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Physical Education 10

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Physical Education 10 Mr. A. White Gymnasium/Room 142 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Education 10


1
Physical Education 10
  • Mr. A. White
  • Gymnasium/Room 142

2
Exercise Science- Anatomy
  • Bones
  • There are 206 bones in the human body.
  • Acts as the bodys support system.
  • Bone is a living tissue
  • The bones are supplied with blood vessels.

3
Anatomy cont.
  • Function of Bones
  • Provide a framework for the attachment of muscles
  • Protect delicate organs
  • Produce blood cells
  • Store minerals (calcium)
  • Shock Absorption

4
Anatomy Bones cont.
  • Arm- Humerus, Radius and Ulna
  • Leg- Femur, Tibia, Fibula

                     

5
Muscle Facts
  • Muscle does not reproduce easily
  • You have approximately the same number of muscle
    cells as when you were a baby.
  • Muscle increases in size.
  • Muscles are always in a state of slight
    contraction.
  • This is called muscle tone.

6
Human Anatomy
  • Muscles
  • Muscle tissue is composed of long cylindrical
    cells.
  • These cells form the fibers of a muscle.
  • Muscle cells cannot partially contract.
  • Over 400 muscles are associated with the bones of
    your body.

7
Muscles (cont.)
  • Many of these muscles work in opposite pairs.
    (ie. Bicep, Triceps)
  • One member of the pair tightens and moves a bone
    in one direction.
  • To return the bone to its original position, the
    second muscle must contract and pull the bone
    back.
  • Muscle cells only contract and relax.

8
Muscle Fiber
9
Making Muscles Stronger
  • Athletes exercise vigorously enough to have their
    muscle burn while they are exercising, which
    damages their muscles to cause soreness the next
    day.
  • Repeating bouts of muscle damage, and then
    allowing enough time for recovery, make the
    muscle stronger so it can withstand higher loads
    and is more resistant to injury.

10
Making Muscles Stronger
  • Hard exercises damage muscle fibers.
  • After the muscle is damaged there is swelling,
    soreness, increased blood flow to the injured
    fibers and increased fluid into the damaged area.
  • The damaged muscle cells release tissue growth
    factors to heal the damaged muscle fibers, and if
    the athlete allows the muscle soreness to
    disappear before exercising intensely again,
    muscle fibers become larger and increase in
    number by splitting to form new fibers.

11
Making Muscles Stronger
  • If the athlete does not wait until the soreness
    goes away before exercising intensely again, the
    fibers can be torn.
  • The athlete becomes injured and the muscles
    weaken.
  • If the athlete exercises at low intensity during
    recovery, his/her muscles will become more
    fibrous and resistant to injury when he/she
    stresses their muscles with the next intense bout
    of exercise.

12
Pop Quiz
  • How many bones in the human body?
  • List 3 things bones do
  • What are the 3 main bones in the arm we
    discussed?
  • What are the 3 main bones in the leg we
    discussed?
  • Explain how muscles get stronger/bigger

13
Muscles
  • Abdominals
  • Pectorals
  • Deltoids
  • Triceps
  • Biceps

14
Back Muscles
  • Traps- top of the shoulders and back of neck
  • Lats- cover most of the back
  • Glutes- Buttocks Muscles
  • Hamstrings- Back of legs (top)
  • Gastrocnemius- Calf muscle

15
Warm-Up
  • Why do we complete a warm up?
  • 1) To generate heat in the muscles
  • 2) To prevent injury
  • 3) To get the heart pumping and start rapid
    exchange of O2 in the blood with lungs

16
Heart Rate
  • of Beats Per Minute
  • Maximum Heart Rate 220 age
  • Target Heart Rate 70 of Maximum Heart Rate
  • Take pulse for 10 secs.
  • Multiply by 6.
  • Subtract it from 220
  • Multiply it by .7 to find target heart rate

17
Personal Fitness
  • What affects your attitude toward physical
    fitness?
  • Lack of athletic ability (dont have to be a
    skilled person to be physically fit)
  • Past experiences with youth sports
  • Heredity, large bones, larger measurements
  • Media influence, societys perception of body
    appearance and shape

18
Benefits of Exercise
  • Improved appearance, body image, health,
    self-control
  • Improved physical performance
  • Sleep better
  • More enjoyment of life
  • Increased life expectancy and level of energy
  • Increased muscular strength endurance
  • Increased success in your school work or job
  • Help cope with stress

19
Assignments
  • Research a Career in the Exercise Field
  • Find Education, Salary, Job Availability, Hours,
    and Why you chose

20
Components of Fitness
  • HEALTH RELATED FITNESS
  • component of physical fitness that contribute to
    the operation of the systems of the body
  • is mostly influenced by a healthy lifestyle

21
Health Components of Fitness
  • 1) Flexibility
  • 2) Muscular Endurance
  • 3) Muscular Strength
  • 4) Cardiovascular Fitness
  • 5) Body Fat Composition

22
Flexibility
  • The range of possible movement at various joints
  • If you are inactive you can be inflexible
  • Simple test Toe Touch
  • Test Sit and Reach

23
Muscular Endurance
  • The ability to repeat muscle movement for a long
    period of time
  • Tests Chin-ups, Flexed-arm hang, Push-ups, and
    Dips

24
Muscular Strength
  • The ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal
    force against a resistance one time.
  • Test Dead Lift, Bench Press, Squat

25
Cardiovascular Fitness
  • The ability of the heart, blood vessels, and
    respiratory system to supply oxygen and nutrients
    to the muscles during exercise
  • The best type of exercise for improving
    cardiovascular fitness is aerobic exercise.

26
Aerobic
  • Aerobic exercises are those activities, which
    force the body to use large amounts of oxygen for
    a sustained period of time.
  • Sustained means that the exercise should be done
    for a period of 15-30 minutes to get aerobic
    benefits.
  • Examples are cycling, jogging, swimming, rope
    jumping, and aerobic dance

27
Anaerobic
  • Anaerobic exercises are done for a short period
    of 30-45 seconds recovery.
  • Examples are sprints, high jump, etc.

28
Body Fat Composition
  • The ratio of fat to muscle, bone, and other body
    tissues
  • A certain amount of body fat is needed for good
    health.
  • Extremely high or low amounts of body fat can
    cause health problems.
  • Test Hydrostatic (underwater weighing most
    accurate), Skin folds (biceps, triceps, calf, sub
    scapular and iliac crest 2mm of skin), Body Fat
    Scales

29
Components of Fitness
  • SKILL RELATED FITNESS
  • components of physical fitness that contribute to
    the ability to successfully participate in sports

30
Skill Related Components of Fitness
  • 1. Agility
  • 2. Balance
  • 3. Power
  • 4. Reaction Time
  • 5. Coordination
  • 6. Speed

31
Agility
  • The ability to change the position of your body
    and to control the movement of your whole body.
  • Tests Shuttle runs and Agility Ladder
  • Many sports

32
Balance
  • The ability to keep an upright posture while
    either standing still or moving.
  • Test headstands, handstands, walking on a
    balance beam, and standing on one foot
  • Ice skating, skiing, surfing, and gymnastics

33
Power
  • The ability to perform with strength at a rapid
    pace. The Combination of Strength and Speed
  • Test Vertical Jump, and Standing Long Jump
  • Football, Swimming, Shot Put, Discus, and High
    Jump

34
Reaction Time
  • The amount of time it takes to start a movement
    once your senses signal the need to move.
  • Test Yardstick
  • Track, Swimming, Ping Pong, and Karate

35
Coordination
  • The integration of eye, hand, and foot movements.
  • Test Ball toss against the wall
  • (Similar to conditioning and practice drills used
    in various sports. Examples are dribbling and
    shooting in basketball, place kicking and punting
    in football and dribbling in soccer.)
  • Tennis, Golf and Basketball

36
Speed
  • The ability to cover a distance in a short time.
  • Short runs such as 40-yard, 50-yard and 100-yard
    dash

37
Nutrition
  • Hungry? What would you eat?
  • Pizza with Pop or Chocolate Milk
  • Fries, Burger, and Pop
  • Whole Wheat Pasta, Chicken Breast, Milk
  • KFC
  • Is all Fast Food Bad?
  • Can you eat fast food and still eat healthy?

38
Nutrition
  • Q? What does Eating Healthy mean?
  • A Getting the proper servings from each Food
    Group.
  • Fruits/Vegetables 4-5 (10)
  • Meat/Alternatives 2-3
  • Dairy 3-4
  • Breads and Cereals 3-5 (8)

39
Nutrition
  • Q? Why should we make healthy choices?
  • A Factor in Weight loss and gain
  • Get Vitamins and Minerals we need
  • Reduce fat and sugar intake
  • Increased cardiovascular exercise
  • Increase in muscle tone and endurance

40
Carbohydrates
  • The primary energy source for the body.
  • Used first from foods for energy.
  • Made up of Sugar, Starch, and Fiber.
  • Q? What are some foods high in Carbs?
  • Pastas, Breads, Cereals, Sugary Snacks.

41
Proteins
  • Proteins are primarily used to repair and build
    muscle tissue.
  • Food high in Protein
  • Chicken, Fish, Hamburg, Steak

42
Fat
  • Fat is required as a concentrated energy source
    for our muscles.
  • Stored by the body until needed.
  • Helps build tissue cells
  • Brain function
  • Foods High in Fat
  • Nuts, Seeds, Fish, Milk,
  • Fried Foods, Butter, Some Meats

43
Meals
  • Oatmeal with an apple, 4 eggs, banana, Protein
    Shake, OJ
  • Can of Tuna, Protein Shake, Trail Mix
  • WW Rice, Veggies, Chicken Breast
  • Apple, Protein Shake
  • Protein Shake
  • Chicken, Veggies, Sweet Potato
  • Crackers with Peanut Butter

44
Servings
  • Meats (6) Eggs, 2 Chicken Breasts, Nuts, Tuna,
    PB, Protein Shakes
  • Fruits n Veggies (7)(Banana, 2 Apples, OJ, 2
    Servings Veggies, Potato)
  • Dairy (2) 2 Cups of Milk
  • Breads (5) 2 Oatmeal, 2 Rice, Crackers

45
Food Group Assignment
  • Write down everything you ate in one day
  • Make 4 charts, 1 for each food group.
  • Find out how many servings of each food you
    should have in 1 day.
  • Write down how many servings you had of each food
    group.
  • What food groups did you reach the DRI?
  • Create 3 Meals that contain all 4 food groups.

46
Food Chart Assignment
  • Research Assignments
  • Carbohydrates, Fat, Calories, Protein, Vitamins
    and Minerals
  • Where they are found, what they are used for, and
    the Daily Recommended Intake

47
Fitness Goal Assignment
  •  What was your goal? (Example to make stage 10
    on beep test) 
  • Where were you at when you started? (Example-
    stage 6 on beep test)
  • What did you do to reach your goal? (Example Ran
    beep test in class ran outside trained with
    another team etc.)

48
Fitness Goal Assignment
  • How did you keep track of your goal? Draw or
    include an example of how you will keep track.
    (chart, graph, calendar)
  • Did you reach your goal too fast? What did you
    do?

49
Test Review
  • The functions of bones
  • Label the basic bones and muscles
  • How you can make muscles bigger/stronger
  • Benefits of exercise
  • Define health related fitness
  • List and explain the components of health related
    fitness with an example of each

50
Test Review (cont.)
  • The difference between aerobic and anaerobic
  • Define skill related fitness
  • List and explain the components of skill related
    fitness with an example of each
  • The four food groups and servings
  • Explain and give examples of Fat, Carbs, Protein,
    Vitamins, and Minerals.

51
Snacks or Smoothies?
  • Would you rather have a variety of healthier
    choices to snack on
  • Or
  • Would you rather make healthy smoothies

52
FITT Principle
  • FITT stands for the four elements of any good
    training plan
  • Frequency
  • Intensity
  • Time
  • Type of activity

53
Frequency
  • An exercises frequency is simply how often you
    do it.
  • There will be gains after a single exercise
    session, but to continue to build your fitness
    takes some for of regular, energetic activity
    (about 3 xs a week ?)

54
Intensity
  • The intensity if an exercise is a measure of how
    hard you are working while you are doing it.
  • How can we measure this?

55
Intensity
56
Time
  • For aerobic benefits, it is best to spend at
    least 20 minutes of continuous activity (i.e.
    walking, jogging, skiing).
  • Note The duration of an activity will depend on
    the intensity, your goals, and how much time you
    have available.

57
Type
  • Most experts recommend a training program that
    includes a variety of activities.
  • (Note Unless training for a specific type of
    activity or sport.)
  • Variety prevents boredom and helps you to stay
    motivated.

58
Overload
  • Overload refers to the amount of load or
    resistance, providing a greater stress, or load,
    on the body than it is normally accustomed to in
    order to increase fitness.

59
Progression
  • Progression is the way in which an individual
    should increase the load. It is a gradual
    increase either in frequency, intensity, or time
    or a combination of all three components.

60
Injuries
  • COMMON INJURIES
  • 1. SORENESS
  • Small muscle torn (lactic acid)
  • 12-24 hrs. following exercise which usually last
    1-2 days
  • Treatment light massage, mild exercise, easy
    static stretching

61
Injuries
  • 2. BLISTER
  • localized problem resulting form friction
    creating heat, tissue damage and fluid
    accumulation between layers of skin (clear and
    bloody)
  • Treatment antiseptic (spray or suave) and cover
    tight.

62
Injuries
  • 3. SHIN SPLINTS
  • inflammation of membrane connective tissue on the
    front of the lower leg
  • overuse syndrome (too much too quickly)
  • Treatment ice, tape, elevate, rest

63
Injuries
  • 4. STITCH
  • lactic acid around the diaphragm. Pressure is
    slow.
  • Caused by faulty breathing, reduced blood flow to
    area
  • Sometimes happens to people starting a jogging
    program
  • Treatment apply pressure to area, stretch to
    opposite side, and breathe deeply

64
Injuries
  • 5. SPRAIN
  • Injury to ligaments surrounding a joint or to the
    capsule-like sac surrounding a joint
  • Treatment ice, elevate, x-ray and stop the
    activity

65
Leadership
  • The position or function of a leader
  • The ability to lead
  • An act or instance of leading guidance
    direction

66
Leadership
  • Characteristics of a Good Leader
  • Motivate People Toward a Goal
  • Good Communication
  • Well Organized
  • Understand Group Needs
  • Sets a Positive Example
  • Respected

67
Assignment
  • Write a least a half page (2 paragraphs) about a
    time you were in a leadership role.
  • Explain your role and tasks, how you handled the
    situation, any conflicts, and how you felt you
    did.

68
Archery
  • 1. Stance 7. Anchor
  • 2. Nock 8. Aim
  • 3. Shooting Hand Set 9. Shot Set-Up
  • 4. Bow Hand Set 10. Release
  • 5. Pre-Draw 11. Follow Through
  • 6. Draw

69
Archery (cont)
  • 2 whistles- Get Bow
  • 1 whistle- Range is Open
  • 3 whistles- Get Arrows
  • 5 Whistles- PUT DOWN EQUIPMENT
  • RETURN TO WAITING LINE!

70
Leave No Trace
  • Plan Ahead and Prepare
  • Know the regulations special concerns for the
    area you will be visiting
  • Prepare for all weather, hazards and emergencies
  • Traveling in small groups are better when
    possible
  • Use of a map compass to eliminate the use of
    natural material

71
Leave No Trace
  • Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces
  • Durable surfaces include trails, campsites,
    rock, gravel dry grasses or snow
  • Keep campsites small away from water trails
  • Good campsites are found, not made

72
Leave No Trace
  • Respect Wildlife
  • Learn about sensitive endangered species in the
    area you are traveling
  • Observe wildlife from a distance
  • Never feed wild animals
  • Store supplies trash securely
  • Avoid wildlife during sensitive timing mating,
    nesting, raising young

73
Leave No Trace
  • Waste Disposal
  • Pack it in, pack it out inspect your campsite
    rest area
  • Clean up after yourselves others
  • Deposit human waste in cat holes, cover
    disguise when finished
  • Do not burn garbage as it seldom burns completely
  • Wash away from streams, lakes be sure to use
    biodegradable soap scatter strained dishwater

74
Leave No Trace
  • Minimize Campfire Impacts
  • Consider using a stove for cooking candle
    lantern for light
  • If using a campfire be sure to follow Wilderness
    Area standards

75
Leave No Trace
  • Leave what you find
  • Examine but do not touch
  • Berries plants should be left to feed wildlife,
    but if you choose to gather keep your harvest
    minimal
  • Leave natural objects as you found them return
    sites to their natural condition before traveling
    on
  • Avoid introducing or transporting non-native
    plants or animals

76
Leave No Trace
  • Be considerate of Other Visitors
  • Respect others protect their experience
  • Be courteous, yielding to others take rest
    breaks, along with camping away from trails
    other travelers
  • Avoid loud noises let natures sounds triumph

77
Assignments
  • Build A Camp
  • Prepare plan- Set-Up, Take-Down, Clean-Up,
    Materials, Water, Roles, Tasks, Safety Concerns,
    and Meal
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