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Slide 1 Before we begin

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Title: ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Author: Aaron Collins Last modified by: Jennifer Kramer Created Date: 7/18/2000 7:32:52 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Slide 1 Before we begin


1
Slide 1Before we beginP-E-G-AS
  • Political Who controls what? What type of
    government is there? Anything to do with laws or
    war.
  • Economic What type of economy? How do people
    make a living?
  • Geography Where is it? Is the land mountainous?
    Desert? Oceanic?
  • Advances/Social Religious, intellectual, artistic

2
Slide 2 Ancient River Valley Civilizations
3
Slide 3 Early River Valley Civilizations
Sumer Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable No natural barriers Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings
Egypt Flooding of the Nile predictable Nile an easy transportation link between Egypts villages Deserts were natural barriers
Indus Valley Indus flooding unpredictable Monsoon winds Mountains, deserts were natural barriers
China Huang He flooding unpredictable Mountains, deserts natural barriers Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations
4
Slide 4 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA
  • Oldest known civilization
  • Cradle of Human Civilization
  • Old Testament
  • Nebuchadnezzar
  • Ziggurat (right)
  • Hanging gardens

5
Slide 5 Geography
  • This civilization rose in the valleys between the
    Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
  • Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real
    Garden of Eden.
  • It has few natural barriers.

6
Slide 6 In what modern day country was the
Fertile Crescent?
7
Slide 7 Iraq
8
Slide 8 Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia
9
Slide 9 Sumerians
  • The Sumerians invented writing called cuneiform.
  • Babylonians wrote using this wedge-shaped
    writing on clay tablets.
  • Number system based on 60.
  • 12 month calendar
  • wheel, plow , sailboat

10
Slide 10 More cuneiform writing
11
Slide 11 Ancient Mesopotamia Social Classes
Kings, Priests, Govt officials
Artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers
Enslaved people
12
Slide 12 More ziggurats
13
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14
Slide 13 Hanging Gardens of Babylonia
15
Slide 14 Babylon under King Nebuchadnezzar II.
  • Herodotus (historian in 450 B.C.) was quoted as
    saying the following "In addition to its size,
    Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the
    known world."
  • Outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet
    thick and 320 feet high. Wide enough to allow a
    four-horse chariot to turn.
  • Inside the walls were fortresses and temples
    containing immense statues of solid gold.
  • Rising above the city was the famous Tower of
    Babel, a temple to the god Marduk, that seemed to
    reach to the heavens

16
Slide 15 Another painting of the hanging gardens
with Tower of Babel in back
17
Slide 16 Economic Trade and Farming
  • Traditional Economy
  • Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade
    with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley
    civilizations.
  • In later years, these trade routes became Silk
    Road.

18
Slide 17 Sumerians Invented The Wheel
  • The wheel was invented by 6000 BC
  • It helped military, farming and trade.
  • At right, this is made of wood.

19
Slide 18 Political Mesopotamian Law
  • Code of Hammurabi
  • eye for an eye tooth for a tooth

20
Slide 20 ANCIENT EGYPT
  • Nile River
  • Mummies
  • Pharaohs
  • Rameses
  • King Tutankhamen
  • Hieroglyphics

21
Slide 21 Egyptian Civilization
  • Egyptian civilization arose after Mesopotamia.
  • Geography It was centered around the Nile River.

22
The Nile River
23
Slide 21 Nile River
  • Provided fish
  • Supported plants and animals
  • Two rivers, Blue Nile and White Nile, join to
    make the Nile River.
  • Worlds longest river
  • Flows south to north
  • Floods watered the land and provided fertile
    soils for crops to grow.

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27
Slide 22 The Sahara Desert.
  • Largest desert in the world.
  • Egypt is naturally protected from enemies because
    it was surrounded by deserts, rivers, deltas, and
    cataracts (rapids).

28
Slide 23 Pyramids
  • Pyramids were tombs for the kings.
  • The most famous are the Giza pyramids (shown to
    left).
  • These were built in 3500 B.C.E.
  • How old are they?

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Slide 24 Political Egyptian Pharaohs
  • Egyptians were led by Pharaohs, who were
    priest-kings.
  • The most famous pharaoh is King Tut.
  • Using computers, this image was reconstructed
    using his remains.
  • Eventually, Egypt was divided into 2 kingdoms
    (Upper and Lower).

32
Tutankhamun
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34
Tutankhamen on the throne
35
Abu Simbel was built by Ramseses II
36
Slide 25 Egypts Religion
  • They believed in many gods and goddesses and in
    life after death for the pharaohs.
  • Hapi main god
  • Isis main goddess
  • Book of the Dead

37
Slide 26 Mummies
  • Egyptians who could afford to do so would have
    themselves mummified.
  • They believed in a better afterlife if their body
    was preserved.

38
Slide 27 Mummification Process
  • Took out all of the internal organs, except the
    heart because it was believed to be the
    intelligence and emotion of the person.
  • Organs were put in canopic jars, that were put in
    the tomb with the mummy.
  • Brain was taken out through the nose because it
    had no significant value.
  • The body was packed and covered with natron (a
    salty drying agent). Then the body was left for
    40-50 days. 

39
Mummies
40
Slide 28 Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics
  • Made up of sound and picture symbols
  • Only scribes (men) were taught to write

41
Hieroglyphics
42
Slide 29 What did Egyptians write on?
  • Papyrus
  • Also used to make baskets, sandals and river rafts

43
The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau,
about six miles west of Cairo.
44
Slide 30 Egyptian Social Classes
45
Slide 31 Egyptian Economy
  • Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the
    economy is a traditional economy based on farming
    and trade.
  • Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with
    Mesopotamians and sometimes with the Indus Valley
    (in Pakistan)

46
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47
Indus Valley Civilization
48
Slide 33 The Land of India
  • Subcontinent
  • Himalaya Mountains
  • Five nations of today
  • India,
  • Pakistan in the NW,
  • Nepal,
  • Bhutan, and
  • Bangladesh in NE

49
Slide 34 Fertile River Valleys
  • 2 river valleys Ganges and Indus
  • South is dry and hilly (Deccan Plateau)
  • Eastern and Western coasts are lush, fertile
    plains.
  • Monsoons
  • Winter cold, dry air from mts
  • Summer warm, wet air from
  • the Arabian Sea

50
Slide 35 Indus River Valley
  • This civilization is still mysterious.
  • The writing has not been translated.

51
Slide 36 Indus River Civilization
  • We do know the cities were sophisticated enough
    to have brick walls surrounding them for
    protection against flooding from the Indus River.

52
Slide 37 Indias greatest advancements were in
mathematics.
  • Invented the zero and the symbol for it (another
    for infinity)
  • They invented the number system we use today
    (1-9)
  • Algebra
  • Set algorithms
  • Roman Indian-Arabic
  • XXV XX IIIII XX IIIII 25
  • XIII - X III - X III -13
  • X II 12

53
Slide 38 Ancient Indias contributions
  • Farmers raised cattle, made the cow sacred and
    could not be killed.
  • Grew wheat, millet, barley, and rice
  • Developed iron plow
  • Developed a written language Sanskitt

54
Slide 39Ancient Indias religions
  • Hinduism-Many gods, reincarnation-
    (Birth-Death-Rebirth), and Dharma is their law
  • Buddhism-Nirvana, 4 Noble Truths, No material
    possessions

55
Slide 40 Indus Economy
  • Just like the other river valley civilizations,
    the Indus river valley people were mostly
    farmers.
  • Traditional economy
  • They traded with the Chinese, with the Sumerians
    (Mesopotamians) and sometimes with the Egyptians.

56
Slide 41 Ancient India rulers
  • Dynasty a series of rulers from the same
    family.
  • 1st dynasty Mauryan family
  • Gupta dynasty
  • Mahabbarata

57
Slide 42 ANCIENT CHINA
  • Great Wall
  • Began 2000 B.C.
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Dynasties
  • Silk
  • Astronomy

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Slide 43 Yellow River Civilization
  • Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River.
  • The color yellow symbolized centrality, as in
    China is the center of the world.
  • Huang He (Yellow River)

60
Slide 44 Chinese Accomplishments
  • During the Zhou and Shang periods
  • achievements in astronomy and bronze work
  • learned to make silk
  • create books
  • developed a complex system of writing.

61
Slide 45 The Chinese Language
  • 3 examples
  • 1. Pictographs-Pictures that represent things.
  • 2. Ideographs join together two or more
    pictographs to form an idea.
  • 3. Chinese Calligraphy
  • Most characters in their language represent whole
    words and not sounds.

62
Slide 46 Example of Chinese Calligraphy
63
Slide 47 Ancient Chinese Social Classes
Landowning aristocrats
Peasant farmers
Merchants
64
Slide 48 EChinese Invented Silk
  • Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for
    trading with the rest of the world.
  • It is made from silk worms.
  • Silk also makes paper

65
Slide 49 Silk worm
66
Slide 50 Ancient China Economy
  • Farming and trade
  • Traditional economy
  • First to develop terrace farming-Solution for
    farming on hillsides. People use Terraces or
    different levels for farming.
  • This method is still used today for rice and
    other crops.

Chinese Rice Terrace
67
dyn
68
Slide 51 Dynasty
  • Dynasty-A family or group that maintains power
    for generations
  • Xia dynasty -1st dynasty
  • Shang dynasty built first Chinese cities
  • 1750 B.C. 1045 B.C.

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Slide 52 Confucius ideas
  • Restore family order and social harmony
  • Fathers should display high moral values to
    inspire their families.
  • Children should respect and obey their parents.
  • All family members should be loyal to each other.
  • Government
  • Moral leadership, not laws, brought order to
    China.
  • A king should lead by example, inspiring good
    behavior in all of his subjects.
  • The lower classes would learn by following the
    example of their superiors.

71
Slide 53 Ancient Chinese Religion
  • Believed in gods and spirits
  • Had to keep them happy by offerings of food and
    other goods
  • Angry gods and spirits may cause a poor harvest
    or armies to lose a battle
  • Kings received power and wisdom from them

72
Ancient China
73
The Great Wall of China was built to keep the
Mongols out.
74
Many died building it, and their bodies were used
as filler for it.
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