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Dr Ross J Todd Rutgers, the State University of NJ rtodd@scils.rutgers.edu

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Title: Dr Ross J Todd Rutgers, the State University of NJ rtodd@scils.rutgers.edu


1
Dr Ross J ToddRutgers, the State University of
NJrtodd_at_scils.rutgers.edu
School Libraries, Productive Pedagogy and the
Leading of Learning
2
Student Learning
  • School libraries as powerful and engaging places
    in the lives of students do not happen by chance
    or force.

3
Student Learning
  • Learning outcomes are achieved through deliberate
    actions and instructional interventions of
    Teacher-Librarians and Teachers working as
    Partner-Leaders
  • INFORMATIONAL TRANSFORMATONAL FORMATIONAL

4
(No Transcript)
5
A TIME OF BOLD ACTION Lauren Becall
  • "Standing still is the fastest way of moving
    backwards in a rapidly changing world.
    Imagination is the highest kite one can fly"

6
The Victorian Landscape
  • Increasing acknowledgement of
  • the complexity and diversity of student learning
  • intellectual quality as key learning outcome
  • engagement with, and ownership of learning
  • integratedness of disciplinary knowledges and
    skills
  • inclusiveness educational leaders, learners,
    knowledge, community, cultural diversity
  • teacher as the most important influence on
    student learning.

7
REVOLTING LIBRARIANS
A Time for Bold Action
8
Revolting Librarians
  • Sex, drugs, and will you please be quiet - Our
    revolting jobs
  • An archivists classification of problem
    patrons
  • In the stacks and in the sack An undercover
    look at librarians and erotica
  • Check out those buns or, What do you say to a
    male librarian?
  • Library service to the insane
  • Being a cataloguer is better than gutting fish
    for a living because
  • Astrology and library job correlation

9
  • Risky Business The Leading Of Learning

From authority- or role- or person-centered
leadership to cultural- and learning-centered
leadership explicitly focuses on leading of
learning.
10
Taking Risks
  • "I'm just glad it'll be Clark Gable who's falling
    on his face and not Gary Cooper." --Gary Cooper
    on his decision not to take the leading role in
    "Gone With the Wind.
  • "We don't like their sound, and guitar music is
    on the way out." --Decca Recording Co. rejecting
    the Beatles, 1962.
  • "Heavier-than-air flying machines are
    impossible." --Lord Kelvin, president, Royal
    Society, 1895.
  • "Louis Pasteur's theory of germs is ridiculous
    fiction". --Pierre Pachet, Prof. of Physiology
    at Toulouse, 1872

11
Revolting Librarians Taking Risks
  • Stop talking about collaboration
  • Stop talking about information literacy
  • Stop talking about research projects
  • Stop talking about roles of teacher-librarians
  • Start talking about guided inquiry through
    information resources
  • Start talking knowledge outcomes, not information
    literacy outcomes
  • Start talking about intellectual quality of
    learning
  • Start talking about libraries as quality learning
    environments, not resource environments
  • Start talking the leading of learning through the
    library
  • You are the information-learning specialist,
    working with partner-leaders to lead learning
    through complex and diverse resources, enabling
    your students to develop deep understanding of
    their curriculum topics

12
The Key Question
  • What constitutes effective shared teacher
    librarian-teacher pedagogy and leading of
    learning through partnerships?

13
The Principles of Learning and Teaching
  • The learning environment is supportive and
    productive
  • The learning environment promotes independence,
    interdependence and self motivation
  • Students needs, backgrounds, perspectives and
    interests are reflected in the learning program
  • Students are challenged and supported to develop
    deep levels of thinking and application
  • Assessment practices are an integral part of
    teaching and learning
  • 6. Learning connects strongly with communities
    and practice beyond the classroom

14
Outcomes of the PoLT
  • Intellectual Agency
  • Personal Agency
  • Social and Cultural Agency
  • These learning outcomes are how we talk about the
    school library

15
PERSONAL AGENCY
  • Self Confidence
  • Willingness to take risks
  • Trying new ideas and practices
  • Independence
  • Autonomy

16
INTELLECTUAL AGENCY
  • Have depth and breadth of knowledge and
    understanding
  • Able to engage in intellectual exploration
  • Can think deeply about ideas and practice
  • Can deal with conflicting data and information
    problematic knowledge
  • Engage in higher oigher order, flexible thinking
    analysis, synthesis, evaluation, problem
    solving able to think creatively and laterally
  • Able to reason with with evidence, particular to
    the discipline area Relevant, connected
    knowledge
  • Able to use the complex language of a discipline
  • Meta-language
  • Substantive discussion of ideas

17
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL AGENCY
  • Respect for different values, cultural knowledges
    and viewpoints
  • Team building, collaboration, negotiation and
    decision making
  • Knowledge integration from bits and bytes to
    conceptual coherence and integration
  • Inclusivity
  • Connect with current and future lives
  • Social and ethical values

18
The Principles of Learning and Teaching
  • As a key learning environment, how is the school
    library supportive and productive?
  • How does the school library promote independence,
    interdependence and self motivation?
  • How does the school librarys learning program
    reflect students needs, backgrounds,
    perspectives and interests?
  • How does the school library challenge and support
    the development of deep levels of thinking and
    application?
  • How does the school library provide meaningful
    feedback on learning that nurtures and nourishes
    learning?
  • How does the school library connect learners with
    communities and practice beyond the classroom?
  • EVIDENCE EVIDENCE EVIDENCE
    EVIDENCE

19
PoLT ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT LEARNING
  • Process of personal and social construction
  • Cumulative and developmental process
  • Involves the whole person thinking, acting,
    reflecting, discovering and linking ideas, making
    connections
  • Transformative developing and transforming
    prior knowledge, skills, attitudes, values
    conceptual change
  • Encompasses feelings and motivations
  • Closely resemble the ways that students will be
    expected to use their knowledge and skills in the
    real world
  • Dewey-Kelly-Brunner-Piaget-Vygotsky

20
PoLT What do we want students to do?
  • actively search for meaning and understanding
  • construct deep knowledge and deep understanding
    rather than passively receiving it
  • directly involved and engaged in the discovery of
    new knowledge rather than collecting facts and
    data
  • encounter alternative perspectives and
    conflicting ideas so that they are able to
    transform prior knowledge and experience into
    deep understandings
  • transfer new knowledge and skills to new
    circumstances
  • use a range of complex knowledge construction
    competencies to transform raw data, prior
    knowledge and information into deep understanding
  • take ownership and responsibility for their
    ongoing learning and mastery of curriculum
    content and skills
  • contribute to societal well being, the growth of
    democracy, and the development of a knowledgeable
    society.

21
Teacher-Librarians And TheLeading Of Learning
  • Learning to Read
  • Reading to Learn

22
School Librarians And TheLeading Of Learning
  • Learning to Read
  • Principles of Learning and Teaching (PoLT)
  • Reading to Learn

23
The Unfortunate Reality
  • Many types of research /project assignments using
    library or web-based sources contribute little or
    nothing to learning
  • Very little evidence of construction of deep
    knowledge and deep understanding
  • Rarely guided and sustained throughout the
    project
  • Rarely equip students with the range of critical
    thinking and problem solving competencies
    necessary to demonstrate deep knowledge and deep
    understanding

24
Dinosaur units are generally a disaster
  • Cutting and clipping of information
    TRANSPORTATION rather than TRANSFORMATION of
    information
  • Make decisions based on limited prior knowledge
    lack of building background before focus and
    formulation
  • Focus on product construction rather than
    knowledge construction
  • (Limberg, Sweden 2005)

25
Transportation of Text
  • Cutting and pasting plagiarism
  • Amassing of facts without imposing any
    organizational or reflective structure
  • No local or global coherence to the facts
  • No interpretation of data / facts or development
    of positional stance
  • Little evidence of internalization of
    understanding

26
Transportation of Text
Presentation
Final version
Rewriting
Print-out
Interaction
(Limberg, Sweden 2005)
27
Transformation of Text
  • Collection of information and data pertinent to
    specific focus and responding to how knowledge is
    constructed in a particular discipline
  • Imposing of a personal organizational framework
    on informational inputs to create thematic
    substructures and to represent deep understanding
  • Identifying interrelationships of themes
  • Critically reflecting on themes to develop
    personal viewpoints, positions

28
Limbergs Research
  • Get the material from the Net, I read it.
    Write down some good sentences, make a few
    changes and read through it again. Making my own,
    sort of! Then I think - Replace here and there.
    Pick certain words and make my own text by adding
    new words. I recognise the text if I read it
    several times. Use those expressions that fit
    in. (Kris)

29
Limbergs Research
  • I borrowed a book on sharks, picked out words
    from the book, from the text. I jotted these down
    in a little notebook as rough notes, then I
    rewrote it and then I painted a front page and
    then I put the whole thing into a boklet and the
    job was done. (David)

30
Why do students transport text rather than
transform text?
  • It is rewarded copying and pasting by being
    undetected
  • Erroneous notion that more facts deep knowledge
    and deep understanding
  • Assignment task promotes transport of text
  • Not engaged or motivated
  • Poor information competencies particularly
    those involving analysis, manipulation and
    synthesis
  • Stress and competition
  • Poor time management and planning skills
  • Lack of confidence to manipulate information
  • Unwillingness to ask for help and when they do
    ask, told this is an independent project you
    have to work it out for yourself
  • Low level of assignments no critical thinking
    required
  • Assessment of product only
  • Absence of clear assessment criteria that
    emphasize deep knowledge and deep understanding

31
CASE STUDY
Productive Pedagogy and the Leading of Learning
32
CASE STUDY
  • Do teacher librarian-teacher partnerships
    contribute to quality learning outcomes,
    evidenced in
  • Intellectual agency
  • Personal Agency
  • Social and Cultural Agency
  • In other words, is the PoLT framework useful for
    understanding the benefits of learning
    partnerships of teacher-librarians and classroom
    teachers?
  • How is a supportive learning environment created
    through the school library?

33
CONTEXT OF RESEARCH
  • Grade 9 cohort at Gill St Bernards school, New
    Jersey
  • Research involved 43 students (21 girls, 22 boys)
    undertaking a semester long course Research
    Project
  • Collaboration of 7 teachers and teacher-librarian
    to develop complex research skills, strategic and
    deep information seeking, higher-order
    information analysis and synthesis to represent
    new understandings as a result of the research
  • Instructional program built around the stages of
    Kuhlthaus Information Search Process and a
    series of carefully planned interventions
    targeted to the knowledge construction process.

34
Information Search Process
  •  
  •  
  • Tasks Initiation Selection
    Exploration Formulation Collection
    Presentation
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------------------------?
  • Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion
    clarity sense of
    satisfaction or
  • (affective) frustration
    direction/ disappointment
  • doubt
    confidence
  • Thoughts vague-----------------------------------
    --?focused
  • (cognitive) ---------------------------
    --------------------?
  • increased interest
  • Actions seeking relevant information-----------
    -----------------?seeking pertinent information
  • (physical) exploring
    documenting

35
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
  • Free generation written protocol administered at
    three stages in the information search process
    undertaken by the students (Initiation,
    Formulation/Focus and Presentation stage of
    research)
  • students knowledge of chosen topic
  • perceptions on levels of knowledge
  • information seeking and use experience
  • Structured search log kept by students which
    recorded all the sources used in constructing
    their research papers
  • Affective Domain / Next Task Log feelings and
    task progression

36
CHANGES IN INTELLECTUAL QUALITY
  • Substance of knowledge knowledge about topic
  • Amount of knowledge
  • Structure of knowledge unstructured to high
    levels of organization and coherence
  • Estimate of topical knowledge coded Nothing,
    Not Much, Some, Quite a Bit, A Great Deal
  • 5. Title of knowledge

37
MEASURING CONCEPTUAL CHANGE
  • Graesser Clarks typology (1984) of statements
    based on the nature of relationships embedded in
    them. The statements were
  • Properties statements describing
    characteristics
  • Manner statements describing processes,
    styles, actions
  • Reason statements of explanations of how
    and why
  • Outcome statements providing end result
  • Causality statements of some event causally
    leads to another
  • Set Membership statements about class inclusion
  • Implication statements showing predictive
    relations
  • Value judgment statements presenting personal
    position or viewpoint

38
INITIATION OF RESEARCH TASK
  • Initial representations were lists of unrelated
    concepts, and generalities, language
    associations
  • Statements were primarily property (is a), manner
    (describe how something happens)
  • Average number of statements was 4 (range from
    0-11)
  • Random representation unstructured, no clear
    sequence or organization guess work I think
    that, or at best chronological / historical
  • Some indication of inaccuracy / misrepresentation
  • Acknowledge that students knew very little
  • Motivated to learn personal experiences,
    personal connections, intriguing facts about
    topic, curiosity, teacher/librarian recommendation

39
MIDPOINT OF RESEARCH TASK FOCUS FORMULATION
  • Dramatic increase in number of propositional
    statements range from 6-34 statements average
    number 17
  • Focus on Properties describes characteristics
    Manner describe processes, styles, actions
    Reason explanations of how and why
  • Some evidence of organizational structure of
    ideas some attempt to develop conceptual
    groupings
  • Cognitive intents From initiation to
    formulation getting a bigger picture (building
    background) getting a changed picture (correcting
    misinformation) getting a clearer picture
  • Key mechanism writing of abstract and its
    feedback

40
CONCLUSION OF RESEARCH TASK SUBMISSION OF
RESEARCH PAPER
  • Clear and precise listing of properties, manner
    and increasing use of set membership
  • Final representations also stronger on reasons,
    outcomes, causality, implications, predictive,
    reflective (increased complexity)
  • Average number of statements 31 (range 8 63)
  • For 4 students, decrease in number of statements
    reflect higher levels of synthesis coalescing
    lists into conceptual categories
  • Higher levels of structural centrality and
    conceptual coherence -ie. overall integrated and
    interlinked structure, yet subgroups of ideas
  • Cognitive intents getting a clearer picture,
    getting a position in a picture (ie clarifying
    aspects in process of sorting and writing,
    developing a personal perspective)
  • Reflective, comparative, positional personal
    ownership, and clearer focus on topics as
    evidenced by titles

41
PRODUCTIVE PEDAGOGY INTELLECTUAL AGENCY
  • the collaborative program of instruction
    contributed to growth of intellectual AGENCY
  • development of knowledge representations from
    simplistic, superficial and disjointed structures
    to structures that embedded explanations, causal,
    predictive and reflective statements deep
    knowledge
  • organization of ideas into structured conceptual
    groupings knowledge coherence and depth
  • use of specific terminology associated with the
    celebrations with descriptions and explanations
    surrounding these terms
  • choice of sources showed increasing complexity
    and depth from general background to specific
    topicality
  • overall fluency and fluidity of the written
    representations indicate ability to substantially
    communicate in writing about their topical
    knowledge
  • Ability to deal with conflicting facts or
    viewpoints
  • evidence of constructing arguments and
    explanations in relation to conflicting aspects
    of topics

42
SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT
  • Rollercoaster of emotions Very distinctive ebb
    and flow of emotions follows the six deadlines
    required to guide the students effectively
    through the research process
  • Initial feelings varied from a state confidence
    to slight hesitation/uncertainty
  • Increase in optimism and confidence as they
    identify a general topic and begin to investigate
    sources for relevant information
  • Highest increase in negative emotions where
    complex information processing and knowledge
    construction takes place analysis, synthesis,
    dealing with conflict, structuring arguments,
    sequencing ideas with stress, pressure and
    brain strain being reported.

43
SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT
  • roller coaster of emotions was recognized by the
    teaching team, and interventions implemented to
    support students
  • Individual meetings and feedback sessions
    encouraged students to talk about their feelings
    and learnings opportunities for dialogue,
    feedback, encouragement
  • instructional interventions explicitly targeted
    to the skills requirements, especially knowledge
    construction
  • instructional intervention that modeled the
    intellectual scaffolds for successfully
    completing the task
  • stages and milestones approach
  • clear expectations of tasks to be submitted,
    criteria for assessment, dates, and feedback and
    support mechanisms
  • providing direction and regulation to keep
    students on task and engaged, as well as able to
    manage all of the complexities of the task

44
MAKING CONNECTIONS
  • Reasons for choice of topic connections made to
    personal real life contexts
  • personal experiences (participating in a
    particular celebration)
  • personal connections (know someone who
    participates), knowledge of intriguing facts or
    aspects about topic
  • curiosity (typically based on having read or
    viewed something)
  • As students learned more about their topic, the
    specific new knowledge they acquired generated
    curiosity and motivation, encouraging them to dig
    deeper into their topic.
  • links to students background knowledge and
    connection to the world beyond the classroom

45
DID I LEARN ANYTHING?
  • Perceptions of knowledge gained
  • Know heaps more
  • Know lots more, and surprised at breadth and
    depth of knowledge
  • Know lots more, but still could learn more
  • Know lots, but dissatisfaction about not knowing
    enough

46
PERSONAL AGENCY
  • learned to follow a set plan and be organized
  • help me through papers in high school, college
    and life in general
  • getting genuine information is hard and tedious
    work
  • learned the basics of writing a more
    professional research paper
  • research approach is more complicated but
    creates a much better paper
  • my project is amazing. I have put a lot of hard
    work into it

47
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL AGENCY
  • Topic celebration of culture was an invitation
    to cultural exploration 81 of students chose
    celebrations outside of USA
  • Able to draw out cultural comparisons
  • Able to reflect on changes in perception about
    different cultural celebrations
  • More accepting of different / strange cultural
    beliefs and systems which context of these more
    clearly understood

48
School Librarians And TheLeading Of Learning
  • Learning to Read
  • Guided Inquiry
  • Reading to Learn

49
Schools Context
  • 10 New Jersey public schools chosen by call for
    nomination and selected by NJ Expert Panel
  • Experienced and expert school librarians
  • Diverse schools
  • 10 teacher-school librarian teams
  • 10 school librarians working on curriculum
    projects with 17 classroom teachers
  • 574 students in Grades 6 12
  • Data collected over four weeks, Spring 2004
  • Inquiry Training Institute Feb 24, 2004
    overview and critique of units, use of data
    collection instruments, procedures and ethical
    guidelines

50
Inquiry Learning
  • An inquiry approach to learning is one where
    students actively engage with diverse and often
    conflicting sources of information and ideas to
    discover new ones, to build new understandings,
    and to develop personal viewpoints and
    perspectives.

51
Guided Inquiry
  • Carefully planned, closely supervised targeted
    intervention of an instructional team of teacher
    librarians and teachers to guide students through
    curriculum based inquiry units that gradually
    lead towards development of deep understanding
    and independent learning
  • Based on understanding student information
    seeking and use, and principles of
    constructivist learning
  • Develops students competence with learning from
    a variety of sources while enhancing their
    understanding of the content areas of the
    curriculum
  • Students not abandoned in the research process

52
Interventions
  • Guided inquiry is not doing information
    literacy
  • Specific interventions are determined by the
    stage of the search process, the affective,
    cognitive and behavioral needs of the learners,
    and the curriculum standards and goals to be
    achieved
  • Instructional interventions enable students to
    produce and demonstrate deep understanding, and
    facilitate intellectual and personal agency.
  • The instructional partnership is not about
    teacher doing content and teacher-librarian
    doing information literacy, but about mutually
    solving learning dilemmas with the shared
    expertises information learning and
    disciplinary learning
  • Starting point is a learning problem in the
    particular discipline, targeted to curriculum
    standards and content

53
Implementing Guided Inquiry Key Strategies
  • Initiated though compelling situations, and
    questions which meaningfully engage students in
    wanting to know, and which provide challenge and
    opportunity.
  • Instructional activities put emphasis on
    meaningful, authentic activities that help the
    learner develop skills relevant to problem
    solving and to construct understandings focus on
    identifying and solving intellectual and/or
    real-world problems
  • learning activities closely resemble the ways
    that students will be expected to use their
    knowledge and skills in the real world
  • Students are more motivated to engage in their
    inquiry when they are able to exercise some
    choice over the specific questions they want to
    answer and how to present their new
    understandings.

54
Implementing Guided Inquiry Key Strategies
  • Attempt is made to connect with students
    background knowledge.
  • Instructional activities involve the students in
    thinking, acting, and reflecting, discovering and
    linking ideas, making connections, developing and
    transforming prior knowledge, skills, attitudes
    and values - higher order thinking and critical
    analysis occurs throughout.
  • Instructional activities enable students to
    develop deep knowledge, deep understanding.
  • Students see that inquiry learning is
    developmental process of advancing,
    consolidating, reinforcing, and involving whole
    person opportunities for sustained dialogue and
    feedback, opportunities for students to provide
    their understanding of concepts or ideas

55
Implementing Guided Inquiry Key Strategies
  • Choice of products to show their new
    understandings
  • Students have opportunity to communicate and
    share their new understandings
  • Inquiry learning environment is one where
    academic and personal success and intellectual
    inquiry are valued and acknowledged, and one
    where students feel connected, cared for and
    trusted
  • Students are given opportunity to practice their
    new skills to sustain and support their learning
    beyond the formal classroom and school library
    experience
  • inquiry learning is responsive to students
    personal, social and cultural worlds, valuing
    differences and cultivating an inclusive
    community

56
A TIME OF BOLD ACTION Edna St Vincent Millay
1892-1950
  • Upon this gifted age, in its dark hour
  • Rains from the sky a meteoric shower
  • Of facts, they lie unquestioned, uncombined.
  • Wisdom enough to leech us of our ill
  • Is daily spun, but there exists no loom
  • To weave it into fabric.

57
Useful Sources
  • Ausubel, David P. (1963). The Psychology of
    Meaningful Verbal Learning. New York Grune
    Stratton.
  • Brunner , J. (1975). Toward a theory of
    instruction. Cambridge Harvard University
    Press.
  • Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. Lexington, MA
    Heath.
  • Dewey, J. (1944). Democracy and education. New
    York Macmillan.
  • Gardener, H. (1983). Frames of Mind The Theory
    of Multiple Intelligences. New York Basic.
  • Kelly, G. A. (1963). A theory of personality
    the psychology of personal constructs. New York
    Norton.

58
Useful Sources
  • Gordon, C. Information Literacy in Action.
    Great Glenham UK, John Catt Educational, 2000.
  • Loertscher, D., Koechlin, C., and Zwann, S. Ban
    those Bird Units 15 Models for Teaching and
    Learning in Information-Rich and Technology Rich
    Environments. Salt Lake City. Hi Willow Research
    and Publishing, 2005.
  • Kuhlthau, C. C. (2004). Seeking meaning A
    process approach to library and information
    services. 2nd edition. Westport, CT Libraries
    Unlimited.
  • Donham, J. K., Bishop, K., Kuhlthau, C, Oberg,
    D. (2001). Inquiry based learning Lessons
    from Library Power. Worthington, OH Linworth.
  • Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society The
    development of higher mental processes.
    Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press.
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