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AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS

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AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS & CATASTROPHES Jim Smith, PhD, P.E. American Public University System Smith-Woolwine Associates, Inc. jfsmith_at_swva.net – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS


1
AVIATION CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, AIRPORTS
CATASTROPHES
  • Jim Smith, PhD, P.E.American Public University
    SystemSmith-Woolwine Associates,
    Inc.jfsmith_at_swva.net

2
Acronyms abbreviations
  • AAR After Action Review
  • ACI aviation critical infrastructure
  • CBRNE chemical, biological, radiological,
    nuclear, and (high) explosive
  • CI critical infrastructure
  • COB continuity of business
  • COG continuity of government
  • COOP continuity of operations
  • DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security
  • DOD U.S. Department of Defense
  • EDM emergency and disaster managemetn
  • EMA emergency management agency
  • EOC emergency operations center
  • FAA Federal Aviation Administration
  • HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive
  • IAP incident action plan
  • ICS Incident Command System
  • IT information technology
  • MAC multiagency coordination entity
  • MANPAD man-portable air defense systems

3
Critical infrastructure
  • A system that is essential for national survival
    or economic survival
  • Examples
  • Highways
  • Electrical generation and transmission
  • Dams and levees
  • Highways and bridges
  • Aviation system

4
Aviation critical infrastructure
  • One of 18 DHS CI sectors or 17 ASCE categories
  • Comprises
  • Airports
  • Airlines and planes
  • Air cargo companies and planes
  • General aviation
  • Military aviation including mobility
  • FAA
  • Air traffic control system
  • Security of system
  • Intermodal connections to other critical
    infrastructures
  • Skilled personnel

5
Key events
  • 9/11/2001 for intentional incidents
  • 2003 SARS epidemic
  • Aug-Sept 2005 Katrina for natural disasters

All three have led to changes in airport
structures, policies, procedures, operations,
organizations, and defenses.
6
Gander on 9/12
7
Key terms
  • Event a planned happening
  • Incident an unplanned or unscheduled happening
  • Disaster an event or incident that causes
    severe damage but can be handled by emergency
    responders with mutual aid
  • Catastrophe a disaster that overwhelms the
    capabilities of the community or region

8
What sort of catastrophes?
  • Not limited to aviation-related disasters
  • Natural disasters
  • Accidents
  • Pandemics
  • Civil disturbances
  • Terrorism
  • War and civil war

9
Natural disaster threats
  • Floods
  • Hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones, tornadoes,
    windstorms
  • Earthquakes
  • Landslides
  • Volcanoes and ash clouds
  • Wildfires
  • Blizzards and ice storms
  • Tsunamis

10
Accidents
  • Crashes
  • Industrial accidents
  • Infrastructure failure
  • Mechanical failure
  • Human error

11
Pandemics
  • SARS
  • Bird flu
  • Swine flu
  • Potential bioterrorism agents
  • Converge with terrorism incidents

12
Civil disturbances
  • Riots
  • Strikes
  • Demonstrations
  • Boycotts
  • Employee sabotage

13
Terrorism
  • CBRNE attacks
  • Chemical - sarin
  • Biological - anthrax
  • Radiological- BA flights London-Moscow 2005
  • Nuclear
  • Explosive Glasgow, Pan Am 103, Buncefield?
  • MANPAD
  • Hostages
  • Hijacking
  • Psychological
  • Cyber
  • Disinformation

14
War
  • War
  • Civil war

15
Why focus on airports?
  • They are essential to receiving or sending aid in
    disasters and catastrophes.
  • As fixed assets, they are vulnerable, expensive
    to replace, and hard to repair if damaged.
  • Planes and people can be moved or sheltered
    airports cant.
  • Airports are iconic.
  • Airports have been targets of terrorists.
  • Airports have been used inappropriately by relief
    efforts following disasters.

16
Airport roles in disasters
  • Receiving aid
  • Dispatching aid
  • Quarantine (initial)
  • Helicopter base for rescue and reconn
  • Logistics hub intermodal terminus
  • Communications node or backup
  • Backup EOC
  • Security area

17
Inappropriate roles for airports
  • Command and control centers
  • Mobile hospitals
  • Quarantine (long-term)
  • Reunification centers
  • Temporary morgues
  • Logistics storage
  • Billeting
  • Pre-site off-airport alternatives

18
Functioning means
  • Airport continuity of operations (COOP)
  • Airport continuity of business (COB)
  • COOP always applies to an airport, but COB is
    situationally sensitive to the scope and nature
    of the disaster.

19
Stages of emergency and disaster management
  • Prevention
  • Preparedness
  • Mitigation
  • Response
  • Recovery
  • Reconstruction

20
Sustainability
  • Generally applied to normal range of activities
  • Applies to structural and organization designs
    that promote efficient and effective operations
    with minimum use of resources
  • Could be stretched to include activities outside
    the normal range gt MITIGATION
  • All too often overlooks disasters

21
Resiliency
  • Ability of a structure, organization, or system
    to do at least ONE of the following
  • to avoid damage gt PREVENTION
  • to retain an acceptable but reduced level of
    functioning gt MITIGATION
  • to return to an acceptable level of functioning
    after a disaster or catastrophe gt MITIGATION
    RECOVERY

22
It all starts locally
  • All disaster response starts locally, and the
    local flavor will persist no matter how much the
    response escalates to track the evolution of the
    incident.
  • If the locality involves an airport, the
    airports preparedness can condition the nature
    and outcomes of the response.

23
Do you have to wait 72 hours for help?
  • Under the National Response Framework and prior
    doctrines, the expectation is that
    localitiesincluding airportswill have
  • to wait about 72 hours for
  • outside (federal) aid.

24
EDM time spectrum
Private Sector
State
High
DoD (Title 10)
Federal Civilian
Required Capabilities and Resources
Interstate Compacts
Local Emergency Services
Specialized Regional Response Assets
Mutual Aid Agreements
Low
Pre-Event
12-48 Hours
48-96 Hours
30 Days
First 12 Hours
25
Cutting the 72-hour wait
  • Get airport designated as critical
    infrastructure/critical facilities list
  • Smart plans and strategies
  • Promoting self-help capabilities
  • Developing special response and recovery
    capabilities
  • Giving and receiving mutual help beyond mutual
    aid pacts regional cooperation and coordination
    - DOGs

26
Whats a DOG
  • Disaster Operations Group
  • SEADOG
  • WESTDOG
  • None yet in Midwest, New England, Middle
    Atlantic, Hawaii, and Pacific
  • Associated with EMAC and state EMAC coordinators

27
Airport Response Ivan 2005
DAB
GPT
28
Airport Response Katrina 2005
MSY
29
Gulfport and Katrina
  • Our highway infrastructure had been
    destroyed, the Port had suffered catastrophic
    damages and the rail system was inoperable. Our
    airport was the primary source for receiving aid
    and materials. Without the airports quick
    turnaround, we would have been cut off from the
    world and the much needed assistance that we
    needed to survive.
  • Brent Warr, Mayor, City of Gulfport

30
Airport Response at Lake Charles Rita 2005
PHX
LCH
31
Airport Response at Beaumont-Port Arthur Rita
2005
APA
SAN
BPT
32
Key concepts
  • Airports are even more critical in disasters and
    catastrophes.
  • Airports are critical infrastructure.
  • Airports must be protected from inappropriate
    uses.
  • Airport design (structural, organizational,
    policy, and defensive) should promote continuity
    of operations.

33
Telling quote
  • In a disaster, an airport can substitute for
    almost anything else, but nothing can substitute
    for an airport.
  • Walter White, MEM

34
Actions to protect airport COOP/COB
  • Structural
  • Policy
  • Organizational
  • Procedural
  • Defensive
  • These are highly cross-connected.

35
Structural(Physical facilities)
  • Redundancy on site
  • Back-up emergency operations center (EOC)
  • Alternative sites
  • Hardening
  • Hardened communications and IT
  • CBRNE prevention and mitigation
  • Perimeter control
  • Fuel system protection
  • Air traffic control system protection
  • Alternate utilities
  • Interoperability standards

36
Special structural concerns
  • Design and construction to resist damage from
    multihazards
  • Rapid post-incident evaluation
  • Rapid post-incident repair
  • Communications
  • Alternative logistics, especially fuel and
    electricity
  • Shelter-in-place capabilities
  • Sustainment for essential employees
  • Documentation as-built and modified

37
EOC
  • Nerve center for disaster operations
  • Functions, space, connectivity, and people
  • Supports and coordinates on-scene commanders
    operating under NIMS/ICS doctrines
  • Can play role in all phases of emergency and
    disaster management
  • Typically present at airports and at all levels
    of government and in corporations
  • May go by other names but functions are the same
  • MAC multiagency coordination entity, sort of a
    super-EOC

38
Policy
  • Subordination of airport asset to local,
    regional, or national incident management systems
    CONTROVERSIAL
  • COOP/COB paramount strategic objective
  • Pre-planned responses to strategic threats
  • Pre-arrangements with agencies and surrounding
    business community to help ensure COOP
  • Pro-mitigation orientation
  • Laws controlling demonstrations and trespass
  • Proactive policing policies
  • Funding of preparedness and mitigation measures

39
Organizational
  • Full NIMS/ICS implementation
  • Joint training, drilling, and exercising
  • Within airport
  • With surrounding agencies
  • With DOD and other federal agencies
  • Avoidance of insurance blackballing
  • Worker protection
  • Worker morale
  • Internal security
  • Standards
  • Backup organizational units, especially EOC

40
Operational
  • Preparedness
  • Alternative modes of transport
  • Internal security
  • Interoperability
  • Standards
  • Pre-siting
  • Staging
  • Pull, not push hold logistics at intermediate
    airports rather than jamming up airport(s) in the
    middle of the disaster
  • Off-site logistic support and storage
  • Avoidance of non-essential uses
  • Training, drilling, and exercising
  • Interoperability
  • Standards national and international

41
Access and credentialing
  • Access to airfield by mutual aid and other
    outside responders is a difficult issue.
  • Credentialing of responders for on-airport action
    is needed.
  • Flexibility is needed for extreme cases.

42
Defensive
  • Intelligence
  • Counterterrorism
  • Active defense
  • Passive defense
  • SAM exclusion
  • Flight paths
  • Minimize target value
  • Time flexibility

43
Simultaneous threats
  • Antagonists could possibly apply terrorism, war,
    or violent acts to take advantage of disruption
    due to natural disaster, accident, or pandemic.

44
Distant catastrophes
  • Airports may be key assets in sending aid to
    distant disasters or catastrophes.
  • Sending aid can stress airports and complicate
    normal COB/COOP.
  • Distant catastrophes may send refugees and
    injured persons to an airport.

45
Newest challenge
  • Airports, especially international gateway
    airports like ATL, BWI, PHL, and MSP, are being
    asked to establish facilities, plans and
    procedures for Emergency Repatriation Centers to
    receive and support U.S. citizens repatriated
    from overseas crises.

46
Conclusions
  • Disaster management at airports involves airports
    internally and airports in a community context
  • Coordination and cooperation among airports is
    needed
  • Strong airport-emergency management agency
    cooperation and coordination is cost-effective
    mitigation against all hazards
  • Preparedness against multihazards works for
    natural disasters, pandemics, and manmade threats
  • Other components of aviation critical
    infrastructure have parallel concerns and needs
    for preparedness

47
Last word
  • In a disaster, an airport can substitute for
    almost anything else, but nothing can substitute
    for an airport.
  • But nothing matters unless the airport and its
    functions have been protected or restored.

48
Resources for further study
  • www.airportstudy2008.com
  • www.airportstudy2009.com
  • Building sound emergency management into
    airports. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Hall,
    G. (2007). IATC 2007 Proceedings, 47-60.
  • Memphis Airport as a model for disaster response.
    Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Hall, G. (2007).
    Crisis Response Journal 3(3), 30-32.
  • Protecting airport functionality during disaster
    responses Natural disasters, accidents, and
    pandemics. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S.,
    Rabjohn, A., Bachar, A. (2007). J. Emergency
    Mgt. 5(6), 29-40.
  • Protecting airport functionality during disaster
    responses Terrorism, war, civil war, and riots.
    Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S. S., Rabjohn, A.,
    Bachar, A. (2008a). J. Emergency Mgt., 6(3),
    53-62.
  • Protecting airport functionality during disaster
    responses Solutions. Smith, J. F., Waggoner, S.
    S., Rabjohn, A., Bachar, A. (2008b). J.
    Emergency Mgt., 6(4), 57-64.
  • Maintaining airport continuity of business and
    operations during disaster response the role of
    command and control relationships with emergency
    management agencies. Smith, J. F. (2008). J. Bus.
    Continuity Emerg. Planning, 3(1).
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