applied to the Rear Loco and brought
    to a stop

44
Unusual Stoppage in Block Section
  • One Train Stopped in Block Section either due to
    Derailment or for any other Reason is sensed by
    Station TCAS
  • Station TCAS Transmits the Unusual Condition to
    the other Loco entering the Block Section
  • Unusual Stoppage Emergency Broadcast also is
    sensed by the approaching Loco
  • Brakes are applied to the Approaching Loco and
    regulates to 15 Km/h
  • In case there is no obstruction, Loco Pilot can
    increase the speed after crossing the stopped
    Train

45
Manual SOS from Station
  • There is a provision on SM OCIP for generating
    emergency condition
  • SM can Press the Manual SOS buttons
  • All trains within the range of 3000m applies EB
    and stops
  • Loco Pilots of the trains can press the Manual
    Override and pilot the train at 15 Km/h
  • On Cancellation of Manual SOS in the Source Loco,
    Speed restriction is removed

46
Manual SOS from Loco
  • There is a provision on LP OCIP for generating
    emergency condition
  • Loco Pilot can Press the Manual SOS buttons
  • All trains within the range of 3000m applies EB
    and stops
  • Loco Pilots of other the trains can press the
    Manual Override and pilot the train at 15 Km/h
  • On Cancellation of Manual SOS in the Source Loco,
    Speed restriction is removed

47
Prevention of Collision due to Train Parting
  • Using External Sensor for Train Parting, Loco
    TCAS detects train parting condition
  • Train Parting Message is sent to the Station TCAS
    as well as transmitted in the Emergency
    Communication Slots
  • Any Loco TCAS approaching the Parted Loco TCAS
    applies brakes to regulate the speed to 15 km/h
  • Driver can look out for infringement and can go
    at full speed on crossing the Parted Train

48
Train Length Calculation
  • Loco Unit Stores its position and speed in FIFO
  • Station TCAS transmits the Start marker time
    stamp T1 to Loco TCAS (in millisecond accuracy)
  • Station TCAS transmits the End marker time stamp
    T2 to the Loco TCAS (in millisecond accuracy)
  • Based on the start and end time and the speed at
    which Loco is traveling, Loco TCAS calculates the
    Train Length

49
Train Length Calculation
Event End
Event Start
Train Length
Event Start
Event End
Frame n2
Frame n
Frame n3
Frame n4
Frame n1
t (Start)
t (END)
50
Auto Brake Test Manual Brake Test
  • When Loco reaches a speed of more than 50 Km/h
    and is accelerating, Loco TCAS applies NB through
    Braking Interface Unit (BIU)
  • Speed is reduced by 20 Km/h
  • Based on the time taken, Deceleration constant
    (DC) of the train is calculated and stored for
    any future brake application.
  • Default DC is taken as 0.2 m/s2
  • Calculated DC is extrapolated for application of
    FSB and EB
  • Manual Brake Test is applied in Loco sheds to
    test the functioning of BIU

51
  • TCAS
  • Architectural Features and
  • Safety Certification

52
TCAS Architectural Features
  • Two redundant Microprocessors/controllers (MIE 1
    MIE 2) working in 2 out of 2 mode to achieve
    safety of desired functionality
  • Two redundant Microprocessor/controller (MIE 3
    MIE 4) working on for radio communication and
    display.
  • Two full-duplex Radio Modems with hot standby and
    associated antennae
  • One GPS unit is interfaced with Loco TCAS to get
    time synchronization for TDMA as well as to act
    as standby when speedometer fails.
  • Radio Antennae GPS receiver antennae are
    permanently fixed on the rooftop of the
    locomotive and connected to the Loco TCAS through
    RF cables.

53
TCAS Architectural Features
Contd..
  • Interfaced with two RF-ID readers for finding
    Track ID.
  • Interfaced with two GSM/GPRS modems for transfer
    of failures to CMS.
  • Interfaced with two LP-OCIPs (Operation cum
    Indication Panel) which are mounted on the
    Drivers pedestal for easy access and visibility
    to the Driver.
  • Interfaced with Bluetooth device for data
    Transfer.
  • Loco TCAS interfaced externally with Automatic
    Braking Unit (ABU) for Normal Brake, Full Service
    Brake and Emergency Brake
  • Interfaced with 2 Field Input Modules (FIM) for
    Inputs.
  • Interfaced with 2 Field output Modules (FOM) for
    outputs.

54
TCAS Architectural Features
Contd..
  • Loco TCAS interfaced with existing odometers
    pulse generator to compute location data.
  • Loco TCAS also interfaces with Inter-Cock Switch
    (ICS) to determine coupling / banking mode of
    train operations
  • Logging of eventlogs by eventlog module, which
    can be downloaded through Bluetooth.
  • 1 Battery with battery charger to provide up to
    30 min power backup.
  • 2 Hot Standby redundant power supply modules to
    provide power supply to all the modules of Loco
    TCAS Unit

55
Safety Certification
  • Independent Safety Assessor (ISA) done by ERTL,
    Kolkata
  • Hardware Design is Verified to provide required
    Safety
  • Software Design is Verified to provide required
    Safety
  • System is Validated Independently to ensure
    proper functionality
  • Design and Safety Documents are Verified to meet
    required Safety Level
  • On completion of assessment, Certification is
    done

56
  • TCAS
  • Radio Communication

57
Radio Communication
  • Full Duplex Communication
  • Stationary Units Transmit on Frequency F1 and
    Receive on F2
  • Locomotive Units Transmit on Frequency F2 and
    Receive on F1
  • In Emergency Situations, Loco Units also transmit
    in F1 and tune back to F2 for Listen.
  • Uses Time Division Multiplexing (TDMA) for
    Communication

58
Communication Time Frame
Timeslot Position Marker
3
7
55
56
66
68
72
75
86
45
46
79
81
1
2
S1
S9
S5
S6
S7
S8
S4
Tx by Stationary (f1)
1094 Bits ( Repeater/End Cabin)
1094 Bits ( Repeater/End Cabin)
3504 Bits
3504 Bits
3504 Bits
3504 Bits
304
96
96
96
96
48
304
96
96
304
96
48
304
304
304
304
496
496
496
496
496
M1
M5
M39
M40
M44
M45
M53
M54
M62
M63
M71
M72
M76
MTP
2704 Bits
Tx by Train (f2)
304
304
304
304
48
96
96
304
304
304
304
304
304
304
304
304
304
304
48
96
96
96
96
496
496
MR3
MR4
ME4
ME3
Tx by Train ( Addl SOS/ Emergency Tx)
(f1)
304
304
304
304
496
496
496
59
  • TCAS
  • Position Determination

60
Position Determination
  • Loco TCAS is fitted with two RF Readers.
  • RF Tags are fitted on the sleeper
  • On Crossing RF Tag, Loco TCAS gets Absolute
    Position
  • From tachometer Speed, position is accumulated
  • GPS is used as fall back, in case of tachometer
    failure
  • Tag Crossed distance traveled is Transmitted to
    Station TCAS
  • Station TCAS Calculates position of Train based
    on Absolute Position of Tag Distance Traveled

61
THANK YOU
Kernex Microsystems (India) Limited THRUSHNA,
PLOT NO 7, A.P.I.I.C LAYOUTS HI-TECH CITY,
MADHAPUR, HYDERABAD 500081 Tel
91-40-23113192-94, Fax 91-40-23113191 URL
www.kernex.in
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